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INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION

THE APPRENTICE SYSTEM [Apprenticeship is regulated by article 8 of the Domestic Relations Law, following, which is to be enforced by the commissioner of labor (see § 22 of the Labor Law, p. 21, ante). The Penal Law makes it a misdemeanor to take an apprentice without the consent of the parent or guardian (f 1275, p. 171, ante), and the Code of Criminal Procedure (Title IX of Part VI) prescribes the proceedings respecting niasters, apprentices and servants. ]

DOMESTIC RELATIONS LAW, CHAPTER 14 OF THE CONSOLIDATED LAWS

ARTICLE 8

Apprentices and Servants
Section 120. Definitions ; effect of article.

121. Contents of indenture.
122. Indenture by minor; by whom signed.
123. Indenture by poor officers; by whom signed.
124. Binding out children by charitable corporation ; indenture; by whom

signed.
125. Penalty for failure of master or employer to perform provisions of

indenture.
126. Assignment of indenture on death of master or employer.
127. Contract with apprentice in restraint of trade void.

2. The age

§ 120. Definitions; effect of article.— The instrument whereby a minor is bound out to serve as a clerk or servant in any trade, profession or employ. ment, or is apprenticed to learn the art or mystery of any trade or craft, is an indenture.

Every indenture made in pursuance of the laws repealed by this chapter shall be valid hereunder, but hereafter a minor shall not be bound out or apprenticed except in pursuance of this article.

§ 121. Contents of indenture.— Every indenture must contain: 1. The names of the parties;

the minor as nearly as can be ascertained, which age on the filing of the indenture shall be taken prima facie to be the true age;

3. A statement of the nature of the service or employment to which the minor is bound or apprenticed;

4. The term of service or apprenticeship, stating the beginning and end thereof;

5. An agreement that the minor will not leave his master or employer during the term for which he is indentured;

6. An agreement that suitable and proper board, lodging and medical attendance for the minor during the continuance of the term shall be provided, either by the master or employer, or by the parent or guardian of the appren.

tice;

7. A statement of every sum of money paid or agreed to be paid in relation to the service;

8. If such minor is bound as an apprentice to learn the art or mystery of any trade or craft, an agreement on the part of the employer to teach, or cause to be carefully and skillfully taught, to such apprentice, every branch

of the business to which such apprentice is indentured, and that at the expiration of such apprenticeship he will give to such apprentice a certificate, in writing, that such apprentice has served at such trade or craft a full term of apprenticeship specified in such indenture;

9. If a minor is indentured by the poor officers of a county, city or town, or by the authorities of an orphan asylum, penal or charitable institution, an agreement that the master or employer will cause such child to be instructed in reading, writing and the general rules of arithmetic, and that at the ex. piration of the term of service he will give to such minor a new bible.

Every such indenture shall be filed in the office of the county clerk of the county where the master or employer resides.

§ 122. Indenture by minor; by whom signed.— Any minor may, by the execution of the indenture provided by this article, bind himself or herself:

1. As an apprentice to learn the art or mystery of any trade or craft for a term of not less than three nor more than five years;

2. As a servant or clerk in any profession, trade or employment for a term of service not longer than the minority of such minor, unless such indenture be made by a minor coming from a foreign country, for the purpose of pay. ing his passage, when such indenture may be made for a term of one year although such term may extend beyond the time when such person will be

of full age.

An indenture made in pursuance of this section must be signed, 1. By the minor;

2. By the father of the minor unless he is legally incapable of giving consent or has abandoned his family;

3. By the mother of the minor unless she is legally incapable of giving consent; 4. By the guardian of the person of the minor, if

any; 5. If there be neither parents nor guardian of the minor legally capable of giving consent, by the county judge of the county, or a justice of the supreme court of the district, in which the minor resides; whose consent shall be necessary to the binding out or apprenticing in pursuance of this section of a minor coming from a foreign country or of the child of an Indian woman, in addition to the other consents herein provided;

6. By the master or employer.

§ 123. Indenture by poor officers; by whom signed. The poor officers of a municipal corporation may, by an execution of the indenture provided by this article, bind out or apprentice any minor whose support shall become chargeable to such municipal corporation.

