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have not yet begun my story, and what lady? "No.'— Nor your cousin Suchis making sentences and observations, a-one?'--'No.'-' Lord,' says Mrs. when a man is pleading for his life? Jane, 'what is the friendship of women? To begin then : this lady has corre -Nay, they may well laugh atit. And fponded with me under the names of I did no one tell you any thing of the love, she my Belinda, I her Cleanthes. • behaviour of your lover Mr. Whats Though I am thus well got into the ac • d'yecall last night? But perhaps it is count of my affair, I cannot keep in the ' nothing to you that he is to be mar. thread of it so much as to give you the 'ried to young Mrs. on Tuesday character of Mrs. Jane, whom I will
Belinda was here ready to die not hide under a borrowed name; but with rage and jealousy. Then Mrs. let you know that this creature has been Jane goes on: I have a young kinssince I knew her very handsome, (though man who is clerk to a great conveyI will not allow her even she has been for ancer, who shall new you the rough the future) and during the time of her draught of the marriage-settlement. bloom and beauty was so great a tyrant - The world says her father gives him to her lovers, to over-valued herself, 'two thousand pounds more than he and under-rated all her pretenders, that could have with you.' I went innothey have deserted her to a man; and the cently to wait on Belinda as usual, but knows no comfort but that common one was not admitted; I writ to her, and to all in her condition, the pleasure of my letter was sent back unopened. Poor interrupting the amours of others. It Betty her maid, who is on my side, has is impoffible but you must have seen fe. been here just now blubbering, and told veral of these volunteers in malice, who me the whole matter. She says she did pass their whole time in the molt labo not think I could be so base; and that sious way of life, in getting intelligence, she is now so odious to her mistress for running from place to place with new having fo often spoke well of me, that whispers, without reaping any other the dare not mention me more. All benefit but the hopes of making others our hopes are placed in having these cir. as unhappy as themselves. Mrs. Jane cumstances fairly represented in the happened to be at a place where I, with Spectator, which Betty says the dare many others well acquainted with my not but bring up as soon as it is brought passion for Belinda, pafled a Christmas in; and has promised when you have evening There was among the rest a broke the ice to own this was laid beyoung lady, so free in mirth, so ami. tween us: and when I can come to an able in a just reserve that accompanied hearing, the young lady will support it; I wrong her to call it a reserve, but what we say by her teitimony, that I there appeared in her a mirth or chear- never saw her but that once in my whole fulness which was not forbearance of life. Dear Sir, do not omit this true more immoderate joy, but the natural relation, nor think it too particular; appearance of all which could flow from for there are crowds of forlorn coquettes a mind possessed of an habit of inno- who intermingle themselves with other cence and purity. I must have utterly ladies, and contract familiarities out of forgot Belinda to have taken no notice malice, and with no other design but to of one who was growing up to the same blast the hopes of lovers, the expectawomanly virtues which shine to perfec- tion of parents, and the benevolence of tion in her, had I not distinguished one kindred. I doubt not but I thall be, who seemed to promise to the world the Sir, your molt obliged humble servant, fame life and conduct with my faithful
CLEANTHES. and lovely Belinda. When the company broke up, the fine young thing permitted me to take care of her home. WILL'S COFFEE-HOUSE, JAN. 10. Mrs. Jane saw my particular regard to her, and was informed of my attending her to her father's house. She came THE
HE other day entering a room carly to Belinda the next morning, and
adorned with the fair-sex, I offer asked her if Mrs. Such-a-one had been ed, after the usual manner, to each of with her? No.' If Mr. Such-a-one's them a kiss; but one, more Scornful
3 U 2
than the relt, turned her cheek. I did
ADVERTISEMENT. not think it pr per to take any notice of
FROM THE PARISH-VESTRY, JAN. 9. it until I had asked your advice. Your humble servant,
ALL ladies who come to church in E. S, the new-fashioned hoods, are desired to
be there before divine service begins, The correspondent is desired to say Jett they divert the attention of the conwhich chcek' the offender turned to gregation. him.
No CCLXXIII. SATURDAY, JANUARY
NOTANDI SUNT TIBI MORES.
Hor. Ars POIT. VER. 156. NOTE WELL THE MANNERS.
