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$ 81. Violation of four preceding sections.— Any railroad or other company hauling or permitting to be hauled on its line or lines any train in violation of any of the provisions of the preceding four sections shall be liable to a penalty of one hundred dollars for each and every violation, to be recovered in an action to be brought by the public service commission in the name of the people and in the judicial district wherein the principal office of the company within the state is located.

PENAL LAW, CHAPTER 40 OF THE CONSOLIDATED LAWS f 1988. Guard posts; automatic couplers.- All corporations and persons other than employees, operating any steam railroad in this state:

1. Failing to cause guard posts to be placed in prolongation of the line of bridge trusses upon such railroad, so that in case of derailment, the posts and not the trusses shall receive the blow of the derailed locomotive or car, or in lieu thereof failing to cause guard rails to be placed within the running rails of its track, or such other safeguard as the public service commission shall order, for the same purpose; or [Subd. 1, am'd by L. 1913, ch. 398.]

2. Failing to equip all of their own freight cars, run and used in freight or other trains on such railroad, with automatic self-couplers, or running or operating on such railroad any freight car belonging to any such person or corporation, without having the same equipped, except in case of accident or other emergency, with automatic self-couplers, and except within the extended time allowed by the public service commission, in pursuance of law, for equipping such car with such couplers, is guilty of a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of five hundred dollars for each offense.

PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSIONS LAW, CHAPTER 48 OF THE CONSOLIDATED LAWS

§ 47. Investigation of accidents.- Each commission shall investigate the cause of all accidents on any railroad or street railroad within its district which result in loss of life or injury to persons or property, and which in its judgment shall require investigation. Every common carrier, railroad corporation and street railroad corporation is hereby required to give immediate notice to the commission of every accident happening upon any line of railroad or street railroad owned, operated, controlled or leased by it, within the territory over which such commission has jurisdiction in such manner as the commission may direct. Such notice shall not be admitted as evidence or used for any purpose against such common carrier, railroad corporation or street railroad corporation giving such notice in any suit or action for damages growing out of any matter mentioned in said notice.

See also $ 66 authorizing the Commissions to order improvements necessary to protect persons employed in the manufacture and distribution of gas or electricity, and $ 80 for similar power as to the manufacture and distribution of steam for heat or power.

FULL CREW LAW THE RAILROAD LAW, CHAPTER 49 OF THE CONSOLIDATED LAWS $ 54-a. Full crews for certain trains.— No person, corporation, trustee, receiver, or other court officer, shall run or operate, or cause to be run or operated, outside of the yard limits, on any railroad of more than fifty miles in length within this state, a freight train of more than twenty-five cars, unless

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said train shall be manned with a crew of not less than one engineer, one fireman, one conductor and three brakemen; nor any train other than a freight train of five cars or more, without a crew of not less than one engineer, one fireman, one conductor and two brakemen, and if the train is a baggage train or a passenger train having a baggage car or baggage compartment without a baggageman in addition to said crew; nor any freight train of twenty-five cars or less without a crew of not less than one engineer, one fireman, one conductor and two brakeman; nor any light engine without a car or cars, without a crew of not less than one engineer, one fireman and one conductor or brakeman. Each separate violation of the provisions of this section shall be a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars. Each train or light engine run in violation of the provisions of this section shall be deemed to be a separate offense. [Added by L. 1913, ch. 146.]

ENCLOSURE OF STREET CAR PLATFORMS THE RAILROAD Law, CHAPTER 49 OF THE CONSOLIDATED LAWS $ 194. Protection of employees.— Every corporation operating a street surface railroad in this state, except such as operate a railroad or railroads either in the borough of Manhattan or Brooklyn, in the city of New York, shall cause the front and rear platforms of every passenger car propelled by electricity, cable or compressed air, operated on any division of such railroad which extends in or between towns or outside of city limits, during the months of December, January, February and March, except cars attached to the rear of other cars, to be inclosed from the fronts of the platforms to the fronts of the hoods, so as to afford protection to any person stationed by such corporation on such platforms to perform duties in connection with the operation of such cars. Every corporation or person using and operating a car in violation of this section shall be liable to a penalty of twenty-five dollars per day for each car so used and operated, to be collected in an action brought by the public service commission and to be paid to the treasurer of the state of New York, or in a suit by the attorney of the municipality in which the violation of the provisions of this section occurs, to be paid into the treasury of such municipality.

