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phenomena of the kind here described, this question, like the preceding, does not admit, in the present state of the science, of a specific or quantitative answer.
In conclusion, then, of the whole inquiry, condensing into one expression my answer to tho general question, Whether a remote prehistoric antiquity for the human race has been established from the recent discovery of specimens of man's handiwork in the so-called diluvium, I maintain it is not proven; by no means asserting that it can be disproved, but insisting simply that it remains — Not Proven.
ECLECTIC REVIEW, October, 1860.-1. The Pauline Doctrine, No. II.
2. A Contrast; or, Theological Differences. 3. The Province of Reason. 4. Church Principles and Life. 5. Egypt's Place in Universal History. 6. The Social Affections. 7. Home Evangelization. 8. The Story of the Caliph Hakem, the Divinity of
the Druses. The fifth article is a brief critique upon Bunsen's demand for an immense ante-Mosaic chronology. Bunsen's positions are thus given :
First. That the immigration of the Asiatic stock from Western Asia (Chaldea) into Egypt is antediluvian.
Secondly. That the historical deluge, which took place in a considerable part of Central Asia, cannot have occurred at a more recent period than the Tenth Millennium, B. C.
Thirdly. That there are strong grounds for supposing that that catastrophe did not take place at a much earlier period.
Fourthly. That man existed on this earth about 20,000 years B.C., and that there is no valid reason for assuming a more remote beginning of our race.-P. 386.
A large amount of this hypothetical chronology is based upon Bunsen's theory that language is developed from a monosyllabic germ, namely, the Chinese, by agglutination, grammatical formations, and syntactical organization:
Thus we have a chain, of which the links are: A, Chinese; B, the oldest Turanian formations, or Tibetan ; C, Hhamism, the language-development of ancient Egypt; D, Semism; E, the harmonious and perfected organism of language, or Arism. As all things in the physical world tend upward to find their acme and perfection in man, so in language, from first to last, there is an organic life-struggle after the form which completes human utterance by the formation of articulated sentences-Arabic, Sanscrit, Greek, and Latin, being the highest results of the process. In these, in different degrees, is discerned the symmetrical organism which is the perfect instrument of the consciously creative mind.-P. 390.
This theory has, perhaps, about the same validity as M. Comte's assumption of the development of the human race through three philosophic stages of infancy, manhood, and age. The refutation is also similar :
A quite sufficient answer to this conjectural scheme of lingual development is found in the fact of the co-ætaneous existence, even at the present day, of all those varieties of language. Living representations are found still, among the spoken languages of the world, of Sinism, Turanism, Semism, and Arism: so that what we find cotemporaneous now, we are under no obligation to esteem consecutive at an earlier period of man's existence upon earth. Half-a-dozen modes of linguistio progress may have run their course cotemporaneously in the world, their characteristic differences and modes of procedure being due to the genius of the respective human races of families, rather than to any essential law of precedence among themselves. The indisputable fact, that the rule of development appears checked in the case of whole nations and quarters of the globe, which have settled down into imperfect modes of lingual expression as the final result of their experiment in language-making, and that there, at this low point of progress, they are sure to remain as long as the sun and moon endure, while others have pushed on to the acme of minute and accurate expression in a copious vocabulary and complicated syntax, and all this, although holding intercourse with nations in higher stages of linguistic development than their own, tells against the pretty pattern which the Baron has drawn, and asserts independent lines of collateral development, and not derivative subordination.
Furthermore, against the supposition of Chinese being the parent, in its primitive simple grammar, of the more developed but still simple grammar of the Egyptians, is the statement to be urged that the Egyptian grammar is not a simple one but one well-developed, bearing therefore, in this respect, no resemblance to the early Chinese. Hhamism is, in its grammatical structure, sheer Semism, or Arism in an early stage of development; just as, on the other side, Japhetism is likewise Semism, or Arism in a more finished stage, the affinities on both sides testifying to their common parentage, and thus to the unity of the human race.
The vocal element of the Chinese language claims no share in the parentage of the Hhamitic tongues, because that vocal element is independent of the characters. The written character of the whole Chinese nation is the same; so that an epistle written in any one dialect conveys precisely the same sense in any other dialect. But the sounds attached to the syllabic character are arbitrary, so that the inhabitants of the north and south of the Celestial Empire are as unintelligible to each other, when they speak, as if a hopelessly dumb person attempted to communicate by word of mouth with one as hopelessly deaf; but both Chinamen and infirm men become mutually intelligible directly they take a pen in their hand, and commit their thoughts to paper.
