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case of very many is, that they are taken She would do her endleavour, moved the into such hands without any the least good old lady to take her out of the suspicion, previous temptation, or admo- hands of a country bumkin her brother, nition to what place they are going. and hire her for her own maid. I staid The last week I went to an inn in the till I saw them all marched out to take city to inquire for some provisions which coach; the brother loaded with a great were sent by a waggon out of the coun- cheese, he prevailed upon her to take for try; and as I waited in one of the boxes her civilities to his lifter. This poor till the chamberlain had looked over his creature's fate is not far off that of her's parcel, I heard an old and a young voice whom I spoke off above, and it is not repeating the questions and relponses to be doubted, but after the has been of the church-catechism. I thought it long enough a prey to lust, she will be no breach of good-manners to peep at a delivered over to famine. The ironical crevice, and look in at people so well commendation of the industry and chaemployed; but who should I see there rity of these antiquated ladies, these dibut the most artful procuress in the rečtors of sin, after they can no longer town, examining a molt beautiful coun. commit it, makes up the beauty of the try-girl, who had come up in the same inimitable dedication to the Plain-Deal. waggon with my things. Whether the er, and is a master-piece of raillery on

was well educated, could forbear play this vice. But to understand all the pur

ing the wanton with servants and idle lieus of this game the better, and to il• fellows, of which this town,' says she, lustrate this subject in future discourses, 5 is too full:' at the same time, whe- I mut venture myself, with my friend ther she knew enough of breeding, as Will, into the haunts of beauty and that if a 'lquire or gentleman, or one gallantry; from pampered vice in the that was her betters, should give her a habitations of the wealthy, to diitresled civil salute, the should curtely and be indigent wickedness expelled the har. humble nevertheless. Her innocent For- bours of the brothel. footh's, Yes's, And't please you's, and






T Home as general de courtes, efpeci"HERE is nothing in nature soirk, which is perfect or imperfect, according

as the action which it relates is more or ally when they turn chiefly upon words: less fo. This action should have three For this reason I shall wave the difcuf- qualifications in it. First, it should be lion of that point which was started some but one action. Secondly, it Mhould be years since, whether Milton's Paradise an entire action; and, thirdly, it should Loft may be called an heroic poem? be a great action. To consider the acThose who will not give it that title, tion of the Iliad, Æneid, and Paradiso may call it, if they please, a divine Loft, in these three leveral lights. Ho-' poem. It will be sufficient to it's per- mer, to preserve the unity of his action, fection, if it has in it all the beauties of hastens into the midst of things, as Hothe highet kind of poetry; and as for race has observed: had he gone up to those who alledge it is not an heroic Leda's egg, or begun much later even poem, they advance no more to the di

at the rape of Helen, or the investing of minution of it, than if they should say Troy, it is manifest that the story of the Adam is not Æneas, nor Éve Helen.


would have been a series of several I shall therefore examine it the actions. He therefore opens his poem rules of epic poetry, and see whether it with the discord of his princes, and artfalls short of the Iliad or Æneid, in the fully interweaves, in the feveral succeedbeauties which are essential to that kind ing parts of it, an account of every of writing. The first thing to be con- thing inaterial which relates to them, fidered in an epic poem, is the fable, and had passed before that fatal difen


