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happy in her love; that of Pasiphae was often have I taken my revenge in kisses monitrous; and whilst the other caught from her cheeks and eyes, and softly at his beloved likeness, he destroyed the wooed her to my embrace, whilit the, watery image, which ever eluded his as to me it seemed, only with held her embraces. The fountain represented tongue the more to infiame me? But, Narcissus to himself, and the picture madman that I am, Mall I be thus taken both that and him, thiriting atier his with the reprefentation only of a beau. adored image. But I am yet less un teous face, and flowing hair, and thus happy, I enjoy her presence continually, waste myself, and melt to tears for a and if I touch her, I destroy not the jhadow.. Ah, sure it is something more, beauteous form, but the look's pleased, it is a reality! for see her beauties thine and a sweet smile fits in the charming out with new lustre, and she seems to space which divides her lips. One would upbraid me with unkind reproaches. swear that voice and speech were ifluing Oh may I have a living mistress of this out, and that one's ears felt the melo- form, that when I thall compare the dious found. How often have I, de- work of nature with that of art, I may ceived by a lover's credulity, hearkened be still at a loss which to chuse, and be it she had not fomething to whilper me? long perplexed with the pleasing uncerand when fruitrated of my hopes, how tainty!




VIRG. ÆN. VI. VIR. 86.



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considering the several methods of almost an infinitude of distinctions. managing a debate which have obtained When our universities found that in the world.

there was no end of wrangling this way, The first races of mankind used to they invented a kind of argunient, which dispute, as our ordinary people do now is not reducible to any mood or figure a days, in a kind of wild logic, uncul- of Aristotle. It was called the Argu. tivated by rules of art.

mentum Balilinum, others write it Ba. Socrates intro luced a catechetical me cilinum or Baculinum, which is pretty thod of arguing. He would ask his wellexpresled in our English word, Clubadversary question upon question, until law. When they were not able to conhe had convinced him out of his own fuce their antagonist, they knocked him mouth that his opinions were wrong.

down. It was their method in these This way of debating drives an enemy polemical debates, first to discharge their up into a corner, feizes all the passes Iyllogisms, and afterwards to betake through which he can make an escape, themselves to their clubs, until such and forces him to surrender at discretion. time as they had one way or other con.

Anítotle changed this method of at- : founded their gainsavers. There is in tack, and invented a great variety of Oxford a narrow defile, to make use of little weapons, called Syllogisms. As a military term, where the partisans in the Socratic way of dispuie you agree uled to encounter, for which reason it to every thing which your opponent ad. ftill retains the name of Logic Lane. vances, in the Arittotelic you are itill I have heard an old gentleman, a phyfi. denying and contradicting some part or cian, make his boasts, that when he was other of what he says. Socrates con a young fellow he marched several times quers you by stratagem, Aristotle by at the head of a troop of Scotiits, and force: the one takes the town by fap, curtig leu a body of Siniglesians half the the other fword in hand.

length of High Street, until they had The universities of Europe. ís; many diipei led themselves for shelter into their years, carried on their debates by fyllo- respective garrisons. gism, informuch that we fee the know. This humour, I find, weot very far ledge of several centuries laid out into in Erasmus's time. For that author objections and answers; and all the good tells us, that upon the revival of Greek



letters, most of the universities of Eu-monly called a pile of faggots. The rope were divided into Greeks and rack is also a kind of syllogism which Trojans. The latrer were those who has been used with good effect, and has bore a mortal enmity to the language made multitudes of converts. Men of the Grecians, insomuch that if they were formerly disputed out of their met with any who understood it, they doubts, reconciled to truth by force of did not fail to treat him as a foe. Eral- reason, and won over to opinions by the mus himself had, it seems, the misfor. candour, sense, and ingenuity of those June to fall into the hands of a party of who had the right on their fide; but this Trojans, who laid on him with lo many method of conviction operated too slowly. blows and buffets, that he never forgot Pain was found to be much more en. their hoftilities to his dying day. lightening than reason. Every fcruple

