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poverty by the wars, which for fome Algerine master would never consent to years have laid the whole country waste. his releate upon such a pretence, at The Caitilian having made his addresles length contrived a method for the Cafti. to her and married her, they lived to lian to make his escape in the habit of a gether in perfect happiness' for some seaman. The Castilian succeeded in time; when at length the husband's his attempt; and having sold his estare, affair's made it necessary for him to take being afraid left the money should misa voyage to the kingdom of Naples, carry by the way, and determining to where a great part of his estate lay. The perish with it rather than lose one who wife loved him too tenderly to be left was much dearer to him than his life, behind him. They had not been a ship he returned himself in a little vessel that board above a day, when they unluckily was going to Algiers. It is impossible fell into the hands of an Algerine pirate, to deicribe the joy he felt upon this ocwho carried the whole company on cañon, when he confidered that he should Thore, and made them llaves. The foon fee the wife whom he so much loved, Caftilian and his wife had the comfort and endear himself more to her by this to be under the same master; who uncommon piece of generosity. fering how Jearly they loved one an. The renegado, during the husband's other, and gasped after their liberty, absence, so infinuated himself into the demanded a moft exorbitant price for good graces of his young wife, and to their ransom. The Caitilian, though turned her head with stories of gallantry, he would rather have died in flavery that she quickly thought him the finett himself, than have paid such a ium as gentleinan she had ever conversed with. be found would go near to ruin him, To be brief, her mind was quite alie. was to moved with compaflion towards nated from the honest Caftilian, whom his wife, that he sent repeated orders to The was taught to look upon as a formal his friend in Spain (who happened to old fellow, unworthy the poffeffion of be his next relation) to sell his estate, so charming a creature. She had been and tranfinit the money to him. His initructed by the renegado how to mafriend hoping that the terms of his rar nage


upon his arrival; fo that tom might be made more realonable, the received himn with an appearance of and unwilling to sell an estate which he the utmost love and gratitude, and at himlelf had tome prospect of inheriting, length perladed him to trust their coinformed so many delays, that three whole nion friend the renegado with the moyears passed away without any thing be ney he had brought over for their raning done for the setting them at liberty. tom; as not queltioning, but he would

There happened to live a French re beat down the terms of it, and negonegado in the same place where the Ca. tiare the affair more to their advantage stilian and his wife were kept prisoners. than they themselves could do. Tbe As this fellow had in him all the viva- good man admired her prudence, and city of his nation, he often entertained followed her advice. I wish I could the captives with accounts of his own conceal the fequel of this story, but fince adventures; to which he fometimes add I cannot, I shall difpatch it in as few ‘ed a long or a dance, or some other words as possible. The Caftilian haypiece of mirth, to divert them during flept longer than ordinary the next ing their confinement. His acquaint- morning, upon his awaking found his ance with the manners of the Al wife had left hiin: he immediately arose gerines, enabled him likewise to do and enquired after her, but was told shem several good offices. The Castin that the was seen with the renegada lian, as he was one day in conversation about break of day. In a word, her with this renegado, discovered to him lover having gor all things ready for the negligence and treachery of his cor their departure, they foon made their respondent in Caftile, and at the fame escape out of the territories of Algiers, time asked his advice how he should be- carried away the money, and lett the have himself in that exigency: he fur- Castilian in captivity; who partly through ther told the renegado, that he found it the cruel treatment of the incensed Al. would be impossible for hiin to raise the gerine his maiter, and partiy througla money, unleis he himself might go over the unkind usage of his unfaithful wise, to dispose of his estate. The renegado, died fome few months after.

I after having represented to him that his




Ovid. EP. IV. VER. 10.