In such case the indenture shall be signed,
1. By the officer or officers binding out or apprenticing the minor;
2. By the master or employer;

3. By the county judge of the county, if the support of such child was chargeable to the county, by two justices of the peace, if chargeable to the town, or by the mayor and aldermen or any two of them, if chargeable to the city.

The poor officers by whom a child is indentured and their successors in office shall be guardians of every such child and shall inquire into the treatment thereof, and redress any grievance as provided by law.

$ 124. Binding out children by charitable corporation; indenture; by whom signed.-- An orphan asylum or charitable institution, incorporated for the care of orphans, friendless or destitute children, may bind out as an apprentice, clerk or servant, an indigent or poor child by an indenture in writing. Such child must have been absolutely surrendered to the care and cus. tody of such asylum or institution in pursuance of this chapter, or have been placed therein as a poor person, as provided in section fifty-six of the poor law, or have been left to the care of such asylum or institution with no provision by the parent, relative or legal guardian of such child, for its support, for a period of one year then next preceding. Such indenture shall bind such child, if a male, for a period which shall not extend beyond his twenty-first year, and if a female, for a period which shall not extend beyond her eighteenth year. Every such child shall, when practicable, be bound out or apprenticed to persons of the same religious faith as the parents of such child. The indenture shall in such case be signed:

1. In the corporate name of such institution by the officer or officers thereof authorized by the directors to sign the corporate name to such instrument, and shall be sealed with the corporate seal;

2. By the master or employer. Such indenture may also be signed by the child, if over twelve years of age.

§ 125. Penalty for failure of master or employer to perform provisions of indenture. If a master or employer to whom a minor has been indentured shall fail, during the term of service, to perform any provision of such indenture on his part, such minor or any person in his behalf may bring an action against the master or employer to recover damages for such failure; and if satisfied that there is sufficient cause, the court shall direct such in. denture to be canceled, and may render judgment against such master or em. ployer for not to exceed one thousand nor less than one hundred dollars, to be collected and paid over for the use and benefit of such minor to the corpo. ration or officers indenturing such minor, if so indentured, and otherwise, to the parents or guardian of the child.

§ 126. Assignment of indenture on death of master or employer.- On the death of a master or employer to whom a person is indentured by the poor officers of a municipal corporation, the personal representatives of the master or employer may, with the written and acknowledged consent of such person, ; assign such indenture and the assignee shall become vested with all the rights and subject to all the liabilities of his assignor, or if such consent be refused, the assignment may be made with like effect by the county judge of the county, on proof that fourteen days' notice of the application therefor has been given to the person indentured, to the officers by whom indentured, and to his parent or guardian, if in the country.

§ 127. Contract with apprentice in restraint of trade void.— No person shall accept from any apprentice any agreement or cause him to be bound by oath, that after his term of service expires he will not exercise his trade, profession or employment in any particular place; nor shall any person exact from any apprentice, after his term of service expires, any money or other thing, for exercising his trade, profession or employment in any place. Ani security given in violation of this section shall be void; and any money paiu. or valuable thing delivered, for the consideration, in whole or in part, of any

such agreement or exaction, may be recovered by the person paying the same with interest; and every person accepting such agreement, causing such obligation to be entered into, or exacting money or other thing, is also liable to the apprentice in the penalty of one hundred dollars, which may be recovered in a civil suit.