But the existence of a syllabic language like the Chinese to the present day, crystallized in forms so different from the linguistic cultivation of the rest of the great races of the world, is a very forcible argument against the derivation of the Egyptian from it, and against the rashness that would assign any specific period as essential for the process of its evolution into more perfect forms. If the Chinese, according to Bunsen, was virtually the same kind of tongue 15,000 years ago, before the great cataclysm, as it is now, having withstood the progressive tendency of humanity, and all the influences of time and change, there is nothing in this characteristic of the language to contribute any help toward forming correct ideas of the period of man's existence upon earth. The language which survives 15,000 years may have existed 30,000 years, for any evidence which its imperishable and unchanged forms of vocalization present to the contrary. If this argument tells negatively upward, it tells in the same way downward, and has at least the effect of neutralising that portion of the Baron's argument which claims specific periods for the production of peculiar characteristic or radical changes in tongues.-Pp. 391, 392.
REVUE DES Deux MONDES, Septembre 1, 1860.-1. Le Marquis
de Villemer, Quatreime Partie. 2. Politique Coloniale de la France-Les Antilles Françaises, la Martinique et la Guadeloupe Depuis L'Emancipation. 3. Thomas Jefferson, sa Vie et sa Correspondance-ÎV. Jefferson dans la Retrait, sa Mort. 4. La Poésie Hongroise au XIXe siècle—Les Rapsodes de l'Histoire
Poésie pondancecipation. Laises, la Martinique Colonia Marqui
Nationale. 5. Légendes et Paysages de l'Inde-L'Ile de Ceylan, son Histoire et ses Meurs. 6. Un Essai d'Histoire Idéale, Merlin l'Enchanteur. 7. Etudes de Cavalerie Les Chasseurs d'Afrique. 8. Chronique de la Quinzaine, Histoire Politique et
Littéraire. 9. Les Romans d’Hier et d'Aujourd'hui. Septembre 15, 1860.-1. L'Angleterre et la Vie Anglaise – L’Ar
mée, les Volontaires et les Ecoles Militaires—I. L'Arsenal de Woolwich. 2. Le Marquis de Villemer, Dernière Partie. 3. La Sculpture Contemporaine en France-Charles Simart. 4. Littérature Anglais-Une Thèse sur la Mariage en Deux Romans. 5. La Syrie et la Question d'Orient-I. Les Affaires de Syrie. 6. La Guerre du Maroc, Episode de l'Histoire Contemporaine de l'Espagne. 7. Du Mouvement Moral des Sociétés d’Après les
Derniers Résultats de la Statistique. Octobre 1, 1860.-1. Une Mission en Suisse Pendant les Cent-jours,
Papiers Inédits. 2. De l’Equilibre et de l'Etat des Forcés Navales en France et en Angleterre, a Propos des Nouveaux Essais Tentés Dans la Marine. 3. Industriels et Inventeurs—Christophe Oberkampf. 4. La Syrie et la Question d'Orient-II. La Turquie et la Conférence Européenne. 5. Mademoiselle du Plessé, Première Partie. 6. Des Agens de la Production AgricoleI. Les Engrais Minéraux. 7. Chronique de la Quinzaine, Histoire Politique et Littéraire. 8. Essais et Notices — De l'Organisation du Nouveau Royaume d'Italie.
REVUE CHRETIENNE, August 15, 1860.-1. Les Grands Moralistes
Français, d'après le livre de Vinet. 2. Jeanne d'Albret. 3. Bacon et le Materialisme (fin.) 4. Bulletin Bibliographiquc.
5. Revue du Mois. Septembre 15, 1860.-1. Port Royal. 2. Madame de Maintenon.
3. Jérusalem et le Temple. 4. Nécrologie. 5. Bulletin Biblio
graphique. 6. Revue du Mois. , The advancement of the principles of freedom in our country, in Church and in State, is matter of congratulation with the intellectual and Christian minds of Europe. Witness the following extracts, which we translate from this periodical:
If we direct our attention to the other hemisphere, we see the different political parties preparing themselves vigorously for the presidential election. Several candidates are in the field, but it is upon Mr. Lincoln of Illinois that the vote is bestowed of the party which has for its object the progressive abolition of slavery. Not that Mr. Lincoln is a decided abolitionist; but he is, at any rate, among the number of those who believe that slavery ought not to pass its actual limits. Such a platform has a signification of immense importance in the politics of a president of the American confederation; for it is to be noted that, according to the American constitution, to the federal power it is that the supreme authority belongs in the new territories not yet organized into states. To prevent the introduction of slavery, therefore, into the territories, is to assure for the future in the
confederation a majority of free states. This reason alone suffices to concentrato our wishes in favor of the election of Mr. Lincoln.
