Selections from Revenue Records, North-West Provinces: A.D. 1822-1833

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North-Western Provinces' Government Press, 1872 - 498페이지

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218 페이지 - The sons will take the places of their fathers ; the same site for the village, the same positions for the houses, the same lands will be re-occupied by the descendants of those who were driven out when the village was depopulated ; and it is not a trifling matter that will drive them out, for they will often maintain their post through times of disturbance and convulsion, and acquire strength sufficient to resist pillage and oppression with success.
218 페이지 - The village communities are little republics, having nearly everything that they want within themselves, and almost independent of any foreign relations. They seem to last where nothing else lasts. Dynasty after dynasty tumbles down : revolution succeeds to revolution; Hindu, Pathan, Moghul, Mahratta, Sikh, English are masters in turn ; but the village communities remain the same...
219 페이지 - India through all revolutions and changes which they have suffered, and it is in a high degree conducive to their happiness and to the enjoyment of a great portion of freedom and independence. I wish, therefore, that the Village Constitutions may never be disturbed, and I dread everything that has a tendency to break them up.
219 페이지 - This union of the village communities, each one forming a separate little state in itself, has, I conceive, contributed more than any other cause to the preservation of the people of India, through all the revolutions and changes which they have suffered, and is in a high degree conducive to their happiness and to the enjoyment of a great portion of freedom and independence.
218 페이지 - Sikh, English, are all masters in turn ; but the village communities remain the same. In times of trouble they arm and fortify themselves: a hostile army passes through the country : the village communities collect their cattle within their walls, and let the enemy pass unprovoked.
218 페이지 - The village communities collect their cattle within their walls, and let the enemy pass unprovoked. If plunder and devastation be directed against themselves, and the force employed be irresistible, they flee to friendly villages at a distance, but when the storm has passed over they return and resume their occupations.
219 페이지 - ... those who were driven out when the village was depopulated ; and it is not a trifling matter that will drive them out, for they will often maintain their post through times of disturbance and convulsion, and acquire strength sufficient to resist pillage and oppression with success ... all acting in union with a common interest as regards the Government, and adjusting their own separate interests among themselves according to established usage.
218 페이지 - If a country remain for a series of years the scene of continued pillage and massacre, so that the villages cannot be inhabited, the scattered villagers nevertheless return whenever the power of peaceable possession revives. A generation may pass away, but the succeeding generation will return. The sons will take the...
390 페이지 - ... inhabitants, nor ever become private property, nor can any Permanent Settlement be made, calculated to improve the condition of the Ryots or of the public revenue. I am, therefore, of opinion, that in a Permanent Settlement of the Ceded Districts, the rent of Government should be about one-third of the gross produce.
19 페이지 - Government to demand an increase is undoubted, and the ultimate enforcement of such a demand may be of clear expediency, they have urged the necessity of avoiding any sudden enhancement. The existing appropriation by individuals or classes of the net rent of the country may be abusive and useless, but it may not be the less inconsistent 'with humanity and policy for the Government to destroy, by a sudden resumption of its rights, institutions, and habits which have grown out of the relinquishment."—...

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