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS EDUCATION LAW, CHAPTER 16 OF THE CONSOLIDATED Laws (As AMENDED BY

L. 1910, CH. 140)

ARTICLE 22

General Industrial Schools, Trade Schools, and Schools of Agrical

ture, Mechanic Arts and Home Making Section 600. General industrial schools, trade schools, and schools of agriculture,

mechanic arts and home making, may be established in cities. 601. Such schools may be established in union free school districts. 602. Appointment of an advisory board. 603. Authority of the board of education over such schools. 604. State aid for general industrial schools, trade schools, and schools of

agriculture, mechanic arts and home making.
605. Application of such moneys.
606. Annual estimate by board of education and appropriations by municipal

and school districts.
607. Courses in schools of agriculture for training of teachers.

$ 600. General industrial schools, trade schools and schools of agriculture, mechanic arts and home making, may be established in cities. The board of education of any city, and in a city not having a board of education the officer having the management and supervision of the public school system, may establish, acquire, conduct and maintain as a part of the public school system of such city the following:

1. General industrial schools open to pupils who have completed the elementary school course or who have attained the age of fourteen years, and

2. Trade schools open to pupils who have attained the age of sixteen years and have completed either the elementary school course or a course in the above mentioned general industrial school or who have met such other requirements as the local school authorities may have prescribed; and [Subd. 2 am'd by L. 1913, ch. 747.]

3. Schools of agriculture, mechanic arts and home making, open to pupils who have completed the elementary school course or who have attained the age of fourteen, or who have met such other requirements as the local school authorities may have prescribed; and

4. Part time or continuation schools in which instruction shall be given in the trades and in industrial, agricultural and home making subjects, and which shall be open to pupils over fourteen years of age who are regularly and lawfully employed during a part of the day in any useful employment or service, which subjects shall be supplementary to the practical work carried on in such employment or service. [Subd. 4 added by L. 1913, ch. 747.]

5. Evening vocational schools in which instruction shall be given in the trades and in industrial, agricultural and home making subjects, and which shall be open to pupils over sixteen years of age, who are regularly and lawfully employed during the day and which provide instruction in subjects related to the practical work carried on in such employment; but such evening vocational schools providing instruction in home making shall be open to all women over sixteen years of age who are employed in any capacity during the day.

The word pol," as used in this article, shall include any department or course of instruction established and maintained in a public school for any of the purposes specified in this section. [Subd. 5 added by L. 1913, ch. 747.)

§ 601. Such schools may be established in union free school districts.- The board of education of any union free school district shall also establish, acquire and maintain such schools for like purposes whenever such schools shall be authorized by a district meeting. The trustee or board of trustees of a common school district may establish a school or a course in agriculture, mechanic arts and home making, when authorized by a district meeting. [As am'd by L. 1913, ch. 747.]

§ 602. Appointment of an advisory board.— 1. The board of education in a city and the officer having the management and supervision of the public school system in a city not having a board of education shall appoint an advisory board of five members representing the local trades, industries, and occupations. In the first instance two of such members shall be appointed for a term of one year and three of such members shall be appointed for a term of two years. Thereafter as the terms of such members shall expire the vacancies caused thereby shall be filled for a full term of two years. Any other vacancy occurring on such board shall be filled by the appointing power named in this section for the remainder of the unexpired term.

2. It shall be the duty of such advisory board to counsel with and advise the board of education or the officer having the management and supervision of the public school system in a city not having a board of education in relation to the powers and duties vested in such board or officer by section six hundred and three of this chapter.

$ 603, Authority of the board of education over such schools.- The board of education in a city and the officer having the management and supervision of the public school system in a city not having a board of education and the board of education in a union free school district in which city or district a general industrial school, a trade school, a school of agriculture, mechanic arts and home making, or a part time or continuation school, or an evening vocational school is established as provided in this article, is vested with the same power and authority over the management, supervision and control of such school and the teachers or instructors employed therein as such board or officer now has over the schools and teachers under their charge. Such boards of education or such officer shall also have full power and authority:

1. To employ competent teachers or instructors. 2. To provide proper courses of study.

3. To purchase or acquire sites and grounds and to purchase, acquire, lease or construct and to repair suitable shops or buildings and to properly equip the same.

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