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modified by the crimes of former lives that the motives to holiness are not very strong. Then, too, it is a religion whose primal law is intense selfishness. The good of our fellowmen, the feeling of gratitude, or of disinterested love, finds no place in it.
The Buddhist faith is the predominant though not the only religion of Ceylon. It is the national religion of Burmah, Siam, and Farther India generally, of Thibet and Mongolia, It is also the most prominent of the three religions of China and Japan, and has found many adherents among the tribes bordering on the sea of Okhotsk.
In Burmah and the other countries of Farther India, Buddha is usually called Gaudama or Gotama; in China, Fo, Fohi, Fo-thu, 0-me-do-veh, or Kio; in Thibet, Sangs-rgyas ; in Mongolia, Burchau ; in Japan, Budsdo. The adherents of Buddhism number not less than three hundred millions. This great prevalence it has gained, not so much by the earnestness of its apostles in preaching its distinctive doctrines, as by their readiness to assimilate with other forms of religion. Wherever it has penetrated it has absorbed a large portion of the adherents of other creeds by adopting a portion of their forms and tenets, and persuading them that Buddhism was nothing else than a desirable reform of their own system.
It has resulted from this that the Buddhism of Ceylon is one thing and that of China and Thibet quite another. In Thibet and in Japan its priests possess secular as well as spiritual power; in the former country the chief rulers of the nation are two priests, who have attained to the condition of inferior Buddhas. In order to maintain this power in the hands of the priests, the soul of the departing Lama, or spiritual potentate, is said to have passed into the body of a child, whom the priests profess to recognize by certain marks, and elevating him to the throne, govern in his name.
For some centuries subsequent to the death of Buddha, his worship was conducted in grottos and cave temples, on the sculptures of which immense sums were expended. The ruins of many of these still exist, and give evidence of the imposing character of this early worship. The most remarkable among them are the caves at Elephanta, Ellora, and Salsetta; the vast temple of Lava-Matra-Palu in Ceylon, with its 1600 pillars of hewn stone; and the grotto shrines of Mehentele and Dambulu-galli. The esoteric doctrines of Buddhism, which it is alleged were taught in these temples, are now entirely lost, if they ever had an existence, and the worship of Buddha is now conducted in pagodas, lofty towerlike structures, and his offerings are flowers, while the worshipers bring also rice and betelnut for the priests.
Annalots which havet. PEKINS.
ART. IV.-OLD MACKINAW. Old Mackinaw : or, The Fortress of the Lakes and its Surroundings. By W. P. STRICKLAND. Philadelphia : J. Challen &
Son. Exposition of Mackinaw City. By E. D. MANSFIELD. Annals of the West: embracing a Concise Account of the Principal Events which have occurred in the Western States and Territo
ries. By JAMES H. PEKINS. WHOEVER looks upon the map of North America will be struck with the singular conformation of both land and water round the Straits of Mackinaw. There is scarcely anything in American geography more remarkable. The vast expanse of American lakes, flowing through more than two thousand miles, and covering more than one hundred thousand square miles of water surface, seem here to concentrate; and the three great lakes, Superior, Huron, and Michigan, to speak metaphysically, lay their heads together, as if to consider some notable point. Far to the northwest of the straits stretches Lake Superior, with its clear waters and its pictured rocks. Far to the south lies Lake Michigan, with its long arm at Green Bay; while to the southeast stretch the dark waters of Huron, with its Manitou Islands and its Georgian Sea. But vast as are these inland seas, they here ineet together. Superior forms its waters through the Sault of St. Mary's; Michigan rolls through the Straits of Mackinaw, and the magnificent Huron comes up to meet them. That a point so remarkable by nature should become equally so in the growth of a young and rising empire, seems to be a necessary inference from these facts. There are but few points on the earth which present such striking advantages for the pursuits of commerce. If we look upon the map of the globe, we shall find, perhaps, only four or five which have similar features. The Straits of Gibraltar, separating Europe from Africa; Constantinople, on the Bosphorus; Singapore, on the Straits of Malacca; and the Isthmus of Panama, are the only ones which now strike us as presenting a parallel. Singapore has rapidly concentrated Asiatic navigation, and more various people may be found there than at any ocean point. Panama is rising to commercial importance with equal rapidity, while Gibraltar and Constantinople are world-renowned for the value of their positions. Mackinaw presents nearly the same features. Not only do great inland seas here meet together, but on every side of these waters press down great districts of land, rich, various, and abundant in their resources. On the north lies the peninsula of Canada, which, although long regarded as barren and inhospitable, has been recently proved a country of good soil, abundant water, and mild climate. To the south is the peninsula of Michigan, now fast filling up with a thrifty American population. To the west is the great mining region, where copper and iron seem inexhaustible. Thus nature seems to have made this place as rich in the materials as in the channels of commerce. Nor has she placed any barriers in the way of its future growth. Constantinople has its plague, and Panama its fevers; but Mackinaw, grand in its scenery, and opulent in its resources, is equally salubrious in its climate, and inviting to the seekers for health, pleasure, and repose. Here, says Dr. Drake, in his work on the diseases of America, is the minimum of the conditions which give rise to fever; and here is that equability of climate which is so favorable to the consumptive and the invalid from southern climes. That the length and rigor of winter cold may be unfavorable to some of the vegetable products may be admitted, without seriously impairing the advantages of its position for commerce, certainly almost unrivaled in the Western Hemisphere.
