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bills on the table now to pay, and have no money to pay them with or not enough money, and we ought to have some more.

The CHAIRMAN. You have a balance of $5,337.32, and you have approved accounts amounting to $11,802.48, making an actual deficiency of $6,465.16. Why do you estimate $12,000!

Mr. SOUTH. There will be coming in more telegraph bills that have not yet reached us--that is, bills that have not yet been submitted by the telegraph companies. I think they will be something like that amount, knowing the territory that they are coming from. You see, the telegraph companies collect these messages from all over the country and center them at the New York office.

The CHAIRMAN. Do you think they will run as high as $12,000?

Mr. South. Yes, sir; or very near it. They may be a few hundred dollars or a thousand dollars under that. This has been very much larger this year on account of the war.

FRIDAY, AUGUST 10, 1917.

PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS.

STATEMENT OF COL. W. W. HARTS, IN CHARGE.

PARK WATCHMEN, HIGHWAY BRIDGE AND PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD BRIDGE.

Mr. SHERLEY. You have an estimate “For additional park watchmen during the fiscal year 1918, at annual rates of compensation, as follows: Second sergeant of park watchmen, $900; 18 park watchmen for duty at the Highway Bridge and Pennsylvania Railroad bridge across the Potomac River, District of Columbia, at $840 each; in all, $16,020.”

Col. Harts. This is only for temporary use during the war, to replace the troops that are now just about to be removed. The purpose of this guard is to protect the highway bridge from injury. The present guarding of it has been intrusted to a battalion of militia until other guards can be provided, and I was informed just yesterday that it was the intention to take this battalion away without any further notice, and I was asked if any arrangements had been made to take over the guarding of this bridge by proper guards. I said an estimate had been presented to Congress, but no action had yet been taken on it. So this item is to replace the military who have been guarding this bridge ever since the entrance of the United States into the war. The number is explained by the fact that this bridge is a half mile long and cost over $1,000,000. We want 2 men at each end of the bridge and 2 men in the middle, in addition to the 2 guards provided under previous legislation for handling the traffic; that will make 6 men, and for three shifts will be 18 men, and i sergeant to take care of the men, making 19 men in all.

Mr. SHERLEY. You will have eight men on the bridge, will you?

Col. Harts. We have now four watchmen, all told; one on duty during rush hours and one each eight hours during all the rest of the day; that makes a total of four men under present arrangements. We have likewise four men who have charge of opening the draw, one man on duty during rush hours and one man each eight hours on duty during the rest of the day. You see, we have eight-hour shifts, so that during rush hours we have two men who attend to opening the draw and two men watching the traffic.

Mr. SHERLEY. You expect to have eight men under this arrangement?

Col. HARTS. Eighteen men.
Mr. SHERLEY. Eight men for each of the shifts?

Col. Harts. No; there will be six men on duty-two men on the bridge and two at each end.

Mr. SHERLEY. But you are asking for 18 men now?
Col. HARTS. Yes, sir.
Mr. SHERLEY. And you already have a certain number there?

Col. Harts. Yes; those men are necessary to handle the traffic and handle the draw.

Mr. SHERLEY. They will also be on guard?

Col. Harts. Yes, sir; during the rush hours of the day; there will be in all under the proposed plan seven men on duty all the time and one additional man during the rush hours.

Mr. SHERLEY. And then a second sergeant?
Col. HARTs. Yes, sir.

Mr. SHERLEY. Do you know whether any plan is in contemplation looking to the creation of any sort of military force for doing work such as this and other work in connection with the protection of property that has recently been done by the troops!

Col. Harts. No, sir.
Mr. SHERLEY. Any sort of a home guard ?

Col. HARTS. No, sir: I have had no information at all about that. The only information I have came to-day to the effect that the White House guard, composed of artillery from one of the lower forts, is to be sent back and a battalion of New York Militia sent down. Whether that order is more comprehensive than for the White House, I have not heard.

Mr. SHERLEY. If it was, it might embrace the guarding of this bridge?

Col. HARTS. Yes, sir.

