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labor laws and the necessity of extending the sections of the law to cover occupations wherein the health of the worker is affected by reason of long hours, and in many cases the safety of the public is dependent upon these employees.
An investigation was undertaken into the printing industry by a special investigator assisted by a medical inspector, and shows in many cases a vast improvement in the sanitary conditions of the printing shops.
An investigation of the lead foil industry by a special investigator and medical inspector was completed. This is a small industry and could be listed under the dangerous trades, owing to the exposure of the operatives to lead poison, both men and women being employed. Medical supervision of the workers should also be made obligatory.
Preliminary survey of the manufacture of stogies in Greater New York was undertaken, and showed that the industry was carried on principally in tenement houses and in many cases under unsanitary conditions. In these cases the power of the Department is limited and it is necessary for the various local departments having control of dwellings as well as the Federal Department of the Interior to co-operate with the Department of Labor in order to protect not only the health of the workers engaged in this industry, but the health of the general public.
A preliminary survey of the glass industry was undertaken by a special investigator and medical inspectors. This included both the manufacture of glass, and the art glass industry, which handles the manufactured product.
The result of the survey shows the necessity of special regulations covering this industry owing to the danger existing, and the necessity for removing dangerous dust, fumes, gases and vapors generated during the process of manufacture. The principal danger is from lead poisoning, the exception being that of the manufacturer of ordinary bottle glass. The investigation into this industry is being continued.
An investigation was made of the fireworks industry, which is a small one and scattered throughout the State. A large numjer of young women and girls is employed in certain departments of the fireworks, and owing to the use of poisonous and irritating materials, they are exposed to grave danger as well as danger of fire and explosion. Again, the character of the work is such as to induce fatigue, as many of the employees are engaged in piece-work. Special regulations should be promulgated with reference to this industry.
A survey of the trolley and railway lines of the State has been begun, in connection with which an investigation of the women employed as ticket agents at night upon one of the elevated lines was undertaken by the female medical inspector. In this connection investigation showed that while the female workers in many instances were content with their lot, they were not being employed under the best sanitary conditions, but in this case the Department has no jurisdiction. This investigation is being continued.
A survey of a number of laundries was undertaken upon request of the Industrial Board. In this case a number of physical examinations were made by the female medical inspector and atmospheric analyses undertaken by the chemical engineer for the purpose of submitting data to the Industrial Board with relation to ventilation.
A number of special investigations were made with reference to explosions in dyeing and cleaning establishments, accidents and poisonings.
Medical Section The medical section consists of the chief medical inspector, two male medical inspectors and a female medical inspector. There was also assigned to the section a male factory inspector who is likewise a physician. One male medical inspector was assigned to the Albany office to cover the Second Factory Inspection District, the remainder being attached to the New York office. The work of the section was devoted principally to investigating reports of occupational diseases, making physical examinations in connection with the preliminary surveys being undertaken, and reporting upon complaints and references, especially where it was a question of the health of the worker being affected by dangerous or poisonous materials or unsanitary conditions. In this connection work was done for the Divisions of Factory Inspection, Mercantile Inspection, and the Bureau of Industries and Immigration. While there is no authority for the medical inspectors to make physical examinations of adults, 1,157* examinations of this character were made by the inspectors with the consent of the workers themselves. By this means many cases of industrial poisoning were discovered which had not been seen by a physician and were not reported to the Department, emphasizing in many instances the need of obligatory medical supervision in many industries, and authority for the medical inspectors to report to the Statistical Bureau such cases of industrial poisonings found in the factories. During the course of investigation of occupational diseases reported to the Department, 242+ physical examinations were made. In several instances it developed that the cases as reported were not truz cases. Whenever possible, the physician or hospital making the report was consulted by the medical inspector, thus creating a better feeling between the physicians and the Department. It is apparent that many of the physicians and most of the hospitals and dispensaries are still unaware of the existence of the section requiring reporting of occupational diseases to this Department.
As a result of the visits of the medical inspectors, the fact is apparent of the large decrease in the employment of children under sixteen years of age in certain industries. This is due undoubtedly to the stringent sections of the law and the authority granted the Department to examine such children and if necessary cancel the working certificate.
