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sociated Business Papers and their editorial affiliates in the National Conference of Business Papers Editors. That conference consists of approximately 150 editors, representative of scientific, technical, professional, and trade journals.
For more than 20 years we have been meeting here in Washington regularly, frequently, with heads of Government, with all the Presidents since President Harding, with cabinet officers, Members of the Congress, and department heads. There has been built up, in other words, an effective liaison between the Government and industry and professions which has been beneficial, I think, to both in disseminating information on the activities of the Government and in turn stimulating cooperation and understanding on the part of science, industry, and the professions.
My journal, Chemical Engineering, generally, as well as many of the others for which I speak, has vigorously supported the efforts of the Congress to provide for the establishment of a National Science Foundation. But we are seriously concerned with one section of H. R. 12 which would specifically authorize the Foundation to publish and disseminate scientific information in competition with the privately owned technical press of this country. As now contained in both H. R. 12 and H. R. 311, as well as in S. 247, the authorization is so broad as to permit the Government to parallel or duplicate existing channels for the dissemination of information of value to industry and 'Government.
We believe there is no need or any other sound reason for the Government to enter into competition with private industry in this field.
We respectfully suggest, therefore, that the language in section 11, paragraph (g), of H. R. 12, should be amended to make clear that the National Science Foundation is not authorized or permitted to publish magazines or other journals that duplicate or compete with existing channels for the dissemination of scientific and technical information. This amendment would, in our opinion, add strength and purpose to the basic work of the Foundation in directing its activities to the promotion of basic research and education in the field of science. It would assure the Foundation of the continued support as well as the efficient services of the scientific and technical press. It would save the expenditure of substantial appropriations required to subsidize governmental publications in competition with those of our tax-paying industry. The proposed amendment is as follows:
Provided however, That nothing in this Act shall be construed to authorize the Foundation to publish, or arrange for the publication at Government expense, of scientific or technical magazines, journals, or books, to be sold in competition with those of existing channels for the dissemination of scientific and technical information.
If there are any questions, I will be glad to answer them.
Mr. PRIEST. We thank you. I am certain, Dr. Kirkpatrick, that it isn't the intention of the sponsors of the legislation to have the Foundation in any way compete insofar as publishing magazines is concerned. I feel certain that we can take care of the language there and will clarify it if there is any doubt whatsoever about that.
Dr. KIRKPATRICK. Thank you, sir.
(The following was submitted for the record :)
STATEMENT BY DR. CHESTER D. SWOPE BEFORE THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON PUBLIC
HEALTH, SCIENCE, AND COMMERCE OF THE ('OMMITTEE ON INTERSTATE AND FOREIGN COMMERCE IN REFERENCE TO PENDING NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION BILLS (H, R. 12; 183; 311; 359; 1815; 2308; AND 2751; S. 247) ON APRIL 4, 1949
I am Dr. Chester D. Swope, Farragut Medical Building, Washington, D. C. I am engaged in active practice as an osteopathic physician. This statement is submitted in my capacity as chairman of the department of public relations of the American Osteopathic Association.
The association has a membership of 8,000 out of 11,000 osteopathic physicians or surgeons legally licensed and practicing their profession in all the States. The association is the recognized accrediting agency for colleges of osteopathy and surgery, of which there are 6 all of approved standing, and some 64 intern training hospitals. In excess of 100 additional hospitals are registered by the association.
The attitude of the association toward the establishment of a National Science Foundation was first submitted in the testimony of Dr. J. S. Denslow, director of research, Kirksville College of Osteopathy and Surgery, and director, research laboratory, Still Memorial Research Trust, Kirksville, Mo., before the Committee on Military Affairs of the United States Senate in October 1945. Dr. Denslow gave similar testimony in March 1947 before your Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce of the House of Representatives. On both occasions, Dr. Denslow expressed approvel of a National Science Foundation and urged enactment of the pending legislation.