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fion. After the fame manner Æneas in such an episode, it's running parallel makes his first appearance in the Tyr- with the great action of the poem hinders thene seas, and within the sight of Italy, it from breaking the unity' so much as because the action proposed to be cele- another episode would have done, that brated was that of his settling himself in had not so great an affinity with the Latium. But because it was necessary principal subject. In short, this is the for the reader to know what had hap- same kind of beauty which the critics pened to him in the taking of Troy, admire in the Spanish Friar, or the and in the preceding parts of his voyage, Double Discovery, where the two dif. Virgil makes his hero relate it by way ferent plots look like counterparts and of episode in the second and third books copies of one another. of the Æneid. The contents of both The second qualification required in which books come before those of the the action of an epic poem, is, that it first book in the thread of the story, hould be an entire action: an action though for preserving of this unity of is entire when it is complete in all it's action they follow them in the difpofi- parts; or, as Aristotle describes it, when tion of the poem. Milton, in imitation it consists of a beginning, a middle, and of these two great poets, opens his Pa an end. Nothing Mould go before it, radise Loft, with an infernal council be intermixed with it, or follow after it, plotting the fall of man, which is the that is not related to it. As on the conaction he propo!ed to celebrate; and as trary, no single step should be omitted for those great actions, which preceded in that just and regular process which it in point of time, the battle of the an must be supposed to take from it's original gels, and the creation of the world, to it's consummation. Thus we see the which would have intirely destroyed the anger of Achilles in it's birth, it's con unity of his principal action, had he re tinuance and effects; and Æneas's set. lated them in the fame order they hap- tlement in Italy, carried on through all pened, he cast them into the fifth, fixth, she oppositions in his way to it both by and seventh books, by way of episode to sea and land. The action in Milton exthis noble poem.

cels, I think, both the former in this Aristotle himself allows, that Homer particular: we see it contrived in hell, has nothing to boast of as to the unity executed upon earth, and punished by of his fable, though at the same time Heaven. The parts of it are told in that great critic and philofopher endea• the most distinct manner, and grow out vurs to palliate this imperfcction in the of one another in the most natural meGreek poet by imputing it in some mea thod. sure to the very nature of an epic poem. The third qualification of an epic Some have been of opinion, that the poem is it's greatness. The anger of Æneid allo labours in this particular, Achilles was of such consequence, that and has episories which may be looked it embroiled the kings of Greece, deupon as excrescences rather than as stroyed the heroes of Troy, and engaged parts of the action. On the contrary, all the gods in factions. Æneas's let. the poem, which we have now under tlement in Italy produced the Cæfars, our confideration, hath no other epilodes and gave birth to the Roman empire. than such as naturally arise from the Milton's subject was still greater than subject, and yet is filled with such a either of the former; it does not deterinultitude of a'ionithing incidents, that mine the fate of single persons or naat gives us at the same time a pleasure of tions, but of a whole species. The the greaiest variety, and of the greatest united powers of hell are joined together dimplicity; uniform in it's nature, though for the destruction of mankind, which diversified in the execution.

they effected in part, and would have I mult observe also, that as Virgil, in completed, had not Omnipotence itself the poem which was designed to cele interposed. The principal actors are brate the original of the Roman empire, man in his greatest perfection, and wohas describexi the birth of it's great ri- man in her highest beauty. Their eneval, the Carthaginian commonwealth: mies are the fallen angels: the Mefliah Milton, with the like ait in his poein their friend, and the Almighty their on the fall of inan, has related the fall protector. In short, every thing that is of thote angels who are his professed ene great in the whole circle of being, whemies, Bedides the many other beauties iher within the verge of nature, or out


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of it, has a proper part affigned it in poetical ornaments, that they make this noble poem.

an agreeable story, sufficient to employ In poetry, as in architecture, not only the memory without overcharging it. the whole, but the principal members, Milton's action is enriched with such a and every part of them, should be great. variety of circumstances, that I have I will not presume to say, that the book taken as much plasure in reading the of games in the Æneid, or that in the contents of his books, as in the best inIliad, are not of this nature, nor to re vented Itory I ever met with. It is porprehend Virgil's fimile of the top, and fible; that the traditions, on which the many other of the same kind in the Iliad and Æneid were built, had more Iliad, as liable to any censure in this circumstances in them than the history particular; but I think we may fay, of the Fall of Man, as it is related in without derogating from those wonder- Scripture. Besides, it was easier for Hoful performances, that there is an un mer and Virgil to dash the truth with questionable magnificence in every part fiction, as they were in no danger of of. of Paradise Loft, and indeed a much fending the religion of their country by greater than could have been formed it. But as for Milton, he had not only upon any pagan system.