The cause of freedom has, in other respects, recently made important progress in the United States. We are happy, for instance, that the General Conference of one of the most important of the Churches in that vast country, the Methodist Church, has resolutely entered the antislavery current; and to brand, by the way, the shameful protest which the Methodist ministers of Charleston (Baltimore ?) have thought necessary to raise against that noble initiative. The last session of Congress has been marked by one of the most eloquent pleas against slavery that we have ever read. Our readers doubtless recollect that, three years ago, Mr. Sumner, a senator from Massachusetts, having attacked slavery in the senate, was brutally assailed by one of his colleagues, who, striking him unprepared with his cane, left him half dead upon the floor of the chamber. This ignoble conduct was applauded by the journals of the South. Mr. Sumner was obliged for the time to renounce his official labors; but scarcely was he restored and returned to the senate when he pronounced an admirable discourse, in which he has not feared to present in a striking picture the moral and material results of slavery. Such was the authority of that noble speech that not an interruption dared offer itself, and Mr. Sumner was able to make them understand quite to the end without any special effort his burning philippic, which, reproduced forthwith by the press, has moved the entire country. Thus, in spite of the brutal attempts of American demagogism to introduce into parliamentary manners the despotism of the street, it is consoling to think that, in the last resort, the moral advantage remains on the side of elevation of character, and courage is not wanting to the apostles of truth. -Pp. 514, 515.
The following extract gives the writer's impression in regard to the most eminent English preachers :
One trait of the present English religious movement is the direction altogether popular impressed upon the evangelical preaching. The public mind is weary, it would seem, of the academic sermon, which demonstrates by abstract considerations those verities which, in truth, belong to the heart, and which justify themselves, above all, in the life. The man who always answers the best to this need is Spurgeon, whose popularity suffers no decline. His preaching is not indeed wholly divested of the subtleties of a scholastic argumentation. It presents some singular divisions and arguments more specious than solid; but all this is carried along by the current of his living and burning eloquence. With Spurgeon, as with Guinness and with most of the young popular preachers, it is the imagination which is the dominant faculty. We find a more happy combination of qualities with a power also, altogether more real, in a Methodist preacher, Mr. Punshon, who is perhaps the most eminent religious orator of England at the present time. What strikes us in Mr. Punshon is that his faculties, which are of the first order, his imagination brilliant and poetic, his wonderful clearness, his extensive learning, are directed by an intellect also solid as it is vast, which penetrates to the very bottom of the subjects with which it treats. Wholly popular though he is, he sacrifices nothing to popularity. In him there is no appeal to an exterior sensibility, no specious measures for moving the imagination of the masses, nothing which indicates the man who prepares his effects. One feels that he gives always the reasons which have convinced himself, and that it is the interior labor of his own soul which he brings. This admirable talent is sustained by an elocution neat, animated, suiting itself to the slightest inflections of thought, and always weighty and worthy the subject it develops. One occasionally regrets that the labors of his ministry have somewhat fatigued his organs, in which there is sometimes a failure of the harmonious tones. But who can combine every excellence ?-P. 516.
ART. XI.- QUARTERLY BOOK-TABLE.
Religion, Theology, and Biblical Literature. Recent Inquiries in Theology. By eminent English Churchmen.
Being “Essays and Reviews." Reprinted from the Second London Edition. Edited, with an Introduction, by Rev. FREDERIC H. HEDGE, D. D. 12mo., pp. 480. Boston: Walker,
Wise, & Co. 1860. Under their original title of “Essays and Reviews,” the pieces of this volume have, in England, created a “sensation.” As reference to our Synopsis will show, they attracted decided notice from the current Quarterlies, and the jubilant Westminster pronounces their appearance“ an epoch ” in the progress of thought. This epochal importance cannot, as we think, arise from their very great ability; for, scholarly as they are in thought and style, we could, at a few hours' notice, select an equally able series of articles on kindred topics from the National Review. But the startling point in their appearance is, that they are the product of hands whose signatures stand unwithdrawn to the Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England, and a point of moral rectitude is fairly raised. Moreover, it presents itself as a movement from within the Establishment. Freethinkers hail it as an irretraceable advance down the terrace steps of skepticism. Bold inquiry, free speech is starting up in the ranks of orthodoxy, and a “movement” of “progress” is made in “flinging off the influence of old opinions."
The apologists for these writers would say that they were making an effort to show how the untenable elements of our past Christian belief can be surrendered without yielding the central or, at least, the vital parts. Geology, ethnology, monumental archæology, are showing that the cosmogony of Moses, the unity of the race, the chronology of the Pentateuch, are traditional errors. Science is demonstrating the immutability of nature, and falsifying thereby the myths of miracle. What then? All that is spiritual in Scripture, all that coincides with the high and holy intuitions of humanity remains, and remains forever. The Bible is still the best of books; the religion which is contained in the Bible, as the gold is in the ore, is imperishably true. The heroic men who now rise up to show that these invaluable realities are not to be surrendered amid the wreck of the tradition and the myth, are friends of religion and benefactors of the world.