Mr. SHERLEY. It would be more desirable to have men in the military service do this work than guards, would it not!

Mr. Harts. I think it would, if force is to be resisted. A military sentinel, furthermore, is usually more promptly obeyed than a watchman.

Mr. CANNON. What bridge is this?

Col. Harts. The old Civil War Long Bridge from Potomac Park across the river.

Mr. Canxon. There is a highway bridge and a railroad bridge.
Col. ILARTS. Yes, sir.
Mr. Cunox. Have you charge of both of them?

Col. Harts. No, sir; this only contemplates taking care of the Government bridge, the Long Bridge: the railroad company is guarding its own bridge.

Mr. Casson. This is the Highway Bridge over which the street cars rin!

Col. IIARTS. Yes, sir.

Mr. Byrns. This is a combination bridge?
Col. HARTS. Yes, sir; for street cars and other traffic.
Mr. Byrys. Does the Government own the entire bridge ?
Col. HARTS. Yes, sir.

Mr. Byrns. That portion of it on which the tracks of the Pennsylvania Railroad Co. are laid ?

Col. Harts. No, sir; that is not the bridge I refer to; that bridge is not a combination bridge, but is used exclusively by the railroad company.

Mr. BYRNS. This says “ For duty at the Highway Bridge and the Pennsylvania Railroad bridge.”

Col. Harts. The point is this: The ends of these two bridges are near enough together to be protected together; those two men required for guarding the shore ends will protect the base of the Pennsylvania bridge incidentally as well as the base of the Highway Bridge, but the railway tracks are guarded by watchmen of the Pennsylvania Railroad Co., and those watchmen are on their pay roll, not ours. We will have to guard our bridge in the same way; but the two men we want to put at the end of the Highway Bridge will take care of the shore ends of both the Pennsylvania Railroad bridge and the Highway Bridge.

Mr. Cannon. On both sides of the river?
Col. HARTS. Yes, sir.

Mr. CANNON. As a matter of fact, railway bridges everywhere in the District and everywhere else are guarded at the expense of the railroads?

Col. Harts. Yes, sir. I understand so.

Mr. Cannon. And this is for the bridge that the Government owns ?

Col. HARTS. Yes, şir.

Mr. Byrns. If these watchmen at the end of this Highway Bridge were not required to watch the Pennsylvania Railroad bridge, would you need the same number of men?

Col. Harts. I would hesitate to reduce this number because we would need to have more or less guarding both up and down the stream from the ends of the bridge; we should have men far enough up the stream to be able to see the shore line as far as possible both up and down the stream.

Mr. Byrns. The question that arose in my mind was that this would indicate we intended taking over the guarding of the railroad bridges of the country.

Col. Harts. No, sir; that is not the idea.

Mr. BYRNS. And if any of these watchmen were to be employed for the purpose of guarding the railroad bridge then the railroad company should be required to pay for it rather than the Government, and that we should not make a distinction in favor of this bridge for one railroad company.

Col. Harts. No; there is no such purpose as that.

Mr. SHERLEY. If the words “ Pennsylvania Railroad Bridge” were stricken out, it would not change the situation ?

Col. HARTS. No; that would not alter our requirements. I would not recommend making any change in the number of men asked for.

PURCHASE AND REPAIR OF BICYCLES AND REVOLVERS.

Mr. SHERLEY. Then you have an item “For purchase and repair of bicycles and revolvers for park watchmen and for purchase of ammunition, $316."

Col. HARTS. Yes, sir.

PURCHASING AND SUPPLYING UNIFORMS.

Mr. SHERLEY. And also an item “ For purchasing and supplying uniforms to park, monument, and bridge watchmen, $950."

Col. Harts. Yes, sir. That is to provide the same outfit as for our ordinary park police; this is exactly at the same rate.

Mr. SHERLEY. And are tied to the park watchmen item?
Col. HARTS. Yes, sir.

Mr. SHERLEY. So that if this is allowed, those items should be carried, and if it is not allowed, they should not be carried!

Col. Harts. That is right; yes, sir; it is all a part of the same thing

Mr. CANNON. This would not be a part of the police force?

