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NO CLXXVII. SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 22.
QUIS ENIM BONUS, AUT FACE DIGNUS
Juv. SAT. XV. VER. 140.
WHO CAN ALL SENSE OF OTHERS ILLS ESCAPE,
I dreamed of mood fawrey ang
tween its objects, if it exerts itself proeffect of conftitution; I shall now speak miscuously towards the deserving and of it as it is a moral virtue. The first undeserving, if it relieves alike the idlo may make a man easy in himself and and the indigent, if it gives itself up to the agreeable to others, but implies no merit first petitioner, and lights upon any one in him that is poileiled of it. A man rather by accident than choice, it may is no more to be praised upon this ac pass for an amiable inftin&i, but muit count, than because he has a regular not assume the name of a moral virtue. pulse or a good digeltion. This good The third trial of good-nature will be, nature however in the conititution, which the examining ourselves, whether or no Mr. Dryden somewhere calls a 'Milki we are able to exert it to our own ditadnefs of blood,' is an admirable ground- vantage, and employ it on proper obwork for the other. In order therefore jects, notwithftanding any little pain, to try our good-nature, whether it arises want, or inconvenience which may arise from the body or the mind, whether it to ourselves from it: in a word, whebe founded in the animal or rational part ther we are willing to risk any part of of our nature; in a word, whether it be our fortune, our reputation, or health, such as is intitled to any other reward, be or ease, for the benefit of mankind. lides that secret satisfaction and content Among all these expreffions of goodment of mind which is essential to it, nature, I shall single out that which goes and the kind reception it procures us in under the general name of charity, as it the world, we must examine it by the consists in relieving the indigent; that following rules.
being a trial of this kind which offers First, whether it acts with steadiness itself to us almoft at all times and in and uniformity in fickness and in health, every place. in prosperity and in adversity; if other I mould propose it as a rule to every wise, it is to be looked upon as nothing one who is provided with any compeelse but an irradiation of the mind from tency of fortune more than suficient for fome new fupply of spirits, or 2 more the neceflaries of life, to lay aside a cerkindly circulation of the blood. Sirtain proportion of his income for the use Francis Bacon mentions a cunning folic of the poor. This I would look upon citor, who would never ask a favour of as an offering to him who has a right a great man before dinner; but took care to the whole, for the use of those whom, to prefer bis petition at a time when the in the passage hereafter mentioned, he party petitioned had his mind free from has described as his own representatives care, and his appetites in good humour.
At the same time we Such a transient temporary good-nature mould manage our charity with fuch as this, is not that philanthropy, that prudence and caution, that we may not love of mankind, which deferves the title hurt our own friends or relations, whilft of a moral virtue.
we are doing good to those who are The next way of a man's bringing strangers to us. his good-nature to the test, is, to con This may posibly be explained better lider whether it operates according to the hy an example than a rule. rules of reason and duty: for if, not Eugenius is a man of an universal withdtanding it's general benevolence to good- nature, and generous beyond the
extent of his fortune; but withal fo prų- ments, mentions that verse in the prodent, in the economy of his affairs, that verbs of Solomon_'He that giveth to the what goes out in charity is made up by poor, lendeth to the Lord. There good management. Eugenius has what is more rhetoric in that one sentence,' the world calls two hundred pounds a says he, than in a library of sermons; year ; but never values himself above cand indeed if those sentences were un. ninescore, as not thinking he has a right deritood by the reader, with the same to the tenth part, which he always ap- ' emphasis as they are delivered by the propriates to charitable uses. To this "author, we needed not those volumes fum he frequently makes other volun • of instructions, but might be honelt tary additions, insomuch that in a good by an epitome.' year, for such he accounts those in which This passage in Scripture is indeed he has been able to make greater boun- wonderfully persuasive; but I think the ties than ordinary, he has given above same thought is carried much farther in twice that fum to the sickly and indigent. the New Testament, where our Saviour Eugenius prescribes to himself many tells us in the most pathetic manner, that particular days of fafting and abstinence, he shall hereafter regard the cloaching of in order to increase his private bank of the naked, the feeding of the hungry, charity, and sets aside what would be and the visiting of the imprisoned, as the current expences of those times for offices done to himself, and reward them the use of the poor. He often goes afoot accordingly. Pursuant to those passages where his bufiness calls him, and at the in Holy Scripture, I have somewhere end of his walk has given a fhilling met with the epitaph of a charitable which in his ordinary methods of ex man, which has very much pleased me. pence would have gone for coach-hire, I cannot recollect the words, but the to the first necessitous person that has sense of it is to this purpose: 'What I fallen in his way. I have known him, “ spent I loft; what I possessed is left to when he has been going to a play or an others; what I gave away remains with opera, divert the money which was de 6 me.' ligned for that purpose, upon an object Since I am thus insensibly engaged in of charity whom he has met with in the sacred writ, I cannot forbear making street; and afterwards pass his evening an extract of several passages which I in a coffee-house, or at a friend's fire-fide, have always read with great delight in with much greater satisfaction to himself the book of Job. It is the account than he could have received from the most which that holy man gives of his behaexquisite entertainments of the theatre. viour in the days of his prosperity, and By these means he is generous, without if considered only as a human composiimpoverishing himself, and enjoys his e. tion, is a finer picture of a charitable tate by making it the property of others. and good-natured man than is to be met
