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kind can not be issued and when traveling on detached duty, male and female nurses on leave of absence, applicants for enlistment, male and female nurses on duty in hospitals, applicants for enlistment while held under observation, general prisoners sick in hospital, and enlisted men sick in hospital.
The CHAIRMAN. Everybody in the hospitals is subsisted by
Capt. Daly (interposing). By commutation by the Medical Department.
The CHAIRMAN. Out of your appropriation or out of the Medical Department appropriation? Capt. Daly. Out of our appropriation. REGULAR SUPPLIES, QUARTERMASTER CORPS.
(See p. 423.) The CHAIRMAN. For regular supplies for the Quartermaster Corps you are asking $163,917,925. There has been appropriated $115,250,000.
Capt. Daly. The items of soap, candles, and matches amount to $850,000; salt and vinegar for animals, $102,313. We can submit this detailed statement for the hearings if you want it, Mr. Chairman.
The CHAIRMAN. I want to get some general information first. This is based upon the need of the additional 1,000,000 men for one year.
Capt. Daly. Yes.
The CHAIRMAN. Now, you ask $18,000,000 for that part of the Army in excess of what you have asked for for the first 1,000,000 men.
Capt. DALY. That is due to cantonment construction and additional construction in connection with these troops.
The CHAIRMAN. Find out what it is. We gave you for the cantonment construction about $84,000,000,
Capt. Daly. Not out of regular supplies.
The CHAIRMAN. Maybe not, but if there is any part of this regular supply money being used for that purpose we want to know it.
Capt. Daly. Yes, sir. The estimate outside of construction purposes is $95,410,925. We have added to that $46,500,000 for a reserve stock of supplies, making a total of $141,910,925, being the amount of the estimate, independent of the construction item.
CONVERSION OF NATIONAL GUARD CAMPS INTO CANTONMENTS.
(See pp. 335, 501, 568, 904.)
The CHAIRMAN. What is the construction item?
Capt. Daly. Construction for heating and lighting barracks, extensions, 16 National Army cantonments, $700,000; heating and lighting depots of supplies at 16 National Army cantonments, $60,000; heating and lighting hospital buildings, 16 National Army cantonments, $1,690,000; electric lighting and power plants at camps for the National Guard, $800,000; heating and lighting for Coast Artillery troops, National Guard, $352,000; electric wiring, storehouses, Governors Island, $25,000; changing National Guard camps to cantonments, additional wiring and heating, $18,380,000. The original proposition in connection with the National Guard was for 10 encampments, with temporary mess shelters and latrines and shower
baths, the troops to be quartered in tents, which included the flooring. That was changed by authority from that sort of a tent camp to cantonment construction,
The CHAIRMAN. The Secretary stated yesterday that the National Guard would be in tents.
Capt. Daly. We submitted the estimate.
The CHAIRMAN. We asked him about it, and he said that the National Guard would be in tents.
Gen. SHARPE. Col. Littell had instructions to submit an estimate.
The CHAIRMAN. 'In the appropriation of $82,000,000 that was made for cantonments did we not include the heating and lighting of them?
Col. LITTELL. Yes, sir.
The CHAIRMAN. When we appropriated for the cantonments we appropriated for the heating and lighting?
Col. LITTELL. Yes, sir; the installation of limited heating and lighting apparatus.
The CHAIRMAN. $700,000 is requested for heating and lighting these cantonments?
Col. LITTELL. Yes, sir; the extensions to barracks.
Col. LITTELL. In the original estimates for the cantonments the companies were not 200 strong. They have increased the number of men in each company to 200. That makes the barracks larger.
The CHAIRMAN. They were designed to take care of a certain number of men?
Col. LITTELL. Yes, sir.
The CHAIRMAN. And whether you have the larger building or the smaller building, that would not affect the cost of lighting?
Col. LITTELL. In addition to that, it was decided that as these buildings were to be permanent and were to be a little better than the original cantonment
The CHAIRMAN (interposing). That would not affect the heating and lighting?
Col. LITTELL. Yes, sir; we would put in a little better heating and lighting.
The CHAIRMAN. What difference does it make in the character of the heating and lighting which has been decided upon as a result of making these more permanent ?
Col. LITTELL. The buildings are two-story buildings. They are larger and will accommodate a greater number of men.
The CHAIRMAN. If the buildings are to be larger and to accommodate a greater number of men, that would reduce the number of buildings originally contemplated?
Col. LITTELL. In a general way the original estimate was made for a million men. The CHAIRMAN. And you figured so much per man? Col. LITTELL. Yes, sir. The CHAIRMAX. That was based on the experience you have had? Col. LITTELL. Yes, sir.
The CHAIRMAN. It did not make any difference whether you had large buildings or small buildings, figuring on the unit price!
Col. LITTELL. We got those figures on the buildings that we had constructed on the border. We added a little to compensate for the difference in price, but we found that we did not add enough to meet modern conditions. In order to make these buildings habitable all the year round we have to line them, and we want to heat them by steam in order to reduce the fire risk to the very lowest limit. To heat by steam will not only reduce the fire risk but it will save fuel. Of course, the original installation will cost more than just putting in ordinary plain stoves.
The CHAIRMAN. Does not the fact that a number of the cantonments originally scheduled to be established in Northern States have been transferred to Southern States have a material effect upon the cost ! Col. LITTELL. In reducing the cost? The CHAIRMAN. Yes, sir.
Col. LITTELL. Not so much. of course we do not have to do so much lining in the Southern States. We put sheathing on and board over that and then put the weatherboard over that. In the Northern States we put a ceiling on the inside of the building.