Or, if

THE following letters are written and expoftulate with you concerning

with such an air of fincerity, that yours, I have chosen this way, by which I cannot deny the inferting of them. mcans I can be at once revealed to you,

you please, lie concealed. 'If I MR. SPECTATOR,

du not within few days find the effect THOUGH you are every where in which I hope from this, the whole af.

your writings a friend to women, fair shall be buried in oblivion. But I do not remember that you have direct- alas! what am I going to do, when I ly considered the mercenary practice of am about to tell you that I love you? nien in the choice of wives. If you But after I have done so, I am to allure would please to employ your thoughts you, that with all the passion which ever upon that subject, you would easily con entered a tender heart, I know I can ba. ceive the milerable condition many of nith you from my sight for ever, when us are in, who not only from the laws I am convinced that you have no inciief custom and modesty are restrained nations towards me but to my dila from making any advances towards our honour. But alas! Sir, why should you withes, but are also from the circum facrifice the real and essential happiness tance of fortune, out of all hope of be- of life, to the opinion of a world, that ing addressed to by those whom we love. moves upon no other foundation, but Under all these disadvantages, I am ob- professed error and prejudice ? You all liged to apply myfelf to you, and hope I can observe that riches alone do not hall prevail with you to print in your make you happy, and yet give up every very next paper the following letter, thing else when it stands in competition which is a declaration of passion to one

with riches. Since the world is so bad, who has made some faint addresles to me that religion is left to us filly, women, for some time. I believe he ardently and you men act generally upon princiloves me, but the inequality of my for- ples of profit and pleasure, I will talk tune inakes him think he cannot answer to you without arguing from any thing it to the world, if he pursues his designs but what may be moit to your advanby way of marriage; and I believe, as tage as a man of the world. And I he does not want discernment, he disco. will lay before you the state of the case, vered me looking at hini the other day suppoting that you had it in your power unawares, in such a manner as has raised to inake me your mistress, or your wife, his hopes of gaining me on terins the and hope to convince you that the latter men call easier. But my heart was very is more for your interest, and will confull on this occasion, and if you know tribute more to your pleasure. what love and honour are, you will pare

We will suppose then the scene was don me that I use no further arguments laid, and you were now in expectation with you, but hasten with my letter to of the approaching evening wherein I him, whom I call Oroondates, because was to meet you, and be carried to what if I do not succeed, it shall look like ro convenient corner of the town, you mance; and if I am regarded, you Mall thought fit, to consummate all which receive a pair of gloves at my wedding, your wanton imagination has promised sent you under the name of Statira. you in the possession of one who is in

ihe bloom of youth, and in the reputa

tion of innocence: you would loon have TO OROONDATES.

enough of me, as I am spright.y, young, SIR,

gay, and airy: When fancy is fated, AFTER very much perplexity in and finds all the promises it made itfelé

myself, and revolving how to ac false, where is now the innocence which quaint you with my own sentiments, charmed you? The first hour you are

3.C 2



alone you will find that the pleasure of Now I am to repeat to you the unna a debauchee is only that of a destroyer; tural request of taking me in direct he blasts all the fruit he tastes, and terms. I know there stands between me where the brute has been devouring, and that happiness, the haughty daughthere is nothing left worthy the relish of ter of a man who can give you suitably the man. Reason resumes her place af to your fortune. But if you weigh the ter imagination is cloyed; and I am, attendance and behaviour of her who with the utmost distress and confusion, comes to you in partnership of your forto behold myself the cause of uneasy re tune, and expects an equivalent, with flections to you, to be visited by stealth, that of her who enters your house as ho. and dwell for the future with the two noured and obliged by that permission, companions (the most unfit for each whom of the two will you choose? You, other in the world) folitude and guilt. perhaps, will think fit to spend a day I will not inlilt upon the shameful ob- abroad in the common entertainmenis scurity we should pass our time in, nor of men of fense and fortune; she will run over the little short Inatches of fresh think herself ill used in that absence, and arr, and free commerce which all people contrive at home an expence proportionmust be satisfied with, whose actions ed to the appearance which you ruake in will not bear examination, but leave the world. She is in all things to have them to your reflections, who have seen a regard to the fortune which me brought of that life, of which I have but a mere you, I to the fortune to which you inidei.

