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and are assigned by him to the experts; all reports of the attaches of the Division to be submitted to the director; where references are sent directly to the experts by other bureaus and divisions of the Department or outside sources, a carbon copy of reply thereto should be sent to the director for filing.

Assignments.-In New York office one special investigator each to chemical engineer, mechanical engineer, civil engineer, fire prevention expert, and director; one male and one female medical inspector. One investigator at following sub-offices: Albany, Utica, Rochester, Buffalo; one medical inspector to cover the State outside of Greater New York. One investigator special for Italian work. One investigator special for colored laborers. One investigator special for railroad work.

(B) REPORT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEER

Dr. C. T. GRAHAM-ROGERS, Director, Division of Industrial

Hygiene: SIR.— I hereby submit my report as chemical engineer of the Division of Industrial Hygiene for the year ending September 30, 1914.

I was appointed as acting chemical engineer on April 3, 1914, and on June 16, 1914, to the position of chemical engineer, and assigned to the Division of Industrial Hygiene.

Having performed for the Department a large amount of chemical, bacteriological and biological work, both in the laboratory in the possession of the Department, and in those whose use was granted to the Department by the St. Bartholomew's Clinic of East 42d street, Manhattan, New York City, also the Rochester University of Rochester, prior to my appointment while connected with the Bureau of Inspection. I was thoroughly familiar with all of the apparatus and methods possessed by the Department, and was therefore in a position to almost immediately begin work along scientific lines for the Division.

The first few weeks were taken up in assisting in organizing the Division, attending to various prosecution cases in connection with my former work with the Department, and placing the laboratory in condition for scientific work, both in it and in the field.

The present laboratory, possessed by the Department, is located on the sixth floor of the sub-office, 381 Fourth avenue. While far from complete for the needs imposed upon it, it contains a considerable number of valuable scientific instruments, expensive chemicals and general chemical apparatus. To successfully carry out certain work along scientific lines, it requires the use of suit

able additional apparatus, of which a portable photometer, and an electroscope seem the most urgent. These instruments of which the laboratory is in great need are now on the market, together with a suitable apparatus for bacteria work. The expense of carrying on this laboratory in replenishing chemicals, glassware and other minor accessories, has rarely exceeded $3 per month, excluding the use of gas.

A large number of analytical determinations, both qualitative and quantitative, have been made upon the request of both the Director and physicians attached to the 6th grade.

During the period between April 3rd and September 10th, a large amount of my work consisted in field work, in which 112 visits were made to factories and mercantile establishments for the purpose of making chemical analyses of air where certain volatile substances were determined and found present in harmful quantities, resulting in the issuance of orders with compliances, others of which are pending.

In the absence of a mechanical engineer, a considerable number of problems were placed with me relative to the guarding of machinery, operation of exhaust systems and in being consulted by a number of inspectors at the sub-office regarding the poisonous nature of certain chemicals used in factories, relative to the necessity of issuing orders to provide hot water, individual towels, suitable places in which employees may take their meals, besides passing upon certain ventilating devices and lighting problems.

At the request of a few of the supervising inspectors, also medical inspectors, I photographed a number of machines, guards, sanitary and unsanitary conditions to illustrate the needs along certain lines in the reports they made, besides adding materially to our present collection of safety and sanitary devices, which has proven useful in the past to inspectors in the Department, and others who are desirous of bettering conditions.

A number of investigations have been started to determine the dangerous conditions surrounding workers in various trades, two of which have been completed, namely, the tinfoil industry, which is limited to four factories within the State, and the electro-chemical industry, covering fourteen factories, located at Niagara Falls, N. Y. Investigations of fireworks and laundries, also powder works, have not been completed on account of their syclopean scope and lack of time, besides the lack of certain apparatus for scientific study.

The pamphlet on the methods of disinfecting places occupied by latrines, trough water closets and school sinks was prepared, besides representing the Department at various fire tests of resisting material, conducted at the testing station, Norman avenue and Russell street, Brooklyn, N. Y.