$ 195. Platforms on new cars, how constructed. All street surface railroad passenger cars purchased, built or rebuilt after the first day of December, nineteen hundred and four, and operated in the state of New York on and after said date, except those owned by any company operating either in the borough of Manhattan or Brooklyn, in the city of New York, shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of the preceding section.

$ 196. Protection to employees in the counties of Albany and Rensselaer.Every corporation operating a street surface railroad in the counties of Albany and Rensselaer shall cause the front and rear platforms of every car propelled by electricity, cable or compressed air, during the months of December, January, February and March, except cars attached to the rear of other cars, to be inclosed from the front and at least one side of the platform to the hood, so as to afford protection to any person stationed by such corporation on such platforms to perform duties in connection with the operation of such cars. Platforms on cars on such street surface railroads used more than one mile outside the limits of a city shall be completely inclosed from platform to hood. Every corporation using and operating a car in violation of this section shall be liable to a penalty of twenty-five dollars per day for each car so used and operated, to be collected by the people to the use of the poor of the county in which such corporation has its principal office, in an action brought by the public service commission or the district attorney of such county. The supreme court may, on the application of a citizen, direct the district attorney to bring such action.

$ 197. Protection of employees in the counties of Kings and Queens.Every corporation operating a street surface railroad in the counties of Kings or Queens, shall cause the front and rear platforms of every passenger car propelled by electricity, cable or compressed air, operated on any division of such railroad during the months of December, January, February and March, except cars attached to the rear of other cars, to be inclosed from the fronts of the platforms to the fronts of the hoods so as to afford protection to any person stationed by such corporation on such platforms to perform duties connected with the operation of such cars. Every corporation or person using and operating a car in violation of this section shall be liable to a penalty of twenty-five dollars per day for each car used and operated, to be collected in an action brought by the public service commission and to be paid to the treasurer of the city of New York, or in a suit by the district attorney of the counties of Kings or Queens to be paid into the treasury of the city of New York.

QUALIFICATIONS OF ENGINEERS AND TELEGRAPHERS

PENAL LAW, CHAPTER 40 OF THE CONSOLIDATED LAWS f 1982. Person unable to read not to act or be employed as engineer.-Any person unable to read the time-tables of a railroad and ordinary handwriting, who acts as an engineer or runs a locomotive or train on any railroad in this state; or any person who, in his own behalf, or in the behalf of any other person or corporation, knowingly employs a person so unable to read to act as buch engineer or to run any such locomotive; or who employs a person as a telegraph operator who is under the age of eighteen years, or who has less than one year's experience in telegraphing, to receive or transmit a telegraphic message or train order for the movement of trains, is guilty of a misdemeanor.

QUALIFICATIONS OF STREET RAILWAY CONDUCTORS, MOTORMEN, ETC.

THE RAILROAD LAW, CHAPTER 49 OF THE CONSOLIDATED LAWS

63. Persons employed as drivers, conductors, motormen or gripmen. Any railroad corporation may employ any inhabitant of the state, of the age of twenty-one years, not addicted to the use of intoxicating liquors, as a car driver, conductor, motorman or gripman, or in any other capacity, if fit and competent therefor. All applicants for positions as motormen or gripmen on any street surface railroad in this state shall be subjected to a thorough examination by the officers of the corporation as to their habits, physical ability and intelligence. If this examination is satisfactory, the applicant shall be placed in the shop or power house where he can be made familiar with the power and machinery he is about to control. He shall then be placed on a car with an instructor, and when the latter is satisfied as to the applicant's capability for the position of motorman or gripman, he shall so certify to the officers of the company, and, if appointed, the applicant shall first serve on the lines of least travel. Any violation of the provisions of this section shall be a misdemeanor.

EXPLOYMENT OF INTEMPERATE PERSONS ON RAILWAYS AND

STEAMBOATS PENAL LAW, CHAPTER 40 or THE CONSOLIDATED LAWS § 1913. Employment by common carrier of person addicted to intoxication. - Any person or officer of an association or corporation engaged in the business of conveying passengers or property for hire, who shall employ in the conduct of such business, as an engineer, fireman, conductor, switch-tender, train dispatcher, telegrapher, commander, pilot, mate, fireman or in other like capacity, so that by his neglect of duty, the safety and security of life, person or property so conveyed might be imperiled, any person who habitually indulges in the intemperate use of liquors, after notice that such person has been intoxicated, while in the active service of such person, association or corporation, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.