CAVING examined the action of
Virgil falls infinitely short of Homer
place consider the actors. This is Ari- their variety and novelty, Æneas is itotle's method of considering, first the indeed a perfect character; but as for fable, and secondly the manners; or, as Achates, though he is stiled the hiero's we generally call them in English, the friend, he does nothing in the whole fable and the characters.
may deserve that title. Gyas, Homer has excelled all the heroic poets Mnestheus, Sergestus, and Cloanthus, that ever wrote in the multitude and va, are all of them men of the fame stamp riety of his characters: every god that and character. is admitted into his poem, acts a part – Forremque Gyan, fortemque Cloant bune which would have been suitable to no There are indeed several natural inci. other deity. His princes are as much dents in the part of Ascanius; as that distinguished by their manners, as by of Dido cannot be sufficiently admired, their dominions; and even those among I do not any thing new or particular them, whose characters seem wholly in Turnus. Pallas and Evander are inade up of courage, differ from one remote copies of Hector and Priam, as another as to the particular kinds of Lausus and Mezentius are almott paral. courage in which they excel. In fhort, lels to Pallas and Evander. The cha. there is scarce a speech or action in the racters of Nisus and Euryalus are beauIliad, which the reader may not ascribe tiful, but common. We must not forto the person that speaks or acts, with. get the parts of Sinon, Camilla, and oit seeing his name at the head of it. fome few others, which are fine im
Homer does not only outshine all provements on the Greek poet. In ether poets in the variety, but also in the short, there is neither that variety nor novelty of his characters. He has in- novelty in the persons of the Æneid, troduced among his Grecian princes a which we meet with in those of the Iliad, person who had lived thrice the age of If we look into the characters of Milman, and conversed with Theseus, Her- ton, we shall find that he has introduced cules, Polyphemus, and the first race of all the variety bis fable was capable of beroes. His principal actor is the son of receiving. The whole species of mana goddess, not to mention the offspring kind was in two pet fons at the time tą of other deities, who have likewise a which the fubject of his poem is conplace in his poem, and the venerable fined. We have, however, four dif'Trojan prince, who was the father of tinct characters in these two persons. so many kings and heroes. There is in We see man and woman in the highest thele leveral characters of Homer, a cero innocence and perfection, and in the tain dignity as well as novelty, which most abject state of guilt and infirmity. adapts them in a more peculiar manner The two laft characters are, indeed, to the nature of an heroic poem. Though very common and obvious; but the two at the same time, to give them the greater first are not only more magnificent, but variery, he has described a Vulcan, that more new than any chara&ters either in
a buffoon among his gods, and a Virgil or Homer, or indeed in the whole erfites among luis mortals,
circle of nature,
Milton was so sensible of this defect how has he represented the whole God. in the fubject of his poem, and of the head exerting itself towards man in it's few characters it would afford him, that full benevolence under the threefold dita he has brought into it two actors of tin&tion of a Creator, a Redeemner, and a shadowy and fictitious nature, in the a Comforter! persons of Sin and Death, by which Nor must we omit the person of R2means he has wrought into the body of phael, who, amidst his tenderness and his fable a very beautiful and well-in- friendship for man, thews fuch a dig. vented allegory. But notwithstanding nity and condescention in all his speecha the fineness of this allegory may atone and behaviour, as are suitable to a fufor it in some measure, I cannot think perior nature. The angels are indeed that persons of such a chimerical exist as much diversified in Milton, and dirence are proper actors in an epic poem; tinguished by their proper parts, as the because there is not that measure of pro gods are in Homer or Virgil. The bability annexed to them, which is re reader will find nothing ascribed to quisite in writings of this kind, as I shall Uriel, Gabriel, Michael, or Raphael, thew more at large hereafter.
which is not in a particular manner suitVirgil has, indeed, admitted Fame as able to their relpective characters. an actress in the Æneid, but the part There is another circumitance in the the acts is very hort, and none of the principal actors of the Iliad and Æneid, most admired circumstances in that di- which gives a peculiar beauty to those two vine work. We find in mock-heroic poems, and was therefore contrived with poems, particularly in the Dispensary very great judgment. I mean the auand the Lutrin, several allegorical per- thors having chosen for their heroes fons of this nature, which are very beau- persons who were so nearly related to tiful in those compositions, and may the people for whom they wrote. Achil. perhaps be used as an argument, that the les was a Greek, and Æneas the remote authors of them were of opinion such founder of Rome. By this means their characters might have a place in an epic countrymen, whom they principally prowork. For my own part, I should be pofed to themselves for their readers, glad the reader would think fo, for the were particularly attentive to all the parts fake of the poem I am now examining; of their story, and sympathized with and must further add, that if such empty their heroes in all their adventures. A unsubstantial beings may be ever made Roman could not but rejoice in the use of on this occalion, never were any escapes,succelles, and victories ofÆneas, more nicely imagined, and employed in and be grieved at any defeats, misfor more proper actions, than those of which
tunes, or disappointments that befel him; I am now speaking.
