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Fickle as the wind, fill changing,

When the Siren songs repeats, After every female ranging,

Equal measures still it beats; Panting, trembling, sighing, dying,

Whoe'er shall wear it, it will smart her, But addicted much to lying:

And whoe'er takes it, takes a Tartar.



Γυντικός οδε χρήμανήρ ληίζεται
Εσθλώς αμεινον οίδε ρίγιον κακής.



HERE are no authors I am more T

is to enter so directly into the ways of pleased with, than those who shew men, and set their inilcarriages in fo human nature in a variety of views, and strong a light. describe the leveral ages of the world in Simonides, a poet famous in his gejheir ditferent manners. A reader can neration, is, I think, author of the not be more rationally entertained, than oldest fatire that is now extant; and, as by comparing the virtues and vices of fome say, of the first that was ever write his own times with thole which prevail. ten. This poet flourished about four ed in the times of his forefathers; and hundred years after the fiege of Troy; drawing a parallel in his mind between and thews, by his way of writing, the bis own private character, and that of simplicity, or rather coarseness of the other persons, whether of his own age, age in which he lived. I have taken or of the ages that went before him. notic?, in my hundred and fixty-first The contemplation of inankind under speculation, that the rule of observing these changeable colours, is apt to shame what the French call the Bienfeance, in us out of any particular vice, or ani. in allusion, has been found out of latter mate us to any particular virtue; to years; and that the ancients, provided make us pleased or displeased with our there was a likeness in their fimilitudes, selves in the moft proper points, to clear did not inuch trouble themselves about our minds of prejudice and prepossession, the decency of the comparison. The and re&tify that narrowness of temper fatire or iambics of Simonides, with which inclines us to think amiss of those which I hall entertain my readers in the who differ from ourselves.

present paper, are a remarkable instance If we look into the manners of the of what I formerly advanced. The most remote ages of the world, we dif- fubject of this satire is woman. He decower human nature in her finplicity; scribes the sex in their leveral characters, and the inore we come downward to. which he derives to them from a fancia wards our own times, may observe her ful lippolition raised upon the doctrine hiding herfelf in artifices and refine- of pre existence. He tells us, that the mients, polished infenfibly out of her gods formed the souls of women out of original plainnels, and at length entirely those feeds and principles which com. Joft under form and cereinony, and, pole several kinds of animals and clewhat we call, good-breeding. Read ments; and that their good or bad difthe accounts of men and women as they positions arise in them according as such are given us by tlie most ancient writers, and such seeds and principles predominate both facrel and profane, and you would in their conftitutions. I have translated - think you were reading the history of the author very faithfully, and if not word another species.

for word, which our language would not Among the writers of antiquity, there bear, at least so as to comprehend every are none who inttruct us more openly in one of his sentiments, without adding the manners of their respective times in any thing of my own. I have already which they lived, than those who have apologized for this author's want of deemployed themselves in satire, under licacy, and must further premise, that what dress foever it may appear; as there the following fatire affects only some of are no other authors whole province it the lower part of the sex, and not those


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who have been refined by a polite edu pleasure, and seldom refuse a male cation, which was not so cominon in the companion. age of this poet.

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• seventh species of women, who are 'In the beginning God made the • of a melancholy, froward, unamizhle I fouls of womankind out of different natue, and so repugnant to the offers ' materials, and in a leparate state from ' of love, that they fly in the face of their bodies.

their husband when he approaches - The souls of one kind of women • them with conjugal endearments. This ' were formed out of those ingierlients . species of women are likewise subject

which compose a swine. A woman • to little thefts, cheats, and pilferings. " of this inake is a slut in her house and · The mare with a flowing mane,

a glutton at her table. She is un ' which was never broke to any servile cleanly in her perfon, a Nattern in her foil and labour, composed an eighth dress, and her family is no better than fpecies of women. These are they a dunghill.

• who have little regard for their hus• A second sort of female soul was • bands, who pass away their time ia • formed out of the same materials that dressing, bathing, and perfuming; who • enter into the composition of a fox. • throw their hair into the nicest curls, « Such an one is what we call a notable ' and trick it up with the fairelt flowers

discerning woman, who has an inlight • and garlands. A woman of this fpe' into every thing, whether it be good cies is a very pretty thing for a stran. or bad. In this species of females ger to look upon, but very detrimental . there are some virtuous and some vi. to the owner, unless it be a king or cious.

prince who takes a fancy to such a "A third kind of women were made up of canine particles. These are • 'The ninti species of fernales were what we commonly call fcolds, who taken out of the ape. These are fuch

imitate the animals out of which they as are both ugly and ill-natured, who ' were taken, that are always busy and • have nothing beautiful in themselves, barking, that snarl at every one who " and endeavour to detract from or ricomes in their way, and live in perpe. • dicule every thing which appears to in tual clamour.