§ 1984. Intoxication or other misconduct of railroad or steamboat em. ployees.- 1. Any person who, being employed upon any railway as engineer, conductor, baggagemaster, brakeman, switch-tender, fireman, bridge-tender, flagman, signal man, or having charge of stations, starting, regulating or running trains upon a railroad, or, being employed as captain, engineer or other officer of a vessel propelled by steam, is intoxicated while engaged in the discharge of any such duties; or,

2. An engineer, conductor, brakeman, switch-tender, or other officer, agent or employee of any railroad corporation, who wilfully violates or omits his duty as such officer, agent or employee, by which human life or safety is endangered, the punishment of which is not otherwise prescribed,

Is guilty of a misdemeanor.

See also 88 322, 323, of the Highway Law (ch. 25 of the Consolidated Laws) forbidding the employment of persons addicted to drunkenness by owners of public carriages.

MISCONDUCT OF OFFICIALS OR EMPLOYEES ON ELEVATED RAILROADS

PENAL LAW, CHAPTER 40 OF THE CONSOLIDATED LAWS § 1983. Misconduct of officials or employees on elevated railroads.— Any conductor, brakeman, or other agent or employee of an elevated railroad, who:

1. Starts any train or car of such railroad, or gives any signal or order to any engineer or other person to start any such train or car, before every passenger therein who manifests an intention to depart therefrom by arising, or moving toward the exit thereof, has departed therefrom; or before every passenger on the platform or station at which the train has stopped, who manifests a desire to enter the train, has actually boarded or entered the same, unless due notice is given by an authorized employee of such railroad that the train is full, and that no more passengers can then be received; or, 2. Obstructs the lawful ingress or egress of a passenger to or from any such car; or,

3. Opens a platform gate of any such car while the train is in motion, or starts such train before such gate is firmly closed,

Is guilty of a misdemeanor.
Formerly Penal Code, $ 419.

WEARING OF UNIFORMS AND BADGES

PENAL LAW, CHAPTER 40 OF THE CONSOLIDATED LAWS § 1989. Inciting railroad employees not to wear uniform; unauthorized wearing of uniform.- A person who:

1. Advises or induces any one, being an officer, agent or employee of a railway company, to leave the service of such company, because it requires a uniform to be worn by such officer, agent or employee, or to refuse to wear such uniform, or any part thereof; or,

2. Uses any inducement with a person employed by a railway company to go into the service or employment of any other railway company, because a uniform is required to be worn; or,

3. Wears the uniform designated by a railway company without authority, Is guilty of a misdemeanor.

RAILROAD LAW, CHAPTER 49 OF THE CONSOLIDATED LAWS $ 65. Conductors and employees must wear badges.- Every conductor and employee of a railroad corporation employed on a passenger train, or at stations for passengers, shall wear upon his hat or cap a badge, which shall indicate his office or employment, and the initial letters of the corporation employing him. No conductor or collector without such badge shall demand or receive from any passenger any fare or ticket or exercise any of the powers of his employment. No officer or employee without such badge shall meddle or interfere with any passenger, his baggage or property.

CONDUCTORS AND TRAINMEN AS POLICEMEN

RAILROAD LAW, CHAPTER 49 OF THE CONSOLIDATED LAWS & 88. When conductors and brakemen may be policemen.- The governor may appoint any conductor or brakeman on any train conveying passengers on any steam railroad in this state, a policeman, with all the powers of a policeman in cities and villages, for the preservation of order and of the public peace, and the arrest of all persons committing offenses upon the land or property of the corporation owning or operating such railroad; and he may also appoint, on the application of any such corporation, or of any steamboat company, such additional policemen, designated by it, as he may deem proper, who shall have the same powers. Every such policeman shall within fifteen days after receiving his commission, and before entering upon the duties of his office, take and subscribe the constitutional oath of office, and file it with his commission in the office of the secretary of state. The post-office address of the person appointed shall appear in the commission, and whenever such address is changed the person appointed shall file with

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