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suffering from a dangerous disease. He was asked to pay $7 for the examination but only paid $2, all the money he had, and was asked to sign an order for $5 more on a private banker where he had $80 on deposit. It developed that the amount of this order was left blank and subsequently it was made out for $73, which the physician withdrew from the bank. The patient soon found out from the private banker that his bank balance was $7, as all the other money had been withdrawn.

This Bureau succeeded in obtaining the return of the money.

Mrs. C. B., a widow of Valhalla, was also induced by a circular to call at one of these institutions. She was examined by an Italian interpreter who represented himself as the physician in charge He told her that she was suffering from a serious disease and guaranteed a cure within six months for the sum of $75. Mrs. C. B. paid $30 down and during several visits thereafter paid $60 more. After being attended at this “institute” twice a week for two months, she was informed that the disease from which she was suffering required treatment by another “ institute ” which specialized in similar diseases. Mrs. C. B. stated that she would not pay any further sum and they agreed to return the $75 she had already paid the other “institute.” She was informed that a check for that sum had been paid and she was taken to the other “institute.” There she was informed that she would have to pay another $75 inasmuch as the previous check was not good. She paid the money again, and after several visits, as she had derived no benefit and thereafter went to a free dispensary where she was informed that she was not suffering from any disease whatever. This Bureau succeeded in obtaining the refund of $150.

Mrs. F. F., an Italian widow called at one of the institutes after receiving one of the circulars and was told that she was suffering from a serious mental disease, and for $40 they would guarantee to cure her. She paid $40 and was given some pills. She called there several times and was treated by a man who had never studied medicine or who not even registered as a physician. Not having obtained any relief, she called in a private physician who informed her that her case was diagnosed incorrectly, and that she was not suffering from any mental disease. This Bureau succeeded in obtaining the $40.

P. U., a Polish laborer, three years in the United States, called in reply to a newspaper advertisement which he read in the foreign papers. His case was diagnosed and they guaranteed to cure him for $75 within three months. He paid $37.50 and agreed to pay the balance when cured. P. U. requested a written guarantee, which they promised to give him later. He was induced after several visits to pay $ 10 more on account. He finally became seriously ill and was confined to his bed for fourteen days. He telephoned to the “professor " of the institute to call, which he refused to do. He then went to Bellevue Hospital, where he was told his case was diagnosed incorrectly. The Bureau succeeded in obtaining the refund of the $40.

Cases of this description prompted the Bureau to make an investigation of the practices of these “ institutes," “ museums,” and “ doctors ” in the city of New York. These investigations are not yet completed, but we have already succeeded in obtaining sufficient data to convince us of wholesale fraud, gross exaggeration of ailments, extortion, etc.

Two investigators disguised as immigrants called at a certain “institute” which had distributed circulars and were examined by an unregistered “physician " who charged $2 for the examination. The investigators were told that one of them was in the last stages of consumption, and unless immediately treated, would not live longer than one month. The institution guaranteed a cure for $50. These investigators, before going to the “institute,” were examined by the department of health physicians, and after leaving the “institute,” by a private physician, and were found to be in perfect health. The Bureau succeeded in having all the money collected from a large number of complainants returned to them and the proprietor has since discontinued the entire business.

One of these so-called “ professors,” who was not a registered physician, confessed and disclosed some valuable information in a statement to this Bureau which in part asserts, that before examination, the patient is asked to undress in an ante-room and there his clothes are searched for bank-books, money, etc., so as to enable the person examining him to judge how large a fee to demand, and also that every prospective patient, after examination, is invariably told that he is suffering from some dangerous ailment.

It is almost impossible to gather the necessary evidence for conviction against these so-called “institutes” without a reasonable financial outlay. We have, however, succeeded in every instance in securing the required evidence. The Bureau has called the attention of the Medical Society of the County of New York to some of these complaints, but this society is also handicapped, we were informed, by lack of funds.

These fraudulent "institutes" should be prosecuted, but to do this, it is necessary to obtain legal evidence, and the co-operation of the State Board of Medical Examiners is essential and desirable.

Thousands of people, especially immigrants, are daily victims of these human leeches practicing under the protection of the title “M.D.One" institute” which through our efforts was entirely disbanded had an enrollment of about 14,000 “ patients."

CONDITION, WELFARE AND INDUSTRIAL OPPORTUNITIES OF

ALIENS Section 153, of chapter 514 of the Laws of 1910, as amended, states that, “the Commissioner of Labor shall have the power to make full inquiry, examination and investigation into the condition, welfare and industrial opportunities of all aliens arriving and being within the State. He shall also have power to collect information with respect to the need and demand for labor by the several agricultural, industrial and other productive activities, including public works throughout the State.”