as a Greek must have had the same ree Another principal actor in this poem gard for Achilles. And it is plain that is the great enemy of mankind. The each of those poems have lost ihis great part of Ulysses in Homer's Odyssey is advantage, among those readers to whom very much admired by Aristotle, as per their heroes are as ftrangers, or indifplexing that fable with very, agreeable ferent persons. plots and intricacies, not only by the Milton's poem is admirable in this inany adventures in his voyage, and the respect, fince it is imposible for any of subtlety of his behaviour, but by the it's readers, whatever nation, country, various concealments and discoveries of or people he may belong to, not to be his person in several parts of that poem. related to the persons who are the prinBut the crafty being I have now men cipal actors in it; but what is still infitioned, makes a much longer voyage than nitely more to it's advantage, the prinUlyffes, puts in practice many more wiles cipal actors in this poem are not only and stratageins, and hides himself under
our progenitors, but our representatives, a greater variety of shapes and appear. We have an actual interest in every ances, all of which are severally detected, thing they do, and no less than our uia to the great delight and surprise of the most happiness is concerned, and lies at reader.
stake in all their behaviour. We may likewise observe with how
I fall subjoin as a corollary to the much art the poet has varied several cha- foregoing remark, an admirable observa. racters of the persons that speak in his tiun out of Aristotle, which hath been infernal afsembly. On the contrary, very much miliepreiented in the quota
tions of fome modern critics. 'If a ' are of the most perfect and consummate
man of perfect and confummate vir- virtue, it is not to be considered as what tue falls into a misfortune, it raises may poslibly be, but what actually is our pity, but not our terror, because our own cale; since we are embarked we do not fear that it may be our own with them on the same bottom, and must
case, who do not resemble the suffering be partakers of their happiness or mi• person.' But as that great philosopher sery. adds, ' If we lee a man of virtue mixt In this, and some other very few in.
with infirmities, fall into any misfor- stances, Aristotle's rules for epic poetry, tune, it does not only raise our pity which he had drawn from his reflections
but our terror; because we are afraid upon Homer, cannot be supposed to qua• that the like misfortunes may happen drate exactly with the heroic poems which
to ourlelves, who resemble the cha have been made since his time; fince it o jacter of the suffering person.' is plain bis rules would still have been
I thall take another opportunity to more perfect, could he have perused the observe, that a person of an absolute and Æneid which was made fome hundred consummate virtue should never be in
years after his death. troduced in tragedy, and shall only re In my next, I Mall go through other mark this place, that the foregoing parts of Milton's poem; and hope that observation of Aristotle, though it may what I shall there advance, as well as be true in other occasions, does not hold what I have already written, will not in this; because in the puesent case, though only serve as a comment upon Milton, the persons who fall into misfortune but upon Ariltotle.
No CCLXXIV. MONDAY, JANUARY 14.
AUDIRE EST OPERE PRETIUM, PROCEDIRE RECTL
HUR. SAT. II. LIB. 1. VER. 37.