Col. Harts. No, sir; these are just temporary guards for watching this bridge; it is under the park police organization, but it is not a part of the city police force.

Mr. SHERLEY. And not under the municipal police force ?

Col. Harts. No; the park police are under my charge and these men would come under my charge in the same way.

Mr. SHERLEY. But Mr. Cannon's question and your answer would indicate that it was a part of the police system?

Col. HARTS. No, sir; that meaning was not intended.

Mr. SHERLEY. That is under the District of Columbia Commissioners, while these men are directly under you?

Col. HARTS. Yes, sir; these men are not a part of the Metropolitan police force.

FRIDAY, AUGUST 10, 1917.

WASHINGTON AQUEDUCT. STATEMENT OF COL. W. L. FISK, UNITED STATES ARMY, RETIRED.

ADDITIONAL GUARDS.

(See p. 714.)

Mr. SHERLEY, Colonel, there is an item here in connection with the Washington Aqueduct, “For operation, including salaries of all necessary employees, maintenance, and repair of Washington Aqueduct and its accessories, McMillian Park Reservoir, Washington Aqueduct Tunnel, the Filtration Plant, the plant for the preliminary treatment of the water supply, authorized water meters on Federal services, vehicles, and for each and every purpose connected therewith, $70,000, to be paid out of the revenues of the Water Department." The note indicates that this is for the purpose of hiring additional guards for the protection of the aqueduct in view of the withdrawal of the troops that have been guarding the aqueduct.

Col. Fisk. Yes, sir.
Mr. SHERLEY. Will you just state what you desire?

Col. Fisk. The War Department sent down word that they were going to remove the troops, and I received orders to organize a guard and take charge of it. In doing that we picked out the critical parts of the aqueduct--that is to say, points at which repairs could not be made within our limit of water storage. Those we guard pretty carefully and continuously right along. There are large parts of the aqueduct where repairs could be made and where we could get along before there would be any danger of a water famine.

Mr. SHERLEY. How many guards have you now?

Col. Fisk. We have an organization of about 84; that covers a line of about 9 miles and some pumping stations, besides, which have been erected for the pumping out of the tunnel.

Mr. SHERLEY. How many of them are watchmen and how many are sergeants?

Col. FISK. They are only doing that work.

Mr. SHERLEY. I understand that; but there are some men who are acting as sergeants, are there not?

Col. Fisk. Well, we have an assistant superintendent who has been with the waterworks for a long time, and he has been assigned to this particular branch of the service supervising these guards.

Mr. SHERLEY. These men are just guards?
Col. Fisk. They are just guards; yes, sir.
Mr. SHERLEY. What do you pay them?
Col. Fisk. We pay them $60 a month.
Mr. SHERLEY. Are they in uniform?

Col. Fisk. No; but they have badges; they are sworn in as United States marshals, those outside of the District, by the United States marhsal in Baltimore; and they have regular badges showing their authority, and so on; they are also armed with revolvers.

Mr. SHERLEY. Do you supply their aris?

Col. Fisk. The Ordnance Department furnished me the extra arms; the department had some, and the Ordnance Department supplied me with the number necessary to supply those who could not be supplied from our equipment, but every man does not have a revolver.

Mr. SUERLEY. They are paid $720 a year?
Col. FISK. Yes, sir.
Mr. SHERLEY. And your estimate of $70,000 is to cover that?

Col. Fisk. That; and there has been certain equipment which it has been thought they ought to have. For instance, we tho!ight they ought to have something in the way of raincoats, and protection of that kind, and we bought a certain number of those, only enough to equip the people who are actually on posts. Mr. SHERLEY. At what expense was that?

Col. Fisk. I do not remember the figures on that, but some hundreds of dollars--two or three hundred dollars.

Mr. SHERLEY. Eighty-four guards at $720 apiece annually would he $60,480, which would leave a net of $9.520.

VEITICLES FOR INSPECTIOX.

Col. Fisk. Another item in that was horses and buggies for patrol work; that is to say, a certain number of men must make an inspec

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