The CHAIRMAN. Would not that add very materially to the cost!
Col. LITTELL. But in order to get all we have gotten out of this money, we have had to shift from one to the other.
The CHAIRMAN. Somebody ought to be able to give some kind of an explanation why this additional money is needed. You came here with carefully prepared figures based on years of experience and more recent experience and now you have not enough money. The mere fact that the buildings are larger does not help you, because in one sense that would reduce the cost, by eliminating a great number of buildings, and the fact that instead of building a number of these cantonments in the North, where you would have to make them more substantial, you will build them in the South, where there is a milder climate, would reduce the cost ?
Col. LITTELL. The buildings are larger and better, and the original estimates which we made provided for a plain wooden shack which was not enough. The medical people insist that we have 500 cubic feet of air space. Our original buildings had something less than 300 feet, about 287 feet, something like that. That is almost double.
The CHAIRMAN. Per man?
The CHAIRMAN. Did you have any serious illness there among the troops? Col. LITTELL. No; but they practically lived outdoors.
Everything was open there most of the time.
The CHAIRMAN. What do you have ordinarily in the barracks?
The CHAIRMAN. How was this basis in the neighborhood of 300 cubic feet determined?
Col. LITTELL. The original cantonments were gotten up to take the place of tents on the border. The troops down there were using three sets of tentage per year and it was found that by substituting wood we could save money. These buildings were designed to take the place of the tentage in the camps.
The CHAIRMAN. Were they built!
Col. LITTELL. Yes, sir; they were all the time complaining that the air space was not enough. In several instances the doctors in making their monthly inspection reports complained that the buildings were not large enough---roomy enough.
The CHAIRMAN. How was it, if those were in existence, estimates were submitted upon construction of that character?
Col. LITTELL. In order to keep the expense down.
The CHAIRMAN. You do not mean to ignore the advice of the Medical Department, merely to keep the expense down. Why do you not continue to ignore their advice now?
Col. LITTELL. We built some buildings of the same type at Fort Myer. The medical people objected to them as not being large enough, and finally after arguing with them they consented to pass those buildings, if we would put in certain changes in the way of ventilation. The medical people had a board, with Gen. Gorgas at the head, and they reported to the Surgeon General that we did not have air space enough.
The CHAIRMAN. Were those reports submitted to the Secretary of War?
Col. LITTELL. The monthly reports?
The CHAIRMAN. When were those reports in; before the estimates were submitted ?
Col. LITTELL. Yes, sir; some of them were. We had put up a number of these buildings since the estimates were made.
The CHAIRMAN. Before the estimates were submitted to Congress, was the type of building submitted to the Medical Department for its approval?
Col. LITTELL. Not the first ones. We submitted these plans to the medical people after the estimate was submitted to Congress.
The CHAIRMAN. Did they approve or disapprove?
Col. LITTELL. They made a number of suggestions as to improvements. They were all along the line of more air space and the need of getting more ventilation. For instance, the Surgeon General wanted the sides on hinges so they could be pushed out. The Surgeon General also recommended that instead of building these buildings we should build huts to accommodate six men. We, on our side, held that that would not do; that it was more like having a camp with
tents; that it would cost more in the end and spread it all over the face of the earth and make heating extremely difficult. Accordingly the plans of the present buildings were submitted to the Surgeon General. They objected to them as being too small.
After having a hearing with the medical board, we proposed one or two different plans to increase the air space, and one of the plans is for an extra building which will have two floors and will accommodate in each apartment about 30 men. They wanted not over 30 men in a room. They want to segregate them as much as possible so as to prevent the transmission of diseases like measles, colds, and things like that. We told them that we would make the plans to allow the air space in the cantonment building and an extra iwo-story building that would house these men and give them the necessary amount of air space by putting the overflow into these two buildings, giving each man 500 cubic feet of air space.
The CHAIRMAN. Can you prepare and send us a statement showing the location of these camps, the cost of each camp, and the number of men each camp will accommodate, the unit cost?
Col. LITTELL. We can only approximate the cost, because the camps are going to vary in cost. In some places they will cost a little more. We can give you that statement. We will not know what the unit cost is until they are finished, but we can tell you the final cost and come pretty close to the unit cost of some of the buildings.
The CHAIRMAN. And state briefly the conditions under which they are being constructed, the conditions of the contract.
Col. LITTELL. Yes, sir; I can prepare a statement of that kind.
HEAT AND LIGHT FOR CANTONMENTS.
The CHAIRMAN. Is the $700,000 for additional heating and lighting?
Gen. SHARPE. Capt. Marshall can explain that. Ile handles all the heating and lighting.
Capt. MARSHALL. That is for the heating and lighting of new extensions to the barracks buildings, being brought about by the fact that the original estimate was based upon 331 cubic feet of space per man and the Secretary having instructed us to submit estimates on barracks that would have 500 cubic feet per man. These are the extensions to the barracks we are now constructing, which will provide accommodations for 334 cubic feet per man, and we are instructed to submit an estimate to increase the barracks so that they will provide 500 cubic feet per man. The heating and lighting of these extensions will cost $700,000.
The CHAIRMAN. Do those extensions consist of additional buildings?
Capt. MARSIIALL. Separate buildings.
HEAT AND LIGHT FOR QUARTERMASTER DEPOTS.
The CHAIRMAN. $60,000 for heating and lighting quartermaster depots. What is the necessity for the additional sum?
Capt. MARSHALL. They are the quartermaster depots to be established at each cantonment. Each depot consists of 10 buildings, 10,000 square feet each, 100,000 square feet for the quartermaster depot at each cantonment.