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auxiliary agencies, particularly those providing services common to all or most departments. Other methods of grouping may also be used at lower levels, such as grouping by clientele in the case of certain welfare activities; and grouping by area as, for example, the lower echelons of the Fire and Police Departments. Thus, the method of grouping at any level should be chosen with a view to the greatest efficiency at that level.

(3) Operational and administrative functions should be grouped separately to free the former from administrative detail and to improve the efficiency and proper utilization of both.

(a) Operational functions are those which are primarily operational in nature. They either serve the people directly or are performed for the immediate or direct benefit of the people. Basically, they are the reason for the government's existence.

(6) Administrative functions are those which support the operating functions. They include the various administrative, personnel, fiscal, supply, and property functions, and in general are common to all or nearly all departments.

(4) Administrative functions should be centralized to secure the greatest benefits from specialization and to assist executive control.

(5) Responsibility for the administration of policies in any particular field should not be divided.

(6) The total number of departments should be sufficient to permit each to function as a unit. Having too few departments necessitates the grouping of unrelated functions, resulting in lack of flexibility and conflict of purpose; having too many departments defeats effective supervision and control and tends toward duplication and higher cost. Authorities indicate the desirable number for a municipal government to be somewhere between 10 and 20.

(7) The number of units under any one official should be small enough to permit effective management.

(8) Authority and responsibility of all components should be clearly defined. Also lines of authority and responsibility should be clearly established from top to bottom to insure complete integration and unity of command.

(9) Uniformity of nomenclature should be followed.

(10) Agencies should be headed by a single official rather than by a commission or board, except for certain quasi-legislative, quasi-judicial, consultative, and advisory functions.

(11) Changes in organization should not be made for the sake of change, or for any other reason except increased effectiveness and efficiency of operation or control, to promote economy, or to accomplish other purposes of the Reorganization Act of 1949.

(12) Adequate staffs should be provided for officials whose managerial duties are extensive.

(13) Intradepartmental organization should follow the same principles as interdepartmental organization.

General ROBINSON. All organization changes under this plan will be put into effect as soon as it is practicable to do so without disrupting the continued operations of the District government. It is expected that the basic reorganization will begin promptly. The exact procedure and the details are still to be worked out. However, the initial steps are expected to be the following: The setting up of a Citizens' Advisory Council with specified duties

The CHAIRMAN. May I ask at that point: That Council will be appointed by the Commission; is that correct? General ROBINSON. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. Will they have any independent authority, any independent powers?

General ROBINSON. No, sir. They are advisory to the Board of Commissioners on certain specific matters referred to them by the Board of Commissioners.

The CHAIRMAN. The Council would be an instrumentality of the Commission itself?

General ROBINSON. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. Simply in a consulting capacity, I assume?
General ROBINSON. Yes, sir,

The CHAIRMAN. It has no power other than to recommend and advise?

General ROBINSON. That is correct, except for the studies and reviews it must make in order to advise.

The CHAIRMAN. How large a council would it be? General ROBINSON. It is proposed to be a nine-man Council, initially. However, the Board of Commissioners may increase its membership later should it decide that it is in the public interest to do so.

The CHAIRMAN. The Commission would be free to reject the Council's recommendations or accept them in part? General ROBINSON. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. And you may discharge the members of the Council at will whenever you want to?

General ROBINSON. That is possible, but rather unlikely. However, when, in the public interest, the Board determines a member should be removed, it is provided in the plan that the Board may remove him.

We have worked in the past with a very large number of fine citizens' committees, and they have been of invaluable help to the Board of Commissioners. Nor, to the best of my knowledge, have we ever removed a member for disagreeing with the Commissioners, or thinking differently.

The CHAIRMAN. I am not objecting to this Citizens' Council at all. It may be most advisable and very helpful in the course of this reorganization. I am trying to establish what its actual authority is, if any, and what its functions would be. General ROBINSON. It is wholly advisory in nature. The CHAIRMAN. All right. General ROBINSON. I do have the Commissioners' plan for the establishment of a Citizens' Advisory Council, which I believe is before you, and I would like to ask permission to enter this into the record at this point.

The CHAIRMAN. The Chair would like to have you do that. (The material referred to is as follows:)

PLAN FOR ESTABLISHMENT OF A CITIZENS' ADVISORY COUNCIL 1. Composition. The Citizens' Advisory Council shall consist of nine members: Provided, however, That the Board of District Commissioners may increase the number of members should the Board decide that it is advisable to do so.

