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Long Island City, shall continue to discharge the duties heretofore devolved upon them, subject, however, to removal for cause, or when they are no longer needed.

§ 343. No person to use, or act as engineer for, without certificate. It shall not be lawful for any person or persons to operate or use any steam boiler to generate steam except for railway locomotive engines, and for heating purposes in private dwellings, and boilers carrying not over ten pounds of steam and not over ten horse-power, or to act as engineer for such purposes in The City of New York without having a certificate of qualification therefor from practical engineers detailed as such by the police department, such certificate to be countersigned by the officer in cominand of the sanitary company of the police department of The City of New York and to continue in force one year, unless sooner revoked or suspended. Such certificate may be revoked or suspended at any time by the police commissioner upon the report of any two practical engineers, detailed as provided in this section, stating the grounds upon which such certificate should be revoked or suspended. Where such certificate shall have been revoked, as provided in this section, a like certificate shall not in any case be issued to the same person within six months from the date of the revocation of the former certificate held by such person.

LAWS OF 1897, CHAPTER 635, AMENDING SECTION 312 OF THE NEW YORK CITY

CONSOLIDATION ACT (LAWS OF 1882, CHAPTER 410)

And no owner, or agent of such owner, or lessee of any steam boiler to generate steam, shall employ any personas engineer or to operate such boiler unless such person shall first obtain a certificate as to qualification therefor from a board of practical engineers detailed as such by the police department, such certificate to be countersigned by the officer in command of the sanitary company of the police department of the city of New York. In order to be qualified to be examined for and to receive such certificate of qualification as an engineer, a person must comply, to the satisfaction of said board, with the following requirements:

1. He must be a citizen of the United States and over twenty-one years

of age.

2. He must, on his first application for examination, fill out, in his own handwriting, a blank application to be prepared and supplied by the said board of examiners, and which shall contain the name, age, and place of residence of the applicant, the place or places where employed and the nature of his employment for five years prior to the date of his application, and a statement that he is a citizen of the United States. The application shall be verified by him, and shall, after the verification, contain a certificate signed by three engineers, employed in New York city, and registered on the books of said board of examiners as engineers working at their trade, certifying that the statements contained in such application are true. Such appli. cation shall be filed with said board.

3. The following persons, who have first complied with the provisions of subdivisions one and two of this section, and no other persons may make application to be examined for a license to act as engineer.

a. Any person who has been employed as a fireman, as an oiler, or as a

of two years.

general assistant under the instructions of a licensed engineer in any building or buildings in the city of New York, for a period of not less than five years.

b. Any person who has served as a fireman, oiler or general assistant to the engineer on any steamship or steamboat, for a period of five years, and shall have been employed for two years under a licensed engineer in a building in the city of New York, or any person who has served as a marine or locomotive engineer or fireman to a locomotive engineer for a period of five years and shall have been a resident of the state of New York for a period

[As am'd by L. 1900, ch. 461.] c. Any person who has learned the trade of machinist, or boiler maker or steamfitter and worked at such trade for three years exclusive of time served as apprentice, or while learning such trade, and also any person who has graduated as a mechanical engineer from a duly established school of technology, after such person has had two years' experience in the engineering department in any building or buildings in charge of a licensed engineer in the city of New York.

d. Any person who holds a certificate as engineer issued to him by any duly qualified board of examining engineers existing pursuant to law in any state or territory of the United States and who shall file with his application a copy of such certificate and an affidavit that he is the identical person to whom said certificate was issued. If the board of examiners of engineers shall determine that the applicant has complied with the requirements of this section he shall be examined as to his qualifications to take charge of, and operate steam boilers and steam engines in the city of New York, and if found qualified said board shall issue to him a certificate of the third class. After the applicant has worked for a period of two years under his certificate of the third class, he may be again examined by said board for a certificate of the second class and if found worthy the said board may issue to him such certificate of the second class, and after he has worked for a period of one year under said certificate of the second class he may be examined for a certificate of the first class; and when it shall be made to appear to the satisfaction of said board of examiners that the applicant for either of said grades lacks mechanical skill, is a person of bad habits or is addicted to the use of intoxicating beverages he shall not be entitled to receive such grade of license and shall not be re-examined for the same until after the expiration of one year. Every owner or lessee, or the agent of the owner or lessee, of any steam boiler, steam generator, or steam engine aforesaid, and every person acting for such owner or agent is hereby forbidden to delegate or transfer to any person or persons other than the licensed engineer the responsibility and liability of keeping and maintaining in good order and condition any such steam boiler, steam generator or steam engine, nor shall any such owner, lessee or agent, enter into a contract for the operation or management of a steam boiler, steam generator or steam engine, whereby said owner, lessee or agent shall be relieved of the responsibility or liability for injury which may be caused to person or property by such steam boiler, steam generator or steam engine. Every engineer holding a certificate of qualification from said board of examiners shall be responsible to the owner, lessee, or agent employing him for the good care, repair, good order and management of the steam boiler, steam generator or steam engine in charge of, or run or operated by such engineer.