troduced me. The commerce between On the other hand, if you can be so you two will eternally have the air of a good and generous as to make me your bargain, between us of a friendship: joy wife, you may promise yourself all the will ever enter into the room with you, obedience and tenderness with which gra and kind wishes attend my benefactor titude can inspire a virtuous woman. when he leaves it. Ask yourself, how Whatever gratifications you may pro would you be pleased to enjoy for ever mise yourself from an agrecable person, the pleasure of having laid an immediate whatever compliances from an ealy tem obligation on a grateful mind? Such per, whatever consolations from a fin will be your case with me. In the other dere friendship, you may expect as the marriage you will live in a constant com. due of your generosity. What at pre- parison of benefits, and never know the sent in your ill view you promise your happiness of conferring or receiving self from me, will be followed by diss any. taste and satiety; but the transports of a It may be you will, after all, act ra. virtuous love are the least part of it's ther in the prudential way, according happiness. The raptures of innocent to the sense of the ordinary world. I passion are but like lightening to the know not what I think or say, when day, they rather interrupt than advance that melancholy reflection comes upon the pleasure of it. How happy then is me; but shall only add more, that it is that life to be, where the highest plea- in your power to make me your gratefures of sense are but the loweit parts of ful wife, but never your abandoned milit's felicity?








HE ambition of princes is many conduct, if the profit and loss by their

times as hurtful to themselves as wars could be justly balanced, it would to their people. This cannot be doubted be rarely found that the conquest is fushof such as prove unfortunate in their cient to repay the cost. wars, but it is often true too of those As I was the other day looking over who are celebrated for their successes. the letters of my correspondents, I took If a severe view were to be taken of their this hint from that of Philarithmus;


which has turned my present thoughts subjects, in order to compute the value apon political arithmetic, an art of of every subject to the prince. greater use than entertainment. My For my own part, I should believe friend has offered an essay towards prov. that seven-eights of the people are withing that Lewis XIV. with all his acqui out property in themselves or the heads fitions, is not master of more people than of their families, and forced to work at the beginning of his wars; nay, that for their daily bread; and that of this for every subject he had acquired, he fort there are seven millions in the whole had loft three that were his inheritance: island of Great Britain: and yet one if Philarithmus is not mistaken in his would imagine that seven-eighths of the calculations, Lewis must have been im- whole people Mould consume at least poverished by his ambition.

three-fourths of the whole fruits of the The prince for the public good has a country. If this is the case, the subsovereign property in every private per. jects without property pay three-fourths fon's estate, and consequently his riches of the rents, and contequently enable must increase or decrease in proportion the landed men to pay three-fourths to the number and riches, of his subjects. of their taxes. Now if so great a part For example: if sword or pestilence of the land-tax were to be divided by should destroy all the people of this me-, seven millions, it would amount to more tropolis, God forbid there should be than three Thillings to every head. And room for such a supposition ! but if this thus as the poor are the cause, without should be the case, the queen must needs which the rich could not pay this tax, lose a great part of her revenue, or, at even the poorett subject is upon this acleaft, what is charged upon the city must count worth three Thillings yearly to the increase the burden upon the rest of her prince. subjects. Perhaps the inhabitants here Again: one would imagine the con. are not above the tenth part of the whole; sumption of seven-eighths of the whole yet as they are better fed, and clothed, people, should pay two-thirds of all the and lodged, than her other subjects, the customs and excises. And if this sum cuttoms and excises upon their consump: too should be divided by seven millions, tion, the imposts upon their houses, and viz. the number of poor people, it would other taxes, do very probably make a amount to more than seven shillings to fifth part of the whole revenue of the every head: and therefore with this and crown. But this is not all; the con the former sum every poor subject, withfumption of the city takes off a great out property, except of his limbs or lapart of the fruits of the whole island; bour, is worth at least ten fhillings and as it pays such a proportion of the yearly to the fovereign. So much then rent or yearly value of the lands in the the queen loses with every one of her country, so it is the cause of paying such old, and gains with every one of her. a proportion of taxes upon those lands. new subjects. The loss then of such a people must When I was got into this way

of needs be sensible to the prince, and visi- thinking, I prefently grew conceited ble to the whole kingdom.

with the argument, and was just preOn the other hand, if it should please paring to write a letter of advice to a God to drop from heaven a new people miember of parliament, for opening the equal in number and riches to the city, freedom of our towns and trades, for I should be ready to think their excises, taking away all manner of distinctions customs, and house-rent, would raise as between the natives and foreigners, for great a revenue to the crown as would repealing our laws of parish-settlements, be lost in the former cafe. And as the and removing every other obstacle to the consumption of this new body would be increase of the people. But as soon as a new market for the fruits of the coun I had recollected with what inimitable try, all the lands, especially those most eloquence my fellow-labourers had exadjacent, would rise in their yearly value, aggerated the mischiefs of selling the and pay greater yearly taxes to the pub- birth-right of Britons for a shilling, of lic. The gain in this case would be as spoiling the pure British blood with lensible as the former loss.

