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regard to the power of the endurance of the eyes in individual cases.

ANOTHER CAUSE OF FAILURE OF EYESIGHT. Our paper would be imperfect unless allusion is made to some subjects difficult to write about. The excessive indulgence in venereal pleasures, as well as illegitimate abuse among youth, unfits the eyes for labor, and tends permanently to destroy their usefulness. This is especially true if conjoined to a habit of using tobacco in feeble subjects. We must learn to “use this world as not abusing it.”

USE AND ABUSE OF GLASSES. VI. Mistakes in relation to the use of glasses frequently produces derangement and loss of vision. This article has been too much extended already to permit us to enter upon the discussion of this subject. It is full of importance; but to do it justice would require much space. We must refer again to the volume before-mentioned, after making a few suggestions :

1. Glasses should not be adopted without consideration and advice, and should be purchased only of reliable parties.

2. The lowest power that will answer the purpose should be selected, and no change should be made without advice.

3. It is dangerous to delay their use when required.

4. Colored glasses are seldom proper, and never except for å temporary purpose.

CONCLUDING SUGGESTIONS. In order to enjoy healthy eyes, it is necessary to guard with care the general health. The student must sit in a pure atmosphere. He should frequently breathe the out-door air. He should use cold water bathing, if it does not disagree with him, in order to invigorate the nervous system. He should frequently change his position and vary his labor. His dress should be easy. His hat-brim should be wide. He should have regard to the condition of his stomach and bowels. He should employ his eyes sufficiently, but not immoderately. The eyes may be injured by too little as well as too much labor. As before said, overwork is one of the peculiar dangers to which the student is exposed. Above all things, do not tamper with the eyes when diseased, but seek at once competent advice and implicitly follow it. No reliance is to be placed upon empirical remedies or accidental advising. No local remedy is safe, except water, warm or cold, and this not always, if used in excess. The best guide to the usefulness of this remedy is the effect produced. If grateful, it may be regarded as proper and useful. Dr. Weller says:* “ The reader will sadly err if he supposes that he has done all which is needful for his eyes when he has observed the prescriptions which concerns them immediately. He must pay attention to his general health. The eyes are so intimately connected with the human body, that nearly all the errors which affect it injuriously influence them also. Hippocrates meant to express this idea when he said : Ita valet corpus sicut valent oculi. Therefore, he who would enjoy continued health and soundness of vision, must regard as sacred all the rational laws of health.”

must reould enjoy coorpus sicut ant to expressary

ART. VII. — GODWIN'S HISTORY OF FRANCE The History of France. By PARKE GODWIN. Vol. I. (Ancient

Gaul.) 8vo., pp. 495. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1860. The origin and progress of the French people is of paramount interest and import to the student, whether attracted by mere curiosity, or by the hope of obtaining just conclusions in regard to the social and political changes of Europe. Their ardent and versatile genius, their impressible heart and ready hand, have always taken a leading part in these mutations. In arms, arts, and councils, their influence is felt throughout the civilized world. Ever ready for the initiative, even when most novel or perilous, they have tested all systems, and staked their wellbeing on the most diverse theories. So much are their examples and sympathy regarded, that when their streets are closed with barricades, and resound with republican songs, revolution flies over Europe; and the people's cause languishes and falls when it can draw no nourishment from French soil,

* Diätetik für gesunde und schwache Augen.