There is a way of managing an ar was looked upon as obstinacy, and not gument not much unlike the former, to be remove but by several engines which is made use of by states and com invented for that purpose. In a word, munities, when they draw up a hundred the application of whips, racks, gibbets, thousand disputants on each side, and gallies, dungeons, fire and faggot, in a convince one another by dint of sword. dispute, inay be looked upon as popish A certain grand monarch was so tensie refinements upon the old heathen logic. ble of his Arength in this way

of There is another way of reasoning soning, that he writ upon his great guns which seldom fails, though it be of a - Ratio ultima Regum-The Logic quite different nature to that I have latt • of Kings;' but, God be thanked, he mentioned. I mean, convincing a man is now pretty well buMed at his own by ready-money, or as it is ordinarily weapons. When one has to do with a called, bribing a man to an opinion. philosopher of this kind, one Mould re This method has often proved successmember the old gentleman's saying, who ful, when all the others have been made had been engaged in an argument with use of to no purpose. A man who is one of the Roman emperors. Upon his furnished with arguments from the friend's telling him, that he wondered mint, will convince his antagonist much he would give up the question, when he fooner than one who draws them from had visibly the better of the dispute- realon and philofophy. Gold is a wonI am never ashamed,' says he, to be derful clearer of the understanding; it • confuted by one who is master of fifty dissipates every doubt and fcruple in • legions.

an instant; accommodates itself to the I mall but just mention another kind meanest capacities; silences the loud and of reasoning, which may be called ar clamorous, and brings over the most guing by poll; and another which is of obtinate and inflexible.

Philip of Ma. equal torce, in which wagers are made cedon was a man of most invincible uie of as arguments, according to the reason this way. He refuted by it all celebrated line in Hudibras.

the wisdom of Athens, confounded their But the most notable way of manag. Atatesmen, Atruck their orators dumb, ing a controversy, is that which we may and at length argued them out of all call arguing by torture. This is a me. their liberties. thod of reasoning which has been made Having here touched upon the several use of with the poor refugees, and methods of disputing, as they have prewhich was so fashionable in our country vailed in different ages of the world, I during the reign of Queen Mary, that thall very suddenly give my reader an in a passage of an author quoted by account of the whole art of cavilling; Monsieur Bayle, it is faid the price of which shall be a full and satisfactory wood was raifert in England, by reason answer to all such papers and pamphlets of the executions that were made in as have yet appeared againit the SpecSmithfield. These disputants convince tator. their adversaries with a Sorites, com


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wards me,



people of distinction, the present ease and Am of one of the most gente el trades plenty of my circumstances, but also much of liberal education, as to have gulation of my desires. I doubt not, an ardent ambition of being useful Sir, but in your imagination such vir to mankind, and to think that the tues as thefe of my worthy friend, bear chief end of being as to this life. I as great a figure as actions which are had these good impreffions given me more glittering in the common estima

from the handsome behaviour of a tion. What I would ask of you, is to learned, generous, and wealthy min to give us a whole Spectator upon heroic

when I first began the world. virtue in common life, which inay inSome disatisfaction between me and cite men to the same generous inclina. my parents made me enter into it with tions, as have by this admirable person let's relish of butiness than I ought; and been shewn to, and raised in, Sir, to turn off this imeafiness, I gave myself

Your moit humble servant. to criminal pleasures, fome excelles, and a general loose conduct. I know not MR. SPECTATOR, what the excellent man above-men