There are few men lo cramped in their with in any other author. private affairs, who may not be charitable • Oh that I were as in months past, after this manner, without any disad • as in the days when God preserved vantage to themselves, or prejudice to me : when his candle thined upon my their families. It is but sometines fa- head, and when by his light I walked crificing a diversion or convenience to • through darkness: when the Almighthe poor, and turning the usual courle ty was yet with me; when my children of our expences into a better channel. • were about me : when I washed my This is, I think, not only the most pru. • steps with butter, and the rock poured dent and convenient, but the most meri. out rivers of oil. torious piece of charity, which we can • When the ear heard me, then it put in pra&tice. By this method we in • blessed me; and when the eye saw me, some measure share the necessities of the it gave witness to me. Because I de poor at the same time that we relieve • livered the poor that cried, and the them, and make ourselves not only their · fatherless, and him that had none to patrons, but their fellow-sufferers. • help him. The blessing of him that
Sir Thomas Brown, in the last part was ready to perish came upon me, of his Religio Medici, in which he de and I caused the widow's heart to fing scribes his charity in several heroic in • for joy. I was eyes to the blind, and Aances, and with a noble heat of senti • feet was I to the lame; I was a father
3 X 3
"to the poor, and the cause which I mie, and if he were not warmed with • knew not I searched out. Did not I the fleece of my sheep: if I have lift 6 weep for him that was in trouble? 'up my hand againft the fatherless, • Was not my soul grieved for the poor? • when I saw my help in the gate; then • Let me be weighed in an even balance, • let mine arm fall from my louider« 'that God may know mine integrity. 'blade, and my arm be broken from • If I did despite the cause of my man the bone. If I have rejoiced at the • servant or of my maid- servant when destruction of him that hated me, or
they contended with me; what then lift up myself when evil found him:
Mall I do when God riseth up? and neither have I suffered my mouth to 6 when he visiteth, what shall I answer ' sin, by wishing a curse to his foul. s'him? Did not he that made me in the The Stranger did not lodge ir. the
womb, make hiin? and did not one street; but I opened my doors to the < fashion us in the womb ? If I have • traveller. If my land cry against me, • withheld the poor from their desire, or or that the furrows likewise thereof • have caused the eyes of the widow to • complain : if I have eaten the fruits • fail, or have eaten my morsel myself thereof without money, or have caused « alone, and the fatherless have not eaten the owners thereof to lose their life; • thereof: if I have seen any perish for o let thistles grow instead of wheat, and • want of cloathing, or any poor without • cockle instead of barley.'
covering : if his loins have not blessed
No CLXXVIII. MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 24.
COMIS IN UXOR IM
Hor, Ep. II, L. II. VER. 153.
CIVIL TO HIS WIFL.
obligation to a Gentleman, that he can
be offended and fall into a rage, because MR.SPECTATOR,
my heart swells tears into my eyes when 1
Am but too good a judge of your I see him in a cloudy mood? I pretend
paper of the 15th instant, which is a to no succour, and hope for no relief but master-piece; I mean that of jealousy: from himself; and yet he that has sense but I think it unworthy of you to speak and justice in every thing else, never reof that torture in the breast of a man, flects, that to come home only to sleep off and not to mention also the pangs of it an intemperance, and spend all the time in the heart of a woman. You have he is there as if it were a punishment, very judicioudy, and with the greatest cannot but give the anguith of a jealous penetration imaginable, considered it as mind. He always leaves his home as woman is the creature of whom the dif- if he were going to court, and returns fidence is raised: but not a word of a as if he were entering a gaol. I could man, who is so unmerciful as to move add to this, that from his company and jealousy in his wife, and not care whe his usual discourse, he does not scruple ther she is so or not. It is possible you being thought an abandoned man, as to may not believe there are such tyrants in his morals. Your own imagination will the world; but alas, I can tell you of à fay enough to you concerning the conman who is ever out of humour in his dition of me his wife; and I wish you wife's company, and the pleasantest man would be fo good as to represent to him, in the world every where elle; the greatest for he is not ill-natured, and reads you Aoven at home when he appears to nc:vė much, that the moment I hear the door but his family, and most exactly well. fhut after hiin, I throw myself upon my dressed in all other places. Alas, Sir, bed, and drown the child he is io fond is it of course, that to deliver one's self of with my tears, and often frighten it wholly into a n:an's power without pot with my cries; that I curse iny beingi fibility of appeal to any other jurisdiction that I run to my glass all over bathed in
forrows, and help the utterance of my is made of this inexpressible injury, and inward anguish by beholding the guth how easily men get into an habit of beá of my own calamities as my tears fall ing leait agreeable where they are most from my eyes. This looks like an obliged to be so. But this subject deimagined picture to tell you, but indeed serves a distinct speculation, and I fall this is one of my pastimes. Hitherto I observe for a day or two the behaviour have only told you the general temper