• others. « The fourth kind of women were · The tenth and last fpecies of womade out of the earth. These are men were made out of the bee; and

your sluggards, who pass away their happy is the man who gets such an • time in indolence and ignorance, hover one for his wife. She is altogether

over the fire a whole winter, and ap • faultless and unblameable; her fainily

ply themselves with alacrity to no • flourishes and improves by her good • kind of business but eating.

management. She loves her husband, · The fifth species of females were " and is beloved by him. She brings made out of the sea. These are wo " him a race of beautiful and virtuous men of variable uneven tempers, some ( children. She diftinguishes herself times all storm and tempeft, sometimes

a:nong her lex. She is surrounded all calin and sunshine. The stranger (with graces. She never fits among (who sees one of these in hier (miles and the loose tribe of women, nor pafies • smoothness, would cry her up for a away her time with them in wanton

miracle of good-humour; but on a • discourfcs. She is full of virtue and • sudden her looks and words are • prudence, and is the bett wife that Ju

changed, she is nothing but fury and piter can bestow on man.' outrage, nòise and hurricane. • The fixth species were made up of I shall conclude these iambics with the ingredients which compose an ass, the motto of this paper, which is a fragor a beast of burden. These are na ment of the same author : " A man turally exceeding nothful, but upon cannot possess any thing that is better

the husband's exerting his authority, • than a good woman, nor any thing < will live upon hard fare, and do every • that is worse than a bad one.' thing to please hit. They are how.

As the poet has shewn a great pene. cver far from being averle to vepereal tration in this diversity of female cha


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racters, he has avoided the fault which fubje&i for fatire in another of his cele. Juvenal and Monsieur Boileau are guilty brated pieces, which is called 'The Sa. of, the former in his fixth, and the other tire upon Man.' What vice or frailty in his last satire, where they have endea can a discourse correct, which censures voured to expose the lex in general, with- the whole species alike, and endeavours out doing justice to the valuable part of to Mew by some superficial strokes of it. Such levelling fatires are of no use wit, that brutes are the more excellent to the world; and for this reason I have creatures of the two? A satire should often wondered how the French author expofe nothing but what is corrigible, above-mentioned, who was a man of and make a due discrimination between exquisite judgment, and a lover of vir. those who are, and those who are not the tue, could think human nature a proper proper objects of it.









At the same time, if we turn our thoughts SIR,

inward upon ourselves, we may meet Am fully persuaded that one of the with a kind of secret sense concurring

of actions, is the having generous and wor You have, in my opinion, raised a thy thoughts of ourselves. Whoever good presumptive argument from the has a mean opinion of the dignity of his increasing appetite the mind has to knownature, will act in no higher a rank than ledge, and to the extending it's own fahe has allotted himself in his own esti- culties, which cannot be accomplished, mation. If he considers his being as as the more restrained perfection of circumscribed by the uncertain term of lower creatures may, in the limits of a a few years, his designs will be con Thort life. I think another probable tracted into the fame narrow span he conjecture may be raised from our apimagines is to hound his existence. How petite to duration itself, and from a recan he exalt his thoughts to any thing flection on our progress through the great and noble, who only believes that, several stages of it: We are complainafter a short turn on the Atage of this ing,' as you observe in a former fpe. world, he is to sink into oblivion, and culation, of the shortness of life, and to lose his consciousness for ever? yet are perpetually hurrying over the

For this reason I am of opinion, that parts of it to arrive at certain little fetso useful and elevated a contemplation tlements, or imaginary points of rest, as that of the soul's immortality cannot ' which'are dispersed up and down in it.' be resumed too often. There is not a Now let us consider what happens to more improving exercise to the human us when we arrive at these imaginary mind, than to be frequently reviewing it's points of rest:' do we stop our motion, own great privileges and endowments; and sit down satisfied in the settlement nor a more effectual means to awaken we have gained? or are we not remorin us an ambition raised above low ob- ing the boundary, and marking out new jects and little pursuits, than to value points of rest, to which we press forourselves as heirs of eternity.

ward with the like eagerness, and which It is a very great satisfaction to con cease to be such as fast as we attain fider the best and wiseft of mankind in them? Our cafe is like that of a travelall nations and ages, asserting, as with ler upon the Alps, who should fancy one voice, this their birthright, and to that the top of the next hill must end find it ratified by an expreis revelation. his journey, because it terminates his


prospect; but he no sooner arrives at it fervation, and gives me occasion to say than he sees new ground and other hills further, that as worthy actions spring beyond it, and continues to travel on as from worthy thoughts, so worthy before.

thoughts are likewise the consequence This is so plainly every man's condi of worthy actions: 'but the wretch who tion in life, that there is no one who has has degraded himself below the characobserved any thing, but may observe, ter of immortality, is very willing to that as fast as his time wears away, his resign his pretensions to it, and to lubappetite to something future remains. stitute in it's rooin a dark negative hapThe use therefore I would make of it is piness in the extinction of his being. this, that fince Nature, as some love to The admirable Shakespeare has given express it, does nothing in vain, or, to us a strong image of the unsupported speak properly, since the Author of our condition of such a person in his last mibeing has planted no wandering passion nutes in the second part of King Henry in it, no delire which has not it's ob the Sixth, where Cardinal Beaufort, who ject, futurity is the proper object of the had been concerned in the murder of passion fo conftantly exercised about it; the good Duke Humphrey, is representand this restlessness in the present, this ed on his death-bed. After some thort assigning ourselves over to farther stages confused speeches, which shew an ima. of duration, this successive grasping at gination disturbed with guilt, just as fomewhat still to come, appears to me, he was expiring, King Henry standing whatever it may to others, as a kind of by him full of compassion, says inttinet or natural symptom which the mind of man has of it's own immor

