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“ There was no defense entered to the action as far as the facts were concerned, the defendant through its Attorney and President frankly admitting the employment of the women in question 1212 hours a day and their defense was one of sympathetic appeal to the jury and justification by the large amount of beans delivered to them on the day in question. The Attorney for the defendant also before the jury argued against the constitutionality of the law, which argument I met in my summing up to no avail.”

The other case was not tried and was pending at the end of the fiscal year. On October 7, the case was dismissed at the request of the Department's counsel in view of the unfavorable decision in the previous case, and the prevailing local sentiment. The following extract from a local newspaper indicates the defense of the company as to the employment of children under 14 years of age, and apparently indicates, also, the prevailing attitude of the community towards such employment.

“ The contention of the company is that in thus employing these children it is not violation of any law. The rules of the company are that no children are to snip beans in the tent under 10 years of age. Children from 10 to 16 do snipping in the tent

. and those from 10 to 14 are supposed to be in the care of parents or other older persons. The tent does not open for work until 8 o'clock in the morning and closes at 5 o'clock in the afternoon and the children come and go as they please and such assistance is rendered that the children do not have to handle in any way beans outside of the tent. The children and their parents are desirous of their doing this light work, sitting down and protected from the sun and weather by the tent, and the parents prefer these children to be so employed during part of the vacation time rather than have them playing in the streets as many of them would be, and the company says that the tent is entirely removed from all factory conditions. The company also states that, except for the assistance which is thus rendered by children from 10 to 16 years of age, quite a part of the raw material would either go to waste or materially deteriorate in quality.

“ In the discussion of this matter in the past, the company says that many certificates have been presented signed by those best qualified to speak, that the employment of children 10 to 14 years of age upon this light, open-air work, coming and going as they please, is beneficial rather than otherwise and the earnings as a rule, are used for school books, clothing, etc.”

One prosecution was brought for employment of a girl under 16 years of age in excess of 8 hours per day. The trial was held before a justice of the peace. The defendant was found guilty and a fine of $20 was imposed. It may be noted that the date on which this violation occurred was May 19.

The most notable general fact in connection with these prosecutions is the almost universal result of failure to secure convictions not for lack of evidence of violations, but owing to the successful reliance of the canners upon local sentiment in their favor with which magistrates and juries were in sympathy or to which they bowed. A striking illustration not only of this local opinion but also of the fact that pains are taken to cultivate such sentiment is to be seen in the following reprints of circulars prepared in 1912, but picked up by inspectors in 1914 in the two communities where the most extensive violations of the child labor law were found. The first five of these were found in one place, the remainder in the other.

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DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION,

N. Y.
OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS

N. Y., February 26, 1912.
To Whom It May Concern:
This is to certify that I,

have been superintendent of the public schools of

New York, since the summer of 1909, and that I,

have been the attendance officer of such schools during the last seventeen years. That during the term of my said service, I have always found the

of said city willing to co-operate with us in enforcing the Compulsory Education Law and so far as I know or have ever heard no children of the school age have been employed by said company to their knowledge after the beginning of the school year during any year of my relation to said schools as mentioned.

One of the material reasons advanced by parents of many children of the school age as to why the children do not attend school is that such parents are unable to supply their children with proper shoes, clothing and school books, in some instances keeping the children out of school rather than make the necessary application entitling them to the free book privilege.

The money paid by said company for stringing beans each season is of material assistance to a great many families in

including the school children in such families and, excepting for the money so earned by the children under fourteen years of age, many children would be less regular in attendance at school. It would be of serious loss and disadvantage to said children and many others if said children were to be deprived of said source of employment.

I have never heard of any children engaged in bean stringing by said company experiencing physical disadvantage by reason of said employment, and I believe that children from ten to fourteen years of age and even many younger than ten when accompanied by their parents are better off than otherwise by reason of being employed as mentioned.

(Signed)

Superintendent of Schools. (Signed)

Attendance Officer.

BOARD OF CHARITIES

N. Y., February 26, 1912. To Whom It May Concern: This is to certify that I,

have been superintendent of charities of the city of

for the past six years. An important part of my work among the poor of the city is the investigation of their surroundings, circumstances and means of support. In these investigations I have had frequent occasion to see the condition surrounding the children under fourteen years of age at the

bean sheds, of this city, in the stringing of beans, and have yet to hear of any detrimental surroundings or overwork in this industry, and find that the sums earned by the children are in many cases sufficient to cover the narrow margin between the family self-supporting and the family that is a public charge. Should these people be obliged to forego the employment of their children in this manner it would render it necessary for many of them to receive public aid. I would consider any action that interfered with this employment of these children to be a hardship not only to their parents but for the children themselves. The employment of women and children over sixteen years in the factory proper is of still greater help in placing many families among the self-supporting, and I have yet to hear of any injury done them through sometimes long hours of labor.