e. Any person or persons violating any provision of this section or of any of its subdivisions shall be guilty of a misdemeanor. (Added by L. 1900, ch. 709.] LICENSING OF STATIONARY FIREMEN IN NEW YORK CITY

Laws or 1901, CHAPTER 733 An Act to provide for the licensing of firemen operating steam stationary

boiler or boilers in the city of New York Section 1. It shall be unlawful for any fireman or firemen to operate steam stationary boiler or boilers in the city of New York, unless the fireman or firemen so operating such boiler or boilers are duly licensed as hereinafter provided. Such fireman or firemen to be under the supervision and direction of a duly licensed engineer or engineers.

§ 2. Should any boiler or boilers be found at any time operated by any person who is not a duly licensed fireman or engineer as provided by this act, the owner or lessee thereof shall be notified, and if after one week from such notification the same boiler or boilers is again found to be operated by a person or persons not duly licensed under this act, it shall be deemed prima facie evidence of a violation of this act.

§ 3. Any person desiring to act as a fireman shall make application for a license to so act, to the steam boiler bureau of the police department as now exists for licensing engineers, who shall furnishi to each applicant blank forms of application, which application when filled out, shall be signed by a licensed engineer engaged in working as an engineer in the city of New York, who shall therein certify that the applicant is of good character, and has been employed as oiler, coalpasser or general assistant under the instructions of a licensed engineer on a building or buildings in the city of New York, or on any steamboat, steamship or locomotive for a period of not less than two years. The applicant shall be given a practical examination by the board of examiners detailed as such by the police commissioner and if found competent as to his ability to operate a steam boiler or boilers as specified in section one of this act shall receive within six days after such examination a license as provided by this act. Such license may be revoked or suspended at any time by the police commissioner upon the proof of deficiency. Every license issued under this act shall continue in force for one year from the date of issue unless sooner revoked as above provided. Every license issued under this act unless revoked as herein provided shall at the end of one year from date of issue thereof, be renewed by the board of examiners upon application and without further examination. Every application for renewal of license must be made within thirty days of the expiration of such license. With every license granted under this act there shall be issued to every person obtaining such license a certificate, certified by the officers in charge of the boiler inspection bureau. Such certificate shall be placed in the boiler room of the plant operated by the holder of such license, so as to be easily read.

4. No person shall be eligible to procure a license under this act unless the said person be a citizen of the United States.

§ 5. All persons operating boilers in use upon locomotives or in government buildings, and those used for heating purposes carrying a pressure not exceeding ten pounds to the square inch, shall be exempt from the provisions of this act. Such license will not permit any person other than a duly licensed engineer to take charge of any boiler or boilers in the city of New York.

TRADE UNIONS (No special provision is made by the statutes of New York for incorporation of trade unions as business organizations. An association of workingmen for the purpose of undertaking co-operative insurance may incorporate under the Insurance Law; but nothing in this law or any of the laws relating to stock corporations provides for the actual business of trade unions in contracting with employers as the agents of the employees. This primary object of trade unions finds no recog. bition, of course, in the non-stock corporation laws; although the unions that bave incorporated in New York bave done so under the Membership Corporations Law, which applies to benevolent, charitable, scientific and missionary societies.

Trade unions do not in fact find incorporation necessary in order to obtain legal standing in the courts, since the law of this state has provided since 1831 that an unincorporated association consisting of seven or more persons may sue and be sued in the name of its president and treasurer (88 1919, 1921, of the Code of Civil Procedure, as below).

Disobedience of an injunction addressed to an unincorporated association and "Its each and every member" constitutes a criminal contempt even if the violators were not personally served with the order : People er rel. Stearns v. Marr, 181 N. Y. 403 (1905).

As to union labels, see $$ 15 and 16 of the Labor Law, p. 17, ante.]

A union member deprived of membership without a fair trial may seek redress in the civil courts : Williamson v. Randolph, 48 Misc. 96 ; Schouten v. Alpine, 77 Misc. 19; People ex rel. Holstrom v. I. D. B. Union, 104 App. Div. 207.

common.