Lord Cardinal! if thou think'it on Heaven's tality.

bliss, I take it at the same time for granted, He dies, and makes no sign!-

Hold up thy hand, make signal of that hope! that the immortality of the soul is suffi. ciently ettablished by other arguments: The despair which is here shewn, and if so, this appetite, which otherwise without a word or action on the part of would be very unaccountable and ab. the dying person, is beyond what could furd, seems very reasonable, and adds be painted by the most forcible expresftrength to the conclufion. But I am fions whatever. amazed when I consider there are crea I shall not pursue this thought fara fures capable of thought, who, in spite ther, but only add, that as annihilation of every argument, can form to them is not to be had with a wish, so it is the felves á fullen satisfaction in thinking most abjeet thing in the world to with otherwise. There is something so piti. it. What are honour, fame, wealth, or fully mean in the inverted ambition of power, when compared with the genethat man who can hope for annihilation, rous expectation of a being without end, and please himself to think that his whole and a happiness adequate to that being? fabric shall one day crumble into dust, I shall trouble you no farther; but and mix with the mass of inanimate with a certain gravity which these beings, that it equally deserves our ad- thoughts have given me, miration and pity. The mystery of some things people say of you, as they such men's unbelief is not hard to be will of men who distinguish themselves, penetrated ; and indeed amounts to no which I hope are not true ; and with you ihing more than a fordid hope that they as good a man as you are an author. I hall not be immortal, because they dare am, Sir, your inost obedient humble not be fo.

servant, This brings me back to my

forft ob. Z

I reflect upon


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CAVING lately translated the frag- semble in their manners; or to give an

ment of an old poet which de. account of it as Mr. Dryden has describes womankind under several cha. scribed in his translation of Pytharacters, and supposes them to have drawn goras his speech in the fifteenth book of their different manners and dispositions Ovid, where that philosopher dissuades from those animals and elements out of his hearers from eating flethwhich he tells us they were compounded;

Thus all things are but alter d, nothing dies, I had some thoughts of giving the sex

And here and there th' unbody'd fpirit fies: their revenge, by laying together in an By time, or force, or lickress disposiels d, other paper the many vicious charac And lodges where it lights, in bird or beaft, ters which prevail in the male world, Or hunts without till jeady limbs it find, and thewing the different ingredients And actuates those according to their kind: that go to the making up of such dif. From tenement to tenement is toss’d: ferent humours and constitutions. Ho The soul is still the same, the figure only loft. race has a thought which is something

Then let not piety be put to flight, akin to this, when, in order to excuse

To please the taste of glution-appetite; himself to his mistress, for an invective

But suffer inmate souls secure to dwell, which he had written against her, and

Left from their seats your parents you expei; to account for that unreasonable fury Or from a beast dislodge a brother's mind.

With rabid hunger feed uport your kind, with which the heart of man is often transported, he tells us, that when Pro Plato in the vision of Erus the Ar. metheus made his man of clay, in the menian, which I may possibly make the kneading up of the heart, he feasoned it subject of a future speculation, records with some furious particles of the lion. some beautiful transmigrations; as that But upon turning this plan to and fro the soul of Orpheus, who was musical, in my thoughts, I observed so many un- melancholy, and a woman-hater, entered accountable humours in man, that I did into a swan; the soul of Ajax, which not know out of what animals to fetch

was all wrath and fierceness, into a lion; thein. Male souls are diversified with the soul of Agamemnon, that was ra. so many characters, that the world has pacious and imperial, into an eagle; and not variety of materials sufficient to fur. the soul of Thersites, who was a mimic nish out their different tempers and in- and a buffoon, into a inonkey. clinations. The creation, with all it's Mr. Congreve, in a prologue to one animals and elements, would not be of his comedies, has touched upon

this large enough to supply their several ex doctrine with

great humour. travagancies. Initead therefore of pursuing the

Thus Aristotle's foul of old that was, thought of Simonides, I thall obferve, May now be damn'd to animate an ass;

Or in this very house, for ought we know, that as he has exposed the vicious part is doing paintul penance in some beau. of women from the doctrine of preexistence, some of the ancient philofo I Mall fill up this paper with some letphers have, in a manner, satirized the ters which my lait Tuesday's fpeculavicious part of the human species in ge- tion has produced. My following corneral, from a notion of the foul's post. respondents will new, what I tbere ohexistence, if I may so call it; and that served, that the speculation of that day as Simonides describes brutes entering affects only the lower part of the fex. into the composition of women, others have represented human souls as enter

FROM MY HOUSE IN THE STRAND, ing into brutes. This is cominonly

OCTOBER 30, 1711. terined the doctrine of transmigration, which fuppoles that human fouls, upon UPON reading your Tuesday's pa: their kaving the body, become the souls per, I find by several sympicms in of such kinds of brutes as they most re. my conititution that I am a bee. My



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