occurred since I first took into my innocence, is committed by such as can thoughts the present state of fornication, only lay walte and not enjoy the soil. weighed with mytelf in behalf of guilty When you observe the present state of females, the impulses of Aesh and blood, vice and virtue, the offenders are fuch together with the arts and gallantries of as one would think should have no im. crafty men; and reflect with some scorn pulse to what they are pursuing; as in that inost
part of what we in our youth business, you see sometimes fools prethink gay and polite, is nothing elle but tend to be knaves, fo in pleafure, you an babit of indulging a pruriency that will find old men set up for wenchers. way. It will cost some labour to bring This latter sort of men are the great people to fo lively a sense of this, as to basis and fund of iniquity in the kind recover the manly modełty in the be we are speaking of: you shall have an haviour of my men readers, and the old rich man often receive scrawls from bashful grace in the faces of my women; the several quarters of the town, with but in all cases which come into debate, descriptions of the new wares in their there are certain things previously to be hands, if he will please to send word done before we can have a true light when he will be waited on, This in. into the subject matter; the: efore it will, terview is contrived, and the innocent is in the first place, be neceffary to confi- brought to fuch indecencies as from der the impotent wenchers and indus time to time banih shame and raise detrious hags, who are supplied with, and fire. With thefe preparatives the hags are conitantly supplying, new facrifices break their wards by little and little, to the devil of luit. You are to know until they are brought to lose all apprethen, if you are lo happy as not to know henhons of what thall befal them in the it already, that the great havock which possession of younger men. It is a com
inon poascript of a hag to a young fel they have to say for themselves for some low, whom the invites to a new woman incidents in their lives, in order to have - She has, I assure you, seen none proper allowances made for their conI but old Mr. Such-a-one.' It pleases duct. the old fellow that the nymph is brought to him unadorned, and from his bounty MR.SPECTATOR,
JAN. 5, 1711. he is accommodated with enough to THE fubject of your yesterday's pa. dress her for other lovers. This is the per is of so great importance, and most ordinary method of bringing beau. the ihorough handling of it may be for ty and poverty into the possession of the very useful to the preservation of many town: but the particular cases of kind an innocent young creature, that I think keepers, skilful pimps, and all others every one is obliged to furnish us with who drive a separate trade, and are not what lights he can, to expose the perniin the general society or commerce of cious arts and practices of those unnafin, will require diftinét consideration. tural women called bawds. In order At the same time that we are thus levere to this the inclosed is sent you, which is on the abandoned, we are to reprefent verbatim the copy of a letter written by the case of others with that mitigation a bawd of figure in this town to a noble 'as the circumstances demand. Calling lord. I have concealed the names of names does no good; to speak worse of both, iny intention being not to expose any thing than it deserves, does only the persons but the thing. I am, Sir, take off froin the credit of the accuser,
Your humble servant. and has implicitly the force of an apology in the behalf of the person acculed. We shall therefore, according as the cir I Having a great esteem for your hócumstances differ, vary our appellations nour, and a better opinion of you of these criminals: those who offend than of any of the quality, makes me only against themselves, and are not acquaint you of an affair that I hope scandals to society, but out of deference will oblige you to know. I have a to the sober part of the world, have so niece that came to town about a fortmuch good left in them as to be ashamed, night ago. Her parents being lately must not be huddled in the common dead, the came to me, expecting to have word due to the worst of women; but found me in so good a condition as to regard is to be had to their circum- set her up in a milliner's shop. Her fastances when they fell, to the uneasy ther gave fourscore pound with her for perplexity under which they lived under five years: her time is out, and she is senseless and severe parents, to the im not lixteen : as pretty a black gentleportunity of poverty, to the violence of woman as ever you saw, a little woman, a passion in it's beginning well ground. which I know your lordship likes: well ed, and all other alleviations which make maped, and as fine a complexion for unhappy womeo religu the characteristic red and white as ever I saw; I doubt not of their sex, modesty. To do otherwise but your lordihip will be of the same than this, would be to a&t like a pedantic opinion. She designs to go down about ftoic, who thinks all crimes alike, and a month hence, except I can provide not like an impartial Speétator, who for her, which I cannot at present: her looks upon them with all the circum- father was one with whom all he had stances that diminish or enhance the died with him, so there is four children guilt. I am in hopes, if this subject be left destitute; so if your lordship thinks well pursued, women will hereafter from fit to make an appointment where I shall their infancy be treated with an eye to wait on you with my niece, by a line or their future itate in the world; and not two, I stay for your answer; for I have have their tempers made too untractable no place fitted up fince I left my house, from an improper sourness or pride, or fit to entertain your honour. I told her too complying from familiarity or for me should go with me to see a gentle, wardness contracted at their own houses. man, a very good friend of mine; fo I After these hints on this subject, I shall desire you to take no notice of my letter, end this paper with the following ge. by reason the is ignorant of the ways
of guine letter; and desire all who think the to:vn. My lord, I desire if you they may be concerned in future spec!i meet us to come alone; for upon my lations on this subject, to send in what word and honour you are the first that