foreign mixtures, of introducing a conWhatsoever is assessed upon the gene- fusion of languages and religions, and ral, is levied upon individuals. It were of letting in Itrangers to eat the bread worth the while then to consider what is out of the mouths of our own people, I paid by, or by means of, the meanest became so humble as to let my project


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fall to the ground, and leave my country for this reason that our neighbour mer. to increafe by the ordinary way of gene- chants who ingross all the spices, and ration.

know how great a quantity is equal to As I have always at heart the public the demand, destroy all that exceeds it. good, fo I am ever contriving schemes It were natural then to think that the to promote it; and I think I may with. annual production of twice as much as out vanity pretend to have contrived can be used, muft reduce all to an eighth fome as wife as any of the castle-builders. part of their present prices; and thus I had no sooner given up my former this extended inland would not exceed project, but my head was presently full one-fourth part of it's present value, or of draining fens and marshes, banking pay more than one-fourth part of the out the fea, and joining new lands to my present tax. country; for since it is thought imprac. It is generally observed, that in counticable to increase the people to the land, tries of the greatest plenty there is the I fell immediately to confider how much poorest living ; like the schoolmen's afs would be gained to the prince by in in one of my speculations, the people crtaling the land to the people.

almost starve between two meals.' The If the faine omnipotent Power which truth is, the poor, which are the bulk made the world, should at this time raise of a nation, work only that they may out of the ocean and join to Great Bri- live; and if with two days labour they tain an equal extent of land, with equal can get a wretched fublittence, they will buildings, corn, cattle, and other con hardly be brought to work the other teniencies and necessaries of life, but no four: but then with the wages of two men, women, nor children, I should days they can neither pay fuch prices for hardly believe this would add either to their provisions, nor such excises to the the riches of the people, or revenue of government. the prince; for since the present build. That paradox therefore in old Hesiod ings are sufficient for all the inhabitants, réor siperou waride, or half is more than if any of them should forsake the old to the whole, is very applicable to the preinhabit the new part of the island, the sent case; fince nothing is more true in increase of house- rent in this would be political arithmetic, than that the same attended with at least an equal decrease people with half the country is more vaof it in the other: belides, we have such luable than with the whole. I begin to a fufficiency of corn and cattle, that we think there was nothing absurd in Sir give bounties to our neighbours to take W. Petty, when he fancied if all the what exceeds of the foriner off our hands, highlands of Scotland and the whole and we will not suffer any of the latter kingdom of Ireland were funk in the to be imported upon us by our fellow. ocean, so that the people were all saved firbje&ts; and for the remaining product and brought into the lowlands of Great of the country it is already equal to all Britain; nay, though they were to be our markets. But if all these things reimbursed the value of their eftates by Thould be doubled to the same buyers, the body of the people, yet both the so. the owners must be glad with half their vereign and the subjects in general would present prices, the landlords with half be enriched by the very lois. their present rents; and thus by fo great If the people only make the riches, an enlargement of the country, the rents the father of ten children is a greater bein the whole would not increase, nor the nefactor to his country, than he who has taxes to the public.

added to it 10,000 acres of land and no On the contrary, I should believe people. It is certain Lewis has joined they would be very much diminished; vait tra&ts of land to his dominions: but for as the land is only valuable for it's if Philarithmus fays true, that he is not fruits, and these are all perishable, and now master of so many subjects as befor the most part mult either be used fore; we may then account for his not be. within the year, or perish without use, ing able to bring such mighty armies into the owners will get rid of them at any the field, and for their being neither fo rate, rather than they should waste in well fed, nor clothed, nor paid as fortheir possession : so that it is probable merly. The reason is plain, Lewis mult the annual production of those perilliable needs have been impoverished not only things, even of one tenth part of them, by his lofs of subjects, but by his acquieyond all posibility of use, will reduce fition of lands.

T he half of their value. It seems to be


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