a very few circumstances upon which But Aristotle, by the greatness of the to raise his poem, but was also (ghliged action, does not only mean that it should to proceed with the greatest caution in be great in it's nature, but also in it's every thing that he added out of his own duration, or in other words, that it should invention. And, indeed, notwithitandhave a due length in it, as well as what ing all the restraints he was under, he we properly call greatness. The just has filled his story with so many furmeasure of this kind of magnitude he prising incidents, which bear so close explains by the following fimilitude. an analogy with what is delivered in An animal, no bigger than a mite, can holy writ, that it is capable of pleasing not appear perfect to the eye, because the most delicate reader, without giving the fight takes it in at once, and has offence to the most scrupulous. only a confused idea of the whole, and The modern critics have collected not a distinct idea of all it's parts; if on from several hints in the Iliad and Æneid the contrary you should suppose an ani the space of time which is taken up hy mal of ten thousand furlongs in length, the action of each of those poems; but the eye would be so filled with a single as a great part of Milton's story was part of it, that it could not give the mind transacted in regions that lie out of the an idea of the whole. What these ani. reach of the fun and the sphere of day, mals are to the eye, a very short or a it is impossible to gratify the reader with very long action would be to the me. such a calculation, which indeed would niory. The first would be, as it were, be more curious than instructive; none loft and swallowed up by it, and the of the critics, either ancient or modern, other difficult to be contained in it. having laid down rules to circumícribe Homer and Virgil have shewn their prin- the action of an epic poem with any decipal art in this particular; the action termined number of years, days, or of the Iliad, and that of the Æneid, hours, were in themselves exceeding Mort, but This piece of criticism on Milton's are so beautifully extended and diverfi- Paradise Loit shall be carried on in the fied by the invention of episodes, and following Saturday's papers. the machinery of gods, with the like





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I Those note that I think I have been


towards it: I am of opinion that I ought more witty than I ought of late, that sometimes to lay before the world the at present I wholly forbear any attempt plain letters of my correspondents in the


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artless dress in which they hastily send for man, when he engages himself in the them, that the reader may see I am not thoughts of marriage, to place his hopes accuser and judge myself, but that the of having in such a woman a constant indictinent is properly and fairly laid, agreeable companion ? one who will dibefore I proceed against the criminal. vide his cares and double his joys? who

will manage that share of his eftate he MR. SPECTATOR,

entrusts to her conduct with prudence As you are Spectator-General, I ap- and frugality, govern his house with

ply myself to you in the following economy and discretion, and be an orcase, viz. I do not wear a sword, but I nanient to himself and family? Where often divert myself at the theatre, where shall we find the man who looks out for I frequently fee a set of fellows pull one who places her chief happiness in plain people, by way of humour and the practice of virtue, and makes her frolic, by the nose, upon frivolous or duty her continual pleasure? No, men no occasions. A friend of mine the rather seek for money as the complement other night applauded what a graceful of all their desires; and regardless of exit Mr. Wilks made; one of these nose- what kind of wives they take, they think wringers overhearing him, pinched him riches will be a minister to all kind of by the nose. I was in the pit the other pleasures, and enable them to keep milnight, when it was very much crouded, tresses, horses, hounds, to drink, fealt, a gentleman learing upon me, and very and game with their companions, pay heavily, I very civilly requested him to their debts contracted by former extraremove his hand; for which he pulled vagancies, or some such vile and unwor. me by the nose. I would not resent it thy end; and indulge themselves in pleain so public a place, because I was un- fures which are a Thame and scandal to willing to create a disturbance; but have human nature. Now as for the wo. fince reflected upon it as a thing that is men; how few of them are there who unmanly and disingenuous, renders the place the happiness of their marriage in nose-puller odious, and makes the per- the having a wise and virtuous friend? son pulled by the nose look little and One who will be faithful and just to all, contemptible. This grievance I hum- and constant and loving to them? who hly request you will endeavour to re with care and diligence will look after dreis. . I am your admirer, &c. and improve the estate, and without