All of the pending bills would create a National Science Foundation. The American Osteopathic Association is hopeful that the differences in detail can be resolved at an early date so that a Foundation can be created and begin functioning. Any imperfections may be cured by subsequent legislation as developments warrant.
The constitution of the American Osteopathic Association prescribes: "The objects of this association shall be to promote the public health-by stimulating original research and investigation." A research council and a research board coordinate and encourage research activities of osteopathic laboratories and institutions. The Osteopathic Trust, a philanthropic foundation devoted to the custody and application of gifts, grants, and endowments for research, operates under a directorate designated by the association.
A primary problem in the field of research in the medical sciences is the serious shortage of adequately trained manpower. There is an urgent need for scholarships and graduate fellowships, which this legislation would provide. Regarding scholarships, Dr. Denslow told the Senate Military Affairs Committee in 1945:
"At the undergraduate level it has been found that volunteer and paid student assistants make a real contribution to research projects and has led to the conclusion that this program should be expanded. It is virtually impossible to plan an educational program without reaching the average of the class. Consequently, there are top students who have time and ability to do work over and above the required work. It has also been found that although a number of veterans are being trained in our college under entitlements from the Veterans' Administration, there are many' preprofessional students who have demonstrated an aptitude for work in biological sciences who cannot continue their education at the professional level because of lack of funds. Students in both categories should be assisted by scholarships."
In the course of the same testimony, Dr. Denslow said with respect to graduate fellowships :
“At the graduate level it is difficult, often impossible, to entice men and women of the proper caliber into research fields because of lack of funds. Substantial fellowships represent the only practical method of competing with the attractions of private practice where few scientific contributions are made."
The osteopathic colleges are scaled to a capacity of 1,700 students. The 528 freshmen enrolled in these colleges in 1948 received preprofessional training in 42 States and the District of Columbia, and represent 236 liberal arts colleges and universities. All matriculants must have completed at least 112 years of inorganic and organic chemistry, 1 full year of physics, 1 year of biology, and 1 year of English with above-average grades. All must have had 2 years preprofessional college; most of them have had 3 years and upward of one-half have a baccalaureate degree. The colleges use the so-called strong interest inventory as a part of their admission procedure.
The curriculum in osteopathic colleges is presented in a minimum of four standard academic years, leading to the degree of doctor of osteopathy. Following graduation, internship of 1 year or more is available at approved intern training hospitals.
The catalog of the Kirksville College of Osteopathy and Surgery, Kirksville, Mo., furnishes an example of the caliber of faculty heading the departments of the basic sciences, to wit: Anatomy, George E. Snyder, B. S., M. S., Ph. D.; physiology, Irwin M. Korr, B. A., M. A., Ph. D.; chemistry (biological), Albert P. Kline, B. A., Ph. D.; bacteriology (and public health), Ernest Hartman, B. S., M. S., Sc. D. ; pathology, Grover C. Stukey, B. Pd., B. S., B. Sc., D. 0.
The results of research in osteopathic institutions have been published in the Journal of Neurophysiology, the American Journal of Physiology, the Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, and in the Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.
In carrying out the program envisaged by this legislation, the Foundation will be dependent in large part upon advisory committees for the evaluation of projects in the respective fields. Objectivity in the selection of adequate and impartial representation on these advisory committees is a must. The American Osteopathic Association and affiliated organizations and institutions will furnish utmost cooperation in attaining the ends sought to be accomplished by this legislation.
STATEMENT OF THE NATIONAL COTTON COUNCIL OF AMERICA BEFORE THE SUBCOM
MITTEE ON PUBLIC HEALTH, SCIENCE, AND COMMERCE COMMITTEE ON INTERSTATE AND FOREIGN COMMERCE, HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, APRIL 4, 1949
The National Cotton Council is the organization of the raw cotton industry. It represents 12,000,000 Americans in 18 States from Virginia to California who depend directly or indirectly on production of cotton.