It is believed that a small group can perform the duties of the Council more expeditiously and efficiently than could a larger group, which might be more inclined to engage in extended discussion than to arrive at conclusive action.

2. Functions.—To advise the Board of Commissioners on matters referred to it by the Board relative to the following:

(a) Proposed legislation.
(b) Regulations affecting the public.
(c) Matters of fiscal policy, including the annual budget.

(d) Other matters of broad public policy. Functions of the Council will be limited to the above, at least initially. The Council shall have no administrative functions. Violation of this principle would result in delay and confusion on administrative matters, which are the sole responsibility of the Board of Commissioners and their department heads. The Council should not invade the field of the several special technical committees now in existence, such as the Building Code Advisory Committee, Traffic Advisory Board, or Advisory Committee on Public Works; or technical committees which may hereafter be created. These are appointed by the Board of

Commissioners to deal with special problems; and members are selected for their special abilities to handle those problems. These committees have been invaluable to the Commissioners in the past, and it is felt that any absorption of their functions by the Council would decrease the quality of the service rendered and would decrease citizen participation in government, thereby defeating the very purpose of the Council which is to increase such citizen participation. The Council shall report only to the Board of Commissioners.

3. Qualifications.-Members shall be United States citizens, at least 30 years of age; who are, and have been for a minimum of 5 years immediately preceding appointment, actual residents of the District of Columbia and have, during that period, claimed residence nowhere else; and shall hold no full-time office for which compensation is paid from District of Columbia funds.

4, Selection.--This will be based upon knowledge of the District, ability and standing in the community. Those selected should be high-caliber persons, whose stature and proven civic consciousness will insure their over-all interest in the District of Columbia as a whole. There shall be no ex officio members, nor members representing any special interest. Selection will be strictly on the basis of personal qualifications. All members will be appointed by the Board of Commissioners, and the Council itself will elect its Chairman. The Board of Commissioners may remove any member upon determination that it is not in the public interest for such member to continue to serve.

5. Term.-The term is fixed at 3 years. Initially, however, three will be appointed for a term of 3 years, three for 2 years, and three for 1 year. No person shall serve more than two consecutive terms, but may be reappointed after à lapse of 1 year. Should a vacancy occur through the death, incapacity, or removal of a member, a successor will be appointed to complete the unexpired term of that member.

6. Compensation.—Membership on the Council will be regarded strictly as honorary, and the members will receive no salary or other compensation. Should a member incur expenses in the discharge of his duties as a member of the Council, reimbursement will be considered as an administrative expense (see 8).

7. Meetings.—The Council shall meet at least once per month; and shall hold additional meetings at the call of the Board of Commissioners. On motion of the Council itself, or at the call of the Chairman of the Council, additional meetings may be held when deemed necessary for action on any business regularly before it.

8. Administration.—The Secretary to the Board of Commissioners shall be the Secretary to the Council and will be responsible for the administration, files, and housekeeping problems of the Council; he will provide the necessary secretarial help. The Board of Commissioners will provide office space for Council meetings. Any expenses incurred by the Council as a whole, or by individual members, will be met from funds provided for the administration of district affairs, after approval by the Board of Commissioners or by its duly designated representative.

The CHAIRMAN, Are these members paid members? General ROBINSON. No, sir. It is specified in the plan that they will not be paid. They must be high caliber, civic minded citizens, at least 30 years of age, who have been residents of the District of Columbia at least 5 years immediately preceding appointment, having both residence and domicile here.

The CHAIRMAN. That is provided in your plan?

General ROBINSON. Yes, sir; that is provided in the plan which is submitted.

Senator CASE. Mr. Chairman, if you will indulge me: To me the creation of a Citizens Advisory Council is one of the best features of the plan proposed by the Commissioners. This offers a very small hope but a little hope of getting a larger voice for the people of the District of Columbia, who pay the bills for the District of Columbia, to express themselves on the operation of the city's government. I think, although I am very glad to receive the full statement of the plan which has been put into the record, in view of the fact that these plans are being covered by the press, it would not be amiss to have the plan read, at least so far as the functions are concerned.

General ROBINSON. Copies have been given to the press for release after this hearing, sir.

Senator Case. Then may I ask the Commissioner what are the powers of the Council? Can it initiate recommendations on its own!

General ROBINSON. No, sir.
Senator CASE. What functions will it have, then?

General ROBINSON. It is to advise the Board of Commissioners on matters referred to it by the Board relative to the following: proposed legislation, regulations affecting the public, matters of fiscal policy including the annual budget, and other matters of broad public policy.