I Am a country gentleman, of a good tioned law in me, but he descended from plentiful estate, and live as the rest the fuperiority of his wisdom and me. of my neighbours with great hospitality. rit, io throw himself frequently into my I have been ever reckoned among the company. This made me foon hope Jadies the best company in the world, that I had something in me worth cuil. and have access as a fort of favourite. tivating, and his conversation made me I never came in public but I faluted fentible of satisfactions in a regular way, them, though in great assemblies, all which I had never before imagined. around, where it was seen how genteel. When he was grown familiar with ine, ly I avoided hampering my ipurs in he openeil himself like a good angel, their petticoats, whilft I inoved amongit and told me, he had long laboured to them; and on the other side how piete sipen me into a preparation to receive tily they curtied and received me, fland. his friendship and advice, both which I ing in proper rows, and advancing as Mould daily command, and the vie of fast as they faw their elders, or their any part of his fortune, to apply the betters, dispatched by me. But so it is, sneatives he should propose to me, for Mr. Spectator, that all our good-breed. the improvement of my own. I affure ing is of late luft by the unhappy arrival 30:1, I cannot recollect the goudness and of a courtier, or town gentleman, who confusion of the good man when he came lately among us: this perion wherespoke to this purpose to me, without eru hic cine into a room made a pro. aneling into tears; but in a word, Sir, found bow, and fell back, then reco. I must halten to tell you, that my heart vered with a lift air, and made a bow buns with gratitude towards him, and to the next, and lo to one or two inore, he is so happy a man, that it can never and then took the cross of the room, by be in my power to return him his fa- passing by them in a continued bow vours in kind, but I am sure I have until lie arrived at the person he thought made him the most agreeable fatisfaction proper particularly to entertain. This I could polubly, in being ready to serve he did with so good a grace and aftur, others to my uimoft ability, as far as is ance, that it is taken for the present façonfiftent with the prudence he prescribes fhion; and there is no young gentlewo.

Dear Mr. Spe&tator, I do not man within leveral miles of ihis place

to him only the good will and has been killed ever since his trti apclteen of my own relations, who are

peuralice among us.

We country gen.


to me.


elemen cannot begin again, and learn took snuif with a tolerable good grace, these fine and reserved airs; and our displayed his fine cloaths, inade two or conversation is at a stand, until we have three feint passes at the curtain with his your judgment for or againit killing, by cane, then faced about and appeared at way of civility or falutation; which is the other doors here he affected to suriinpatiently expected by your friends of vey the whole house, bowed and smiled both sexes, but by none so much as at random, and then shewed his teeth, your humble servant,

which were some of them indeed very - Rustic SPRIGHTLY. white: after this he retired hehind the

curtain, and obliged us with several MR. SPECTATOR, DEC. 3, 1711. views of his person from every openWas the other night at Philaster, ing.

where I expected to hear your famous During the time of acting, he appeared trunk maker, but was unhappily dilap-, frequently in the prince's apartmeni, pointed of his company, and law ano.. made one at the hunting-match, and was ther perfon who had the like ambition" very forward in the rebellion. If there to distinguish himself in a noisy man. were no injunctions to the contrary, yet ner, partly by vociferation or talking this practice must be confeffed to dimia loud, and partly by his bold agility: nith the pleasure of the audience, and This was a very lusty fellow, but withal for that reason presumptuous and un. a fort of beau, who getting into one of warrantable: but since her Majesty's the fide- boxes on the stage before the late command has made it criminal, you curtain drew, was dit pored to shew the have authority to take notice of it. Sir, whole audience his activity by leaping your humble servant, over the spikes; he passed from thence

CHARLES EASY. so one of the entering doors, where he. T.



VIRG. Æn. IV. VIR. 466.





ordinary diligence to the care of his faTHOUGH you have considered mily and his eftate; but this, instead of

virtuous love in most of it's dif- relieving me, gives me but so many octreffes, I do not remember that you casions of wishing for his return. I have given us any disertation upon the frequent the rooms where I used to conabsence of lovers, or laid down any verse with him, and not meeting him methods how they should fupport them- there, sit down in his chair, and fall a felves under tholelong feparations which weeping. I love to read the books lie they are sometimes forced to undergo. delighted in, and to converse with the I am at present in this unhappy circuin persons whom he esteemed. I visit his Itance, having parted with the best of picture a hundred times a day, and husbands, who is abroad in the service place inyfelf over-against it whole hours of his country, and may not possibly together. I pass a great part of my return for some years. His warm and time in the walks where I used to lean generous affection while we were to upon his arm, and recollect in my mind gether, with the tenderness which he the discourles which have there pared. expressed to me at parting, make his between us : I look over the several proabsence almost insupportable. I think spects and points of view which we ufed of him every moment of the day, and to survey together, fix my eye upon the meet him every night in my dreams. objedia which he has made me take nos Every thing I see puts me in mind of tice of, and call to mind a thousand him.' I apply myself with more than agreeable remarks which he has made