The investigation of the cause of explosion occurring at the Columbia Dyeing and Cleaning Company of 530 Grand street, Borough of Manhattan, consumed considerable time to determine the cause, which was finally found, resulting in the beginning of an investigation of the cause of similar explosions and fire hazards surrounding the dyeing and cleaning industry besides other places where benzine and volatile liquids are employed in large quantities.

A complete analysis was made of water supplied by the proprietors of factories to their employees in New York, which was alleged to be contaminated, besides analyses of a number of samples of urine of persons whom it was reported to the Department were suffering from plumbism.

Wall and floor dust and dust contained in factory air was analyzed, which could not have been done without a laboratory, such as we now possess.

The appended table indicates the number and character of industries in which various tests were made:

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(C) REPORT OF TUNNEL INSPECTORS Dr. C. T. GRAHAM-ROGERS, Director, Division of Industrial

Hygiene: SIR.— Herewith is submitted the annual report of tunnel and caisson inspection for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1914. As in the preceeding years, the work in the State was divided geographically into a northern and a southern section, the inspectors alternating their supervision in each district every three months. Due to the gradual reduction of this class of construction work in the counties north of New York City, and the increase of work in Greater New York, the line of division was through 106th street, Manhattan. The northern section therefore comprised all the work in the State and Manhattan north of this line, also Queens; and the southern section, all the work south of this line in Manhattan, also Kings and Richmond counties.

The work consisted of hard rock tunnels driven from deep shafts, some soft ground tunnels, cut and cover subway work and pneumatic caissons for building and bridge foundations. Portions of two of the subway sections were for a time driven with compressed air, but the pressures were low, never reaching more than 16 pounds per square inch. In all, 61 tunnels or sections of tunnels were regularly inspected, an increase of 5 over the preceding year; together with 7 pneumatic caisson contracts, comprising work on 128 caissons, a decrease of 2 such contracts from the preceding year. An average of 14,075 men were employed distributed as shown in the appended tables, a slight increase over the preceding year when 13,805 men were employed.

The yearly total of regular inspections amounted to 147, together with 194 observations and 65 visits on compliance with orders issued. This is to be compared with 125 inspections and 188 observations for the preceding year.

Accidents have been divided into four groups to correspond with the groups into which the construction work is divided, and then tabulated according to causes and length of disability. This new departure entailed a considerable amount of extra work, so arrangements have been made whereby such tabulations of the accidents occurring on each individual contract will be compiled monthly by the Division of Industrial Accidents and Diseases. Such monthly reports, showing the nature and the general trend of the causes of the accidents on each separate contract, will aid considerably in the accident prevention work of this Departinent. The number of accidents reported has for the last three years been steadily increasing, although the number of men employed has remained about the same. This is not alarming, for as foretold in the last annual report, this increase was bound to come with the better reporting of accidents by the various firms.

Yet, as the number of reported accidents have steadily increased, the number of fatalities have steadily decreased. The total number of accidents reported was 7,014, divided into periods of disability as follows: 1 day or less, 3,380; over 1 to 14 days, 2,991; 14 days and over, 599; fatal, 44. Following is a comparison with two preceding years :

Accidents reported.
Fatalities...

1911-12
4,889

70

1912-13
5,719

65

1913-14 7,014

44

In the accident tabulations, those accidents with length of disability of 1 day or less have not been divided into causes, because of the fact that only about one half of the firms report such slight accidents. It is obvious that on work of this character there are bound to be a very large number of slight injuries, the reporting of which indifferently, as they ever will be reported, is of no use either statistically or from a preventative standpoint. It is suggested that a rule be established permitting the nonreporting of such accidents in which loss of time is only for the remainder of the shift in which person was injured or less. It will be noticed that in the pneumatic caisson accident tabulations the total number of accidents reported is high when compared with the number of men working in that branch of construction. This is because of the fact that while this Department has jurisdiction only over the compressed air work on these contracts, and therefore reports only the number of men working in or directly in connection with compressed air, the accident reports for the entire contract are received, which always contains other work not under our jurisdiction.

During the year the tunnel inspectors appeared before the New York State Factory Investigating Committee, and submitted briefs suggesting changes in article IX of the Labor Law.

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