and no encouragement from French arms and diplomacy. Monarchs and people alike watch with anxiety the tortuous and uncertain course of French policy; and to circumscribe its power and repress its activity, the map of Europe has been repeatedly recast. To trace the origin and career of this remarkable nation, and the effects of its differential qualities upon the progress of European civilization, would a priori appear a most inviting study. But these researches acquire multiplied interest from even a cursory glance at the immense field over which the journey extends. History never taught by more gigantic examples, held up more glaring beacons, or manifested the energy of human nature by more brilliant and more terrible results, than in the crowded diverse and tumultuous past of the French people. The historian and the philosopher, burdened by its great significance, almost despair of accomplishing even a suggestive portraiture or analysis. As the prehistoric mists drift away from the Gallic forest, two savage races, the one dark and little, the other tall and fair, are struggling for the mastery, the former sullenly backing to the marshes and promontories of the Atlantic coast. Some rays of Greek civilization gleam into the obscurity from the port of Marseilles. The Roman empire next extends its laws and progress over these western wilds, and Gaul can boast its cities adorned with marble baths and theaters, its transalpine institutions, habits, vices, and decay. Some huge blind impulse stirs in distant Asia, and soon the great Cimmerian ocean “ heaving to the tempest's wing,” rolls its barbaric billows upon the devoted shore. From the Alps, the Belgian plain, and the gloomy Hercynian forest, age after age they sweep down, some to fall back from Aix and Chalons, oftener to remain settling from the vast crash and whirl of bloody con fusion into sedimentary strata of the great social formation which is to rise above that tossing chaos. Feudalism reduces society to some degree of order, but degrades the productive classes, who combine for self-protection into guilds and burghs, able to resist feudal violence. The systematic oppression and chronic warfare of feudalism are, in some measure, mitigated by the Church, which in this age of action deals actively with its children, and protects, intervenes, and censures with sword as often as with prayer. Religious and military enthusiasm, swollen to heroic proportions, drain Europe of its nobles and its wealth, to scatter them over the sands of Palestine. These disasters, combined with the religious wars of Languedoc, and with the exercise of perennial craft and violence, raise the small sovereignty of the Isle of France into a control, more or less complete, of the powerful princes who surround it. The rising monarchy enters upon a desperate struggle for existence with the sturdy English; and when impolicy and defeat have reduced it to such an extremity that a miracle seems the only resource, the miracle appears. But the heroism displayed by the suffering commons, though it expelled the stranger, brings no relief to themselves; the policy of a foreign master would at almost any period of their history have proved more beneficial to them than the virtue or gratitude of their own. The hearts of artisans and tradesmen cherish the true ideas of social and political organization which the commons have saved and perpetuated from the general ruin ; and now the Reformation appears among them, encouraging individual thought, fixing individual responsibility, and supporting the determinations of reason with the stout heart of faith. A doubly bitter civil war ensues, complicated by the animosities of both politics and religion; the kingdom flames with bloody intolerance, pious zeal, and valiant despair. Scarcely has it taken breath and settled into troubled repose, scarcely has the commanding genius of Richelieu succeeded in repairing its exhausted resources, and curbing the haughty vassals of the crown, when a new struggle is commenced. The power of the great lords, which gave a sort of imputed independence to their followers, is now, after a series of expiring throes, almost annihilated, and feudal checks being no longer operative, the overshadowing power of the crown alarms reflecting minds. The Fronde inaugurates the age of conflicts based upon purely political notions, upon the desire of personal and constitutional freedom, in place of the feudal and religious wars which have passed away forever. But the Fronde being neither a war of classes nor sects, lacks the impulse of fanaticism, and is unable to sustain itself, and royal authority culminates in the self-centered system of Louis XIV.! During half a century the nation's energy is expended in gigantic graspings after universal dominion. Exhausted of its patience and resources, it sees the royal line simultaneously exhausted of its kingly nature. How ominous, how fatal the conjuncture: God hath numbered the kingdom and finished it. Yet before that day of wrath, when king and nobles, and lovely ladies and gentle children, are haled by the blind instruments of long-suffering ignorance to expiate with their puny lives centuries of ancestral crime, the tottering monarchy, in the providence of God, lays its hands to one glorious work, and Americans at least will recall its turbulent career and awful tragedy with pardonable sadness, as they reflect that to its timely aid they owe relief from the protracted agony of civil war, and perhaps their present freedom and prosperity.

Down to a recent period the eventful progress of the French people has found no truthful and philosophical narrator. Prejudices of class, deference to royalty, and bad methods of historical composition, have united with the defect of study and mental training to make the earlier French histories quite unreliable. In the pages of Velly and Anquetil the student finds the airs and graces of their own times transferred to the rough Franks of the Merovingan age. They construct a so-called French monarchy of that and the Carlingian period, with its court, its intrigues, its offices, its relations with nobles and people, its refined vices, as if they were describing the social and political aspect of the sixteenth century. The rise of popular liberty they gloss over, and ascribe privileges wrested like Magna Charta, and defended against all comers for ages, to the free grace of the monarch. The distinctions of race, so marked even now, and the feudal divisions, only obliterated within three centuries past, are blended into a single French nation by the bold historian, who thus effects with a stroke of his pen what exhausted the craft and strength of a race of kings like Louis XI., and a college of cardinals like Richelieu. Devoid of individuality or correct local coloring, these narratives reproduce the stirring life of past ages about as accurately as the daub of a trowel might copy the almost animated reliefs on the frieze of the Parthenon.

During the present century, however, French literature has amply redeemed itself from such reproaches. The loving toil and truthful delineations of the Thierrys, the vivid style and

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