A delegate body, the council is composed of 244 cotton leaders, selected by cotton interest organizations, and represents producers, ginners, warehousemen, merchants, spinners, and cottonseed crushers. Each of these six branches has equal voice in policy decisions of the council, with a two-thirds affirmative vote in each branch being necessary before any measure is approved. It follows that a position of the council on any matter has the overwhelming support of the entire industry.
The council was formed for the purpose of increasing the consumption of American-grown cotton and cottonseed products in the markets of the world. It has no other purpose.
In furtherance of this objective the council has recognized the importance of research in its every phase. As an example of its interest, the council threw the full weight of the cotton industry behind the Research and Marketing Act of 1946. Much of the information on cotton which served as a basis for this act was developed through the activities of this organization. It was stated before House and Senate Committees on Agriculture then, and it is reaffirmed now, that although notable gains have been made in farming methods, agriculture generally, and cotton in particular, have lagged behind industry, creating a highly inequitable condition which could never be remedied except through an adequate research program.
One of the basic problems confronting cotton may be outlined as follows:
(a) Cotton competes with industrially produced products-notably paper and rayon.
(b) Industrial competitors, through research, both fundamental and applied, have improved steadily and rapidly both in quality and in cost of production. These advances have enabled them to take over progressively larger portions of cotton markets with each passing year.
(c) The people most concerned with advancing cotton's comptitive status have been unable to provide the research program needed; and because most of them are small farmers scattered across 18 cotton-producing States, they will never be able to finance an adequate program.
(d) Consequently, the cotton industry has continued for many years to fall to a weaker competitive position.
It is the council's position that the Research and Marketing Act of 1946, which was adopted without a single dissenting vote, was a great and necessary step to give agriculture equality in research. Since that time the council has maintained close liaison with the agencies of Government charged with the responsibility of planning research projects. Efforts have been directed toward
1. Seeking out and describing accurately significant research problems.
2. Market evaluation of the importance of each problem to the industry and the Nation as a whole.
3. Focusing attention on those problems of primary importance. It is the considered opinion of the organization that establishment of a National Science Foundation is the next logical and essential step in the direction of an adequate research program, not only for cotton but for all commodities.
To recognize fully the significance of National Science legislation, it is important that we understand the dependence of modern civilization upon scientific progress. Every new development is a product of science. National existence itself is dependent upon superior scientific attainments.
The reasons why National Science Foundation legislation is essential have been thoroughly covered in the report Science, The Endless Frontier by Dr. Vannevar Bush. The need for action is well recognized by the Congress, as is shown by the passage of legislation last year.
One purpose of the proposed National Science Foundation is to encourage basic research in order to gain general knowledge and an understanding of nature and its laws. This general knowledge is absolutely essential to continued progress in scientific research on practical problems. As D". Bush has so ably expressed it, basic research "provides scientific capital; it creates the fund from which the practical applications of knowledge must be drawn."
It is important to realize that while the Research and Marketing Act is proving valuable in easing the cotton problem, it is not doing all that needs to be done. Furthermore, it is felt that adequate application of the Research and Marketing Act is endangered by too limited a store of fundamental knowledge needed as a background for effective attack on cotton's problems.
The implications of any federally financed research program go far beyond any single industry; it is important to all of them. Although such a program could hardly fail to include fundamental research on America's most abundant l'ésources, such as cotton and the cellulose of which it is composed, it is not for this reason alone that the legislation is considered important. Research in other fields is statistically certain to yield information which may be important keys to solving some of cotton's most urgent problems, and it is believed that in no other way will this information ever be obtained.
In view of its importance to national progress, to public welfare, and to the future safety of America, the council earnestly urges favorable consideration of this legislation.
Mr. PRIEST. A quorum call has just come. The chair had hoped that we could hear Mr. Lanham. Mr. Lanham, you will require about 30 minutes, will you not?
Mr. LANHAM. I would, Mr. Chairman. I realize it is late now, but I do want my testimony to be heard. I can come in the morning or any time that suits you.