Senator CASE. Supposing the Council felt that there was a matter of considerable importance with regard to an area of the city. Would the Commissioners feel that the Council ought not to express itself!

General ROBINSON. I am sure that we would be glad to have an expression in such a case. However, the Council is appointed for a specific purpose. We were faced with the problem of not being able to have an elected council, because of the limitations of the Reorganization Act itself. And therefore it was felt that we should have this appointed Council to advise us on those matters on which we desired advice, it being impossible to get representation through the elective process. And we also felt that a small council acting only in the areas in which the Board of Commissioners asked them to act was in the best interest of the public.

And as we point out, in this statement on the council, we have a number of committee now in existence which are technical committees that have been invaluable to the Commissioners in the past, such as the Building Code Advisory Committee, the Traffic Advisory Board, and the Advisory Committee on Public Works, and others, such as parking, which we have had in the past. We feel that if the Council invades the field of many of these special committee, it will defeat the purpose of the Council, which is to increase the citizens' participation.

Senator CASE. Mr. Chairman, I do not care to be argumentative on it, and I appreciate your indulgence in letting me ask questions and make comment from time to time. But in our consideration in the Senate of the so called home-rule bill which we had up and which the Senate passed this year, the question came up repeatedly as to the purpose of anything in that field.

It is my conviction that the purpose of legislation with respect to the government of the District of Columbia must be to achieve efficiency, economy, and honesty in the government of the Capital City, but at the same time to provide the kind of a Capital City that the country deserves, and with that to give a larger measure of voice to the people who pay a large proportion of the bill.

Now, there is a tendency in government today to have advisory committees, and all too frequently we hear the criticism that these advisory committees come to Washington to advise one of the boards that have been set up, and they become merely dummy boards, so to speak.

The CHAIRMAN. They do more echoing than advising?

Senator CASE. Yes, more echoing. The tendency on the part of boards is to want the advisory bodies to be merely cheering sections, so to speak, to applaud them for what they do. If the advisory council is to do what a citizens' advisory council should do, it seems to me that as this develops, the commission should welcome from an advisory council things which they may initiate on their own.

For if they merely are going to deal with things which are referred to them by the Commissioners, the tendency will be to make them mere ratification groups or cheering sections for something that the Commissioners might be doing.

The CHAIRMAN. In other words, to fortify a decision that the commission has already made by giving it their moral or official support.

Senator Case. If they are going to be a dynamic influence in the city government, there ought to be an opportunity for the citizens to bring out of their personal experience the thoughts that they have about the city government.

So while, as I say, I think that the Advisory Council is one of the better features, because it is a small step in that direction, I hope that the Commissioners as they work with this, if they do, will give consideration to making the Advisory Council an advisory council in the true sense of the word and not merely somebody to echo what they may propose.

The CHAIRMAN. Well, there is nothing to prevent the Advisory Council from initiating a recommendation, is there?

General ROBINSON. No, sir. It was our intention to go rather slow by starting small, with restricted duties. I think from the caliber of the council and the nature of the problems to be referred to it, I am not afraid of its becoming a rubber stamp. We intend to use it in those fields where we very definitely need advice from a high caliber citizens' committee. We have such a committe in existence now, for example; we have a 27-man committee on public works, which is doing a tremendous job of analyzing our entire capital outlay fiscal policy and our entire phased program for capital outlay expenditures.

The CHAIRMAN. Do you intend to retain those committees? General ROBINSON. We intend to retain those standing committees; yes, sir. And they are all ones which give advice before the decision is made. Naturally, if a decision is made, there would be no point in seeking such advice.

The CHAIRMAN. In other words, one of these committees that you have and intend to retain might initiate a recommendation?

General ROBINSON. They are specifically asked for recommendations.

The CHAIRMAN. They are asked for them. You get recommendations from them. Then you would have this over-all Advisory Council to whom you might refer that recommendation for its study and recommendation back to you.

General ROBINSON. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. I did not know whether it is intended to work that way or not.

General ROBINSON. Well, it is intended at least initially to limit the Council to those specific functions which are given. There is a coverall included which says "other matters of broad public policy." Those would have to be determined from time to time by the Board. But we feel that if the committee is to be advisory to the Board, the Board should specify what it wishes to be advised on.

And we cannot, under the law, abdicate our responsibility as a Board of Commissioners.

Senator CASE. Mr. Chairman, of course, the council has no power. All it can give is advice. It cannot tell you to do anything with any authority. Is that not correct?

General ROBINSON. That is correct.

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