on those occafions. I write to him by elegance of sentiments with which the every conveyance, and contrary to other pallion of love generally inspires it's people, an always in good humour votaries. This was, at the return of when an eart wind blows, becaule it such an hour, to offer up a certain prayer feldon fails of bringing me a letter from for each other, which they had agreed him. Let me entreat you, Sir, to give upon before their parting. The husme your advice upon this occafion, and band, who is a man that inakes a figure to let me know how I inay relieve my in the polite world, as well as in his self in this my widowhood. I am, Sir, own family, his often told me, that he your very humble servant,

could not have lupported an absence of ASTERIA. three years without this expedient,

Strada, in one of his prolufions, gives Absence is what the poets call death an account of a chimerical corresponin love, and has given occation to abun- dence between two friends by the help dance of beautiful complaints in those of a certain loaditone, which had such authors who have treated of this passion virtue in it, that if it touched two fevein verse. Ovid's Epistles are full of sal needles, when one of the needles so them. Otway's Monimia talks very touched began to move, the other, tenderly upon this subject

though at never so great a dittance,

moved at the same time, and in the same It was not kind To leave me like a turtle here alone,

He tells us, that the two To droop and mourn the absence of my mate. friends, being each of them possessed of When thou art from me, every place is desert: one of these needles, made a kind of And I, methinks, am savage and forlorn. a dial-plate, inscribing it with the four Thy presence only 'tis can make ine bleft, and twenty letters, in the same manner Heal my unquiet'mind, and tune my foul. . as the hours of the day are marked

upon the ordinary dial-plate. They The consolations of lovers on these then fixed one of the needles on each of occasions are very extraordinary. Be- thele plates in such a manner, that it sides those mentioned by Alteria, there could inove round without impediment, are many other motives of comfort, so as to touch any of the four and twenwhich are made use of by absent lovers. ty letters. Upon their feparating from

I remember in one of Scudery's ro one another into distant countries, they mances, a couple of honourable lovers agreed to withdraw themselves pun&uagreed at their parting to let alide one ally into their closets at a certain hour half hour in the day to think of each of the day, and to converse with one other during a tedious ablence. The another by means of this their invention. romance tells us, that they both of them Accordingly when they were some hunpun&tually observed the time thus agreed dred miles afunder, each of them inut upon; and that whatever company or himself up in his closet at the time apbufiness they were engaged in, they left pointed, and immediatelycait his eye upon it abruptly as soon as the clock warned his dial.plate. If he had a mind to write them to retire. The romance further any thing to his friend, he directed his adiis, that the lovers expected the return needle to every letter that formed the of this stated hour with as much impa. words which he had occasion for, mak. tience, as if it had been a real assigna- ing a little pause at the end of every tion, and enjoyed an imaginary happi- word or fentence, to avoid confufion. ness that was almost as plealing to them The friend, in the mean while, saw his as what they would have found from a own sympathetic needle moving of itreal meeting. It was an inexpressible self to every letter which that of his corfatisfaction to these divided lovers, to respondent pointed at. By this means be assured that each was at the same 'they talked together acrofs a whole contiine employed in the faine kind of con tinent, and conveyed their thoughts 10 templation, and making equal returns one another in an instant over cities or of tenderness and affection.

mountains, seas or defarts. If I may be allowed to mention a If Monsieur Scudery, or any other more serious expedient for the alleviat. writer of romance, bad introduced a ing of absence, I fall take notice of necromancer, who is generally in the one which I have known two persons train of a knight-errant, making a prepractile, who joined religion to that sent to two lovers of a couple of these

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