Mr. PRIEST. Another subcommittee is meeting tomorrow in the room. If you could arrange to come tomorrow, and if we could arrange for another room, we will notify the committee members and make some arrangements to hear your testimony tomorrow morning. I believe that we can find some other place where your testimony can be given. We will notify you and other committee members. With that hearing tomorrow morning, these hearings then will stand adjourned until April 26, at which time there will be one 2-hour session of the subcommittee held for hearings.
Without objection there will be placed in the record at this point a letter from Dr. Vannevay Bush, another letter from 15 distinguished scientists, and a letter from the American Chemical Society.
(The letters referred to follow :)
CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON,
Washington 5, D. C., March 22, 1949. CHAIRMAN INTERSTATE AND FOREIGN COMMERCE COMMITTEE,
House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. DEAR SIR: I appreciate the opportunity given to me to appear before the subcommittee of your committee to testify on a number of bills which would establish a National Science Foundation. Unfortunately I will be unable to appear in person, but I do desire to submit a statement for the record.
I have long supported legislation for a National Science Foundation as a means for providing the augmented financial support which has become necessary in order to assure the conduct of basic research—the inquiry into natural phenomena-on a level adeudate to meet the demands of modern society. The tremendous effort in applied research exerted during the war has in many fields pushed the application of fundamental knowledge to the limit of such knowledge. In addition, the applied research being done in this country has more than tripled since 1939, and it is increasing.
Although one can rearrange existing scientific data in various forms and combinations, the advances to be achieved by such rearrangement are limited. In order to make significant progress, it is necessary to delve deeper into the unknown-to provide additional knowledge of the underlying nature of our environment. This is the purpose of truly basic research and the essence of such research is that it is carried on without thought of practical ends—it is an attempt to understand rather than to provide a particular material benefit. Basic research, therefore, rarely does in fact result in anything of immediate tangible value and even less often does it result in patentable inventions. But the general understanding and fundamental knowledge provided by basic research constitute the essential building blocks with which applied research and development directed toward particular objectives can operate. It is this applied research which gives rise to patents and know-how on which industrial progress depends.
Now, the main necessity for establishing a National Science Foundation as a Government agency rests in the fact that private resources are no longer sufficient to extend fundamental knowledge at a rate sufficient to meet the needs of applied l'esearch for industrial and governmental purposes, and to maintain this country in a position where its fundamental science, in every field of intellectual interest, will be second to none. Above all, the National Science Foundation is not designed to control or dominate basic research. This should not be done by any single group whether governmental or nongovernmental. Rather, the proper function of the National Science Foundation is to discover areas to which, relative to current trends, sufficient emphasis is not being given and to supply the funds to make up this deficit with the realization always that no man can predict with any certainty what will emerge in a practical way as knowledge is extended, so that all sound attempts to extend basic knowledge in truly relevant manner are inherently worthy. In so doing, it is essential that the Foundation be free to select the group or individual which is best suited to undertake the group or individual which is best suited to undertake the necessary investigation and supply the funds with which to do it with a minimum of administrative burden.
The increasing scale of applied research makes necessary commensurate increase in the numbers of trained scientists and engineers. In fact, the number of scientists and engineers trained annually has doubled every decade since 1900. It is plain that to meet these demands, which are increasing by geometric progression, great effort will be required. At the same time, a recent survey has shown that average tuition rates in the larger universities have increased by about 40 percent. The need, therefore, is urgent for Federal support of the training of scientists.
I am gratified to see that six of the bills before your committee show general agreement as to the essential nature of the National Science Foundation. The record of past hearings show that these bills meet with the general approval of the vast bulk of scientists, educators, and industrial and Government officials. Among the bills before you, again excluding from consideration H. R. 359, there are divergences but these appear to me to be of minor importance. Last year when the same bills were being considered, I wrote to your committee expressing a preference for the group of bills identical with H. R. 12 over the bill which has