ACTION BY OR AGAINST AN UNINCORPORATED ASSOCIATION CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE, ARTICLE I OF TITLE V OF CHAPTER XV $ 1919. An action or special proceeding may be maintained, by the president or treasurer of an unincorporated association, consisting of seven or more persons, to recover any property, or upon any cause of action, for or upon which all the associates may maintain such an action or special proceeding, by reason of their interest or ownership therein, either jointly or in

An action may likewise be maintained by such president or treasurer to recover from one or more members of such association his or their proportionate share of any moneys lawfully expended by such association for the benefit of such associates, or to enforce any lawful claim of such association against such member or members. An action or special proceeding may be maintained, against the president or treasurer of such an association, to recover any property, or upon any cause of action, for or upon which the plaintiff may maintain such an action or special proceeding, against all the associates, by reason of their interest or ownership, or claim of ownership therein, either jointly or in common, or their liability therefor, either jointly or severally. Any partnership, or other company of persons, which has a president or treasurer, is deemed an association within the meaning of this section. [As am'd by L. 1900, ch. 184.)

The action, though in form against such officer, is in substance and reality against the association : Mason v. Holmes, 30 Misc. 719.

§ 1921. In such an action the officer against whom it is brought cannot be arrested; and a judgment against him does not authorize an execution to be issued against his property, or his person; nor does the docketing thereof bind his real property, or chattels real. Where such a judgment is for a sum of money, an execution issued thereupon must require the sheriff to satisfy the same, out of any personal or real property belonging to the association, or owned, jointly or in common, by all the members thereof. [A8 am'd by L. 1898, ch. 293.]

An action for damages held to lle against an unincorporated trade union, Curran v. Galen, 152 N. Y. 33 (1897); see also Connell v. Stalker, 20 Misc. 423 (1897); Coons v. Chrystie, 24 Misc. 296 (1898); Matthews v. Shanklaud, 25 Misc. 604 (1898); Beattie v. Callanan, 67 App. Div. 14 (1901).

THE

OF

AUTHORIZING

INCORPORATION LABOR ORGANIZATIONS FOR

BENEVOLENT PURPOSES THE MEMBERSHIP CORPORATIONS LAW, CHAPTER 35 OF THE CONSOLIDATED

LAWS § 40. Purposes for which corporations may be formed under this article.A membership corporation may be created under this article for any lawful purpose, except a purpose for which a corporation may be created under any other article of this chapter, or any other general law than this chapter.

Reviser's Note.--" This section is intended to make one complete general statement, including every object for which membership corporations ought to be permitted under a general law, instead of a long enumeration of particular purposes, requiring new legislation whenever incorporation is desired for a new purpose. The definition of a membership corporation in section 2 will prevent the formation of a stock corporation or of a mutual benefit insurance corporation under this article. See Matter of Lampson, 35 App. Div. 49, aff'd in 161 N. Y. 511; People v. Johnson, 22 Misc. 150."

§ 41. Certificates of incorporation.— Five or more persons may become a membership corporation for any one of the purposes for which a corporation may be formed under this article or for any two or more of such purposes of a kindred nature, by making, acknowledging and filing a certificate, stating the particular objects for which the corporation is to be formed, each of which must be such as is authorized by this article; the name of the proposed corporation; the territory in which its operations are to be principally conducted; the town, village or city in which its principal office is to be located, if it be then practicable to fix such location; the number of its directors, not less than three nor more than thirty; and the names and places of residence of the persons to be its directors until its first annual meeting. Such certificate shall not be filed without the written approval, indorsed thereupon or annexed thereto, of a justice of the supreme court. On filing such certificate, in pursuance of law, the signers thereof, their associates and successors, shall be a corporation in accordance with the provisions of such certificate.

TO

OR

AUTHORIZING LABOR ORGANIZATIONS MAINTAIN CONSTRUCT

BUILDINGS, HALLS OR LIBRARIES FOR THEIR USE THE BENEVOLENT ORDERS LAW, CHAPTER 3 OF THE CONSOLIDATED LAWS

§ 7. Joint corporations.— * * * any number of trades unions, trades assemblies, trades associations or labor organizations

may unite in forming a corporation for the purpose of acquiring, constructing, maintaining and managing a hall, temple or other building, or a home for the aged and indigent members of such order and their dependent widows and orphans, and of creating, collecting, and maintaining a library for the use of the bodies uniting to form such corporation. Each body hereafter uniting to form such

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