This Bureau during the year 1914 made 694 inspections of labor camps, and the investigators of the Bureau made inquiry and examination into the condition and welfare of the aliens working in these different camps. During the year letters were sent to the different highway contractors, etc., reading as follows:

DEAR Sır: Under the provision of chapter 514 of the Laws of 1910, as amended, this Bureau is conducting investigations into the living conditions, the manner of housing and the conditions surrounding the employment of aliens and foreigners in the labor camps throughout the State.

In order to proceed with this investigation, this Bureau respectfully requests your reply to the following questions:

1. The location of your camp in which aliens are employed, the nearest railway stations, and post office.

2. The approximate number of alien workmen in each camp.

3. Is the work in these labor camps now in progress, or if not, when do you expect to start?

4. If the agreement for commissary and sleeping privileges has been let, kindly give the name and address of the person holding such agreement. Your early attention to this matter will be greatly appreciated.

Very truly yours,

(Signed) Chief Investigator.

The reports of the investigations were examined, and when these reports showed that certain conditions existed that should be changed letters were sent to the different contractors, boards of health and other departments, calling attention to the conditions that were repugnant to public health and welfare. Of such letters 1,120 were sent during the tour of labor camp investigation. Furthermore, 445 camp schedules were referred to the Department of Education at Albany and these schedules showed the number of aliens employed and also called attention to the necessity of establishing schools at the different labor camps. (See table, page 266.)

Section 153 of chapter 514 of the Laws of 1910, as amended, also contains the following language: “ To gather information with respect to the supply of labor afforded by such aliens as shall from time to time arrive or be within the State."

The annual report of the Commissioner General of Immigration discloses that during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1914, the number of immigrant aliens admitted into New York State was 344,663, of this number there were 6,433 professional, 69,886 skilled, 179,682 miscellaneous, and 88,662 no occupations (including women and children), as follows:

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Milliners.
Miners.
Painters and glaziers.
Pattern makers..
Photographers.
Plasterers.
Plumbers
Printers
Saddlers and harness makers
Seamstresses.
Shoemakers.
Stokers
Stonecutters
Tailors.
Tanners and curriers
Textile workers (not specified).
Tinners..
Tobacco workers.
Upholsterers...
Watch and clock makerg.
Weavers and spinners.
Wheelwrights..
Wood workers (not specified).
Other skilled

973

599 1,697

12 185

87 252 623

260 6,774 4,590

420

267 14,859

124

66 436

26 126 384 658 78

82 1,881

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1,839 1,724 1,520 331

70 1,446

122 5,054

21 148

333 6,961 4,684

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Skilled:

Bakers.
Barbers and hairdressers.
Blacksmiths.
Bookbinders.
Brewers.
Butchers..
Cabinet makers...
Carpenters and joinerg.
Cigarette makers ,
Cigar makers.
Cigar Packers.
Clerks and accountants.
Dressmakers...
Engineers (locomotive, marine and

stationary)....
Furriers and fur workers,
Gardeners...
Hat and cap makers.
Iron and steel workers.
Jewelers
Locksmiths.
Machinists..
Mariners.
Masons.
Mechanics (not specified).
Metal workers (other than iron,

493 510 434 598 402

200 1,103

644 2,315 2,363

823

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steel and tin). Millers...

children

88, 662

339
250

Section 153 of chapter 514 of the Laws of 1910, as amended, also states, “ to investigate and determine the genuineness of any application for labor that may be received and the treatment accorded to those for whom employment shall be secured."

When the Bureau receives an application for labor, the record of the application is made and the applicant is referred to either the Federal Agricultural Bureau, the Municipal Employment Bureau, the State Employment Bureau, or other philanthropic agencies. The bureaus to which these applications are referred then make a thorough investigation of the application and treatment accorded to those for whom employment is secured, and if a complaint is afterward received to the effect that the alien has not received his wages, or has been mistreated, the matter is immediately referred to this Bureau, and investigation is made. The Bureau also co-operated with the employment or immigration bureaus conducted under the authority of the Federal government or by the government of another state, and also co-operates with public and philanthropic agents designed to aid in the distribution and employment of aliens. During the year 361 requests for work and cases under this classification were thus referred.

Section 153 of chapter 514 of the Laws of 1910, as amended, contains the following language, “and to devise and carry out such suitable methods as will tend to prevent or relieve congestion and obviate unemployment.”

In compliance with this section of the law this Bureau co-operates with the different foreign consuls and also with the different employment and immigration bureaus. If the alien has worked on a farm he is sent to the Federal Agricultural Bureau, Division of Information, and if he is a mechanic he is sent to some bureau able to furnish him with a position.

LABOR CAMPS Consideration of the subject of labor camp inspection in its relation to the regulation of housing and sanitation has heretofore been extensively considered only by the Commission of Immigration and Housing of California and the Industrial Commission of Wisconsin in addition to the work accomplished by this Bureau.

The report of the California commission for the year 1914 is

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