JAMES EASY. grudging allow whatever is prudent and

convenient? rather, how few are there MR. SPECTATOR,

who do not place their happiness in outYOUR discourse of the 29th of De- hining others in pomp and show? and

cember on love and marriage is of that do not think within themselves, fo ufeful a kind, that I cannot forbear when they have married such a rich perailding my thoughts to your’s on that lon, that none of their acquaintance Pulvet. Methinks it is 'a misfortune, thall appear fo fine in their equipage, to the the marriage thate, which in it's adorned in their persons, or so magnifiown nature is adapted to give us the cent in their furniture, as themselves? compleatest happiness this life is capable Thus their heads are filled with vain of, should be so uncomfortable a one to ideas; and I heartily wish I could say fo many as it daily proves. But the that equipage and show were not the mischief generally proceeds from the chief good of so many women as I fear unwise choice people make for them- it is. felves, and an expectation of happiness

After this manner do both sexes defrom things not capable of giving it. ceive themselves, and bring reflections Nothing but the good qualities of the and disgrace upon the most happy and perion beloved can be a foundation for most honourable ftate of life; whereas a love of judgment and discretion; and if they would but correct their depraved whoever expect happiness from any taste, moderate their ambition, and place thing but virtue, wisdom, good humour, their happiness upon proper objects, we and a fimilitude of manners, will find mould not find felicity in the marriage themselves widely mistaken. But how state such a wonder in the world as it few are there whó seck after these things, now is. and do not rather make riches their chief Sir, if you think these thoughts worth if not their only aim: How rare is it inferting among your own, be pleased

to give them a better dress, and let them obey their commands more agreeably, pais abroad; and you will oblige your be pleased to inform me, and you will admirer,

A.B. extremely oblige

Your humble servant,
AS I was this day walking in the


OXFORD, DEC. 29. street, there happened to pass by on the other side of the way a beauty, SINCE you appear inclined to be a whose charms were fo attracting, that

friend to the diftrefled, I beg you it drew my eyes wholly on that lide, in- would affist me in an affair under which somuch that I neglected my own way,

I have suffered very much. The reignand chanced to run my nose directly ing toast of this place is Patetia; I against a poft; which the lady no sooner have pursued her with the utmost dili. perceived, but fell out into a fit of laugh- gence this twelvemonth, and find noter, though at the same time the was thing Stands in my way but one who sensible that herself was the cause of my fatters her more than I can. Pride is misfortune, which in my opinion was

her favourite passion; therefore if you the greater aggravation of 'her crime. will be so far my friend as to make a I being busy wiping off the blood which favourable mention of me in one of your trickled down my face, had not time to papers, I believe I should not fail in my acquaint her with her barbarity, as alto addresses.. The scholars stand in rows, with my resolution, viz. never to look as they did to be sure in your time, at ont of my way for one of her sex more : her pew-door; and the has all the detherefore, that your humble servant may votion paid to her by a crowd of youths be revenged, he desires you to insert this who are unacquainted with the fex, and in one of your next papers, which he have inexperience added to their passion : hopes will be a warning to all the reft however, if it succeeds according to my of the women-gazers, as well as to poor

vows, you will make me the happicit ANTHONY GAPE. man in the world, and the most obliged

amongst all your humble servants,
Delire to know in your next, if the


merry game of the Parson has loft I came to my mistress's toilet this « his cloke,' is not mightily in vogue morning, for I am admitted when amongtt the fine ladies this Christmas; her face is stark naked: fhe frowned, because I see they wear hoods of all co and cried Pish when I said a thing that lowrs, which I suppose is for that pur. I tole; and I will be judged by you pole: if it is, and you think it proper, I whether it was not very pretty.

Mawill carry some of those hoods with me • dam,' said I, ' you mall forbear that to our ladies in Yorkshire ; because they • part of your dress; it may be well in enjoined me to bring them something others, but you cannot place a patcha from London that was very new. If where it does not hide a beauty.' you can tell any thing in which I can


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great knocking at the door, when him to be the coachman of my worthy my landlady's daughter came up to me, friend Sir Roger de Coverley. He told and told me, that there was a man be me that his master came to town last low desired to speak with me. Upon night, and would be glad to take a turn my asking her who it was, she told me with me in Gray's- Inn walks. As I it was a very grave elderly person, but was wondering in myself what had that she did not know his naine, I imbrought Sir Roger to town, not having


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