Superintendent of Charities.

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N. Y., February 26, 1912. To Whom It May Concern: This is to certify that I,

N. Y., and am city missionary, clerk board charity, probation officer, superintendent boys' club and secretary of the -- branch of the Humane Society. I have acted in some of said capacities in the city of ing shed of the

reside at

during the last seventeen years, and have been in the bean string.

Company, in said city, and have observed the women and children working there stringing beans. I consider said employment of children ten to fourteen years of age as being beneficial to them rather than otherwise, and from a pecuniary standpoint the money so earned is of very material assistance to a large number of families in said city in the way of purchasing school books, clothing, shoes and, oftentimes, other family requirements, and excepting for such source of revenue there are many children in the city who would not be able to attend school or at least as much as they do now - excepting by receiving financial assistance from the charity department of said city. I never have heard of any children engaged in bean stringing by said company experiencing physical disadvantage by reason of said employment.

City Missionary.

N. Y., February 26, 1912. To Whom It May Concern: This is to certify that I,

am president of the Society of

county. The work of our society is very largely in the prevention of cruelty and abuse of children either by overwork or by improper surroundings and treatment in their homes or in any place where they may be employed. Only children under sixteen years of age come under our jurisdiction and I am informed by our superintendent that for the past six years in which he has been engaged in this work, he has received no complaints of children receiving anything but the best of care while working in the bean sheds of the

Company of this city, and an examination of the records of complaints prior to his administration gives no such cases. I believe that the employment of children under the circumstances surrounding them in this factory in the bean sheds, to be of decided advantage to the children involved.

President

Society of

County.

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BOARD OF HEALTH
OFFICE OF THE HEALTH OFFICER

N. Y., February 26, 1912.
To Whom It May Concern:
This is to certify that I,

reside at

N. Y., and have been a practicing physician for about fifteen years and during the last ten years of that time have been practicing in

and during the last four years of such time have been health officer of the city of

I consider the employment of children ten to fourteen years of age and many under that age, especially when accompanied by their parents, when engaged in bean stringing in the sheds of the

during vacation time, as physically beneficial rather than otherwise, and in my experience I know that the money so earned is of material assistance to

.

children, and the families of which such children are members, in the way of purchasing school books, shoes, clothing, and other necessities. I have never heard of any one who has been employed by said company either in the factory or in the sheds - as being injured by reason of working in the sheds or as a result of working sometimes long hours in the factory proper.

Health Officer.

OFFICE OF SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS

N. Y., February 27, 1912. To Whom It May Concern: This is to certify that I,

have been superintendent of the public schools of

since August 1, 1909. That during the term of my said service I have always found the

of said city willing to co-operate with us in enforcing the Compulsory Educational Law, and so far as I know, or have ever heard, no children of the school age have been employed by said company to their knowledge after tlc beginning of the school year during any year of my relation to said schools as mentioned.

One of the material reasons advanced by parents of many children of the school age as to why the children do not attend school is that such parents are unable to supply their children with proper shoes, clothing and school books, in some instances keeping the children out of school rather than making requisition either upon the poor or school authorities.

The money paid by said company for stringing beans each season is of material assistance to a great many families in

including the school children in such families, and, excepting for the money so earned by the children under fourteen years of age, many children would be less regular in attendance at school. It would be of serious loss and disadvantage to said children and many others if said children were to be deprived of said source of employment.

I have never heard of any children engaged in bean stringing by said company experiencing physical disadvantage by reason of said employment and I believe that children from ten to fourteen years of age are better off than otherwise by reason of being employed as mentioned.

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Superintendent of Schools.

OFFICE OF COMMISSIONER OF CHARITIES

N. Y., February 27, 1912. To Whom It May Concern : This il to certify that I,

have been superintendent of charities of the city of

for the past twelve years. An important part of my work among the poor of the city is the investigation of their surroundings, circumstances and means of support. In these investigations I have had frequent occasion to see the conditions surrounding the children

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