of two or three happy pairs I am ac. of my mind, but how shall I give you quainted with, before I pretend to make an account of the distraction of it? Could a ryctem of conjugal morality. I design you but conceive how cruel I am one in the first place to go a few miles out moment in my resentment, and at the of town, and there I know where to meet ensuing minute, when I place him in one who practises all the parts of a fine the condition my anger would bring him gentleman in the duty of an husband. to, how compassionate; it would give When he was a bachelor much business you fome notion how miserable I am, made him particularly negligent in his and how little I deserve it. When I habit; but now there is no young lover remonftrate with the greatest gentleness living fo exa&t in the care of his perfon. that is possible against unhandsome ap One who asked why he was so long walh. pearances, and that married persons are ing his mouth, and so delicate in the under particular rules; when he is in choice and wearing of his linen, was the bett' humour to receive this, I am answered, because there is a woman of answered only, that I expose my own merit obliged to receive me kindly, and reputation and sense if I appear jealous. I think it incumbent upon me to make I wilh, good Sir, you would take this her inclination go along with her duty. into serious consideration, and admonish If a man would give himself leave to husbands and wires what terms they think, he would not be fo unreasonable ought to keep towards each other. Your as to expect debauchery and innocence thoughts on this important subject will could live in commerce together; or hope have the greatest reward, that which de. that flelh and blood is capable of so striet scends on such as feel the forrows of the an allegiance, as that a fine woman mult afflicted. Give me leave to subscribe go on to improve herself until she is as myself, your upfortunate, humble fer. good and impassive as an angel, only to
CELINDA. preserve a fidelity to a brute and a fatyr.
The lady who desires me for her fake to I had it in my thoughts, before I re. end one of my papers with the following ceived the letter of this lady, to consider letter, I am persuaded, thinks such å this dreadful passion in the mind of a perseverance very impracticable. woman; and the smart the seems to feel does not abate the inclination I had to HUSBAND, recommend to husbands a more regular STAY more at home. I know where behaviour, than to give the most exqui you visited at seven of the clock on fate of torments to those who love them, Thursday evening. The colonel whom nay whose torment would be abated if you charged me to see no more, is in they did not love them.
town. It is wonderful to observe how little T
N° CLXXIX. TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 25.
CENTURIÆ SENIORUM AGITANT EXPERTIA TRUGIS:
Hor. ARS POET. VER. 341.
OLD AGL ZXPLODES ALL BUT MORALITY:
May cast my readers under two austere and shocking to the careless and
general divisions, the Mercurial and inconsiderate. the Saturnine. The first are the For this reason several unthinking part of my disciples, who require fpe- persons fall in my way, who would give culations of wit and humour; the others no attention to lectures delivered with a are those of a more folemn and sober religious seriousness or a philosophic turn, who find no pleasure but in pa- gravity. They are insnared into fentipers of morality and sound sense. The ments of wisdom and virtue when they former call every thing that is serious, do not think of it; and if by that means ftupid; the latter look upon every thing they arrive only at luch a degree of conas impertinent that is ludicrous.' Were fideration as may dispose them to liften I always grave, one half of my readers to more studied and elaborate discourses, would fall off from me: were' I always I shall not think my speculations ufomerry, I thould lose the other. I make less. I might likewise observe, that it therefore my endeavour to find out the gloominess in which sometimes the entertainments of both kinds, and by minds of the best men are involved, very that means perhaps consult the good of often stands in need of such little incite both, more than I should do, did I al ments to mirth and laughter, as are apt ways write to the particular taste of to disperse melancholy, and put our faeither. As they neither of them know culties in good humour. To which what I proceed upon, the sprightly fome will add, that the British climate; reader, who takes up my paper in order more than any other, makes entertainto be diverted, very often finds himself ments of tbis nature in a manner necesengaged unawares in a serious and pro- fary. fitable course of thinking; as on the
İf what I have here said does not recontrary, the thoughtful man, who commend, it will at least excuse the vaperhaps may hope to find something B***8f my fpeculations. I would not solid, and full of deep reflection, is very willingly laugh but in order to inftruet, often insensibly betrayed into a fit of or if I sometimes fail in this point, when inirth. In a word, the reader fits down my mirth ceases to be initructive, it to my entertainment without knowing shall never cease to be innocent. A his bill of fare, and has therefore a scrupulous conduct in this particular, leait the pleasure of hoping there may has, perhaps, more merit in it than the be a dish to his palate.
generality of readers imagine; did they I must contess, were I left to myself, know how many thoughts occur in a I should rather aim at instructing than point of humour, which a discreet audiverting; but if we will be useful to thor in modesty suppresses; how many the world, we must take it was we find strokes of raillery present themselves, it. Authors of professed severity dif- which could not fail to pleafe the ordi. courage the looser part of mankind from nary taste of mankind, but are ftified haying any thing to do with their writ- in their birth by reason of some remete ings. A man must have virtue in him, tendency which they carry in them to before he will enter upon the reading of corrupt the minds of those who read a Seneca or Epictetus. The very title thein; did they know how many glances of a moral treatise has something in it of ill-nature are industriously avoides