Owing to the resignation of the female medical inspector, the special work of investigating women and children in the industries was held in abeyance until the appointment of a new female medical inspector. In order to secure reliable statistical data with relation to occupational diseases, each medical inspector has been assigned to make a personal study and research of a subject relating to occupational disease or poisoning, rendering a report of their findings and recommendations.
The work of the medical section shows the necessity for the medical inspection of factories, but in order to do effective work for the purpose of securing statistics of value, it is necessary to
* These were in the following industries: clothing 62, lead foil 22, tin cans 10, compressed air work 6, laundries 139, cigars 8, glass 682, printing and publishing 161, electro-chemical industries 67.
† These were in the following industries: willow ware 3, lead smelting 17, stationery goods 150, electrical goods 1, brass goods 7, copper refining 1, paints and colors 10, hospital 1, plating and polishing 1, calico print works 16, printing 1, electric power house 2, phosphorus 1, feather pillows 1, women's wear 30.
equip the medical inspectors with a special outfit. I would re. spectfully recommend that an appropriation be made to provide the medical inspectors with bags and instruments necessary for making complete physical examinations, including blood tests.
Tunnel Inspection At present the greater part of the tunnel work is confined to the lower end of Manhattan with a few jobs in the Borough of Brooklyn, Greater New York City, so that the two tunnel inspectors spent their time principally in the First Factory Inspection District. So far the law merely covers tunnel work. As pointed out by the tunnel inspectors, there is no jurisdiction where cutand-cover work is carried on, and yet there is just as much need of supervision and issuance of safety orders as in the tunnel work. Attention is called to the increase of accident reports, but as is pointed out, this is not due to an actual increase in accidents, but a more careful reporting of accidents. It is interesting to note that the number of fatalities have decreased. Attention is also drawn to the fact that while the accidents of compressed air work are apparently high in proportion to the number employed, many of these accidents occur in other work over which the Department has no jurisdiction, emphasizing the need of the Department having authority to inspect cut-and-cover work as well as tunnel work.
Accidents While the mechanical engineer has supervised the investigation of a certain number of accidents, it had been the purpose to have all accidents reported investigated and tabulated. Owing to the vacancy in the position, this has not been carried out. An examination of the accident reports shows that many of them should have been reported as occupational diseases, namely cases of anthrax and compressed air illness. Where this has occurred, the physicians and employers have been notified and the cases investigated by the medical inspectors. As a result of the visits of the medical inspectors and investigators, it has been shown that the use of goggles or shields is necessary to prevent injuries to the eyes from fine particles and glaring lights, but owing to the absence of regulation by the Industrial Board covering this, the Inspection Bureau is unable to issue orders.
The subject of general ventilation has been held in abeyance until standards have been set by the Industrial Board, for it would be impossible for the Factory Division to sustain any orders issued under this heading even if based upon the results obtained through investigation of the technical members of the Division of Industrial Hygiene. The question of handling dusts, and in many instances fumes and vapors, has become simplified through the issuance of specifications covering exhaust systems and tests being made after installation. There is still some difficulty in securing compliance where acids are used in pickling and plating.
Fire Prevention With the operation of the new sections of the law concerning fire exits and occupancy, routine matters occupied so much of the time during the few months that have elapsed, that special research work under the supervision of the fire prevention engineer has been delayed. Where fires and explosions have occurred, an endeavor has been made to ascertain the cause, the fire prevention engineer and chemical engineer working together, and during the preliminary surveys the questions of fire hazard were referred to the fire prevention engineer for consideration. Special investigations are planned for the study of fire hazard in industries where inflammable and explosive materials are used with a view toward making recommendations for minimizing or eliminating such hazards.
While the Department possesses a laboratory at the New York office, it has become necessary to secure facilities in the upper part of the State to expedite investigations. Through the courtesy of the University of Rochester, the Department had the gratuitous use of a small research laboratory in the chemical building. This has been of great aid during the course of the investigation in the electro-chemical industry. Owing to the large