Such is the position of Mackinaw, and to this let us now add that it was one of the earliest visited and occupied (as a missionary station) in that great and most prosperous region—the Northwest. The reader will recollect the zeal and energy with which the Jesuit missionaries, some two or three centuries since, endeavored to penetrate the wilderness of America. While the colonies of Plymouth and Jamestown were yet infant settlements, Nicolet, who had probably heard from the Indians rumors of great seas and wide savannas, set out in search of the mysterious rivers of the West, which, like the sources of the Nile to the European, rose in obscure grandeur before his excited imagination. From Quebec he proceeded to visit the Indians of Green Bay, and was the first to notice the Straits of Mackinaw. Thirty years after, in 1670, James Marquette, a devoted missionary of the Jesuit Society, with a company of Huron Indians, known as the Wyandots, entered the old Indian town at the north of the straits. Here he planted a colony, called the missionary station of St. Ignatius, while he resided on the island of Mackinaw. In his narratives to the society he describes this point as the key, or gate, for all the tribes of the South, as the Sault of St. Mary's was for those from the North, there being in this section of country only these two passages by water.
“Old Mackinaw,” says Mr. Strickland, “the Indian name of which is Pequod-e-non-ge, on the south side of the straits, became the place of the first French settlement northwest of Fort Frontenac, or Cadaracqui, on Lake Ontario. It was the metropolis of a portion of the Ojibwa and Ottawa nations. It was there their congresses met to adopt a policy which terminated in the conquest of the country south of it; it was there that the tramping feet of thousands of plumed and painted warriors shook Pequod-e-non-ge; it was there that the startling sounds of their war yell, wafted to the adjacent coast and islands, made the peaceful woods ring with unearthly shouts of victory or death.” In process of time the place became the site of a chapel, a fort, and a college. On an eminence the Ottawas erected a fortification. Within the inclosure of the French fort and chapel the Jesuits erected a college, the first of that kind established in the West; and thus arose the settlement of St. Ignatius, called from the head of the order of Jesuits.
The Mackinaw Missions fell with the fall of the Jesuits, and the peaceful devotion, the quiet loyalty of the Indians were never again renewed. In 1759 Mackinaw fell into the hands of the English; and in 1762, three years after, was enacted the
Fourth SERIES, VOL. XIII.—15
dark tragedy of Pontiac's conspiracy. The bands of the Chippewas, the great warlike tribe of the North, gathered round Mackinaw. Just then an English trader named Henry arrived at the post for the purposes of trade. He was called upon by an Indian wrapped in a mantle, who in eloquent language narrated their attachment to the French, whose spirits he seemed to see coming to excite their hatred of the English, and avenge the wrongs of the Indian. He told Henry that they were the enemies of the English, but that Henry, having come as a trader, might remain in peace. This Indian was supposed to be Pontiac, who was then about to strike the blow so fatal to the English.
In another day Henry beheld from his window the massacre of the entire garrison, and the beginning of that sudden and disastrous war which caused streams of blood to flow through the basin of the Lakes and the valley of the Ohio. Henry barely escaped, by favor of an Indian chief, to narrate the story of desolation by which Mackinaw was overthrown.
In looking to the events of that day, it is not to be disguised that however successful or praiseworthy the Jesuit missions may have been, the prejudices which they instilled among the Indians in favor of the French, and against the English, had no small influence in exciting that hatred against both English and Americans which existed for half a century after Pontiac's conspiracy, and has reacted in the conquest of the Indians, and will terminate only in their final destruction. The Jesuit missions, as we have seen, terminated. Mackinaw passed from the French to the English, and finally to the Americans. The Indians have retreated further to the northwest, and the tribes which still linger round their ancient haunts have dwindled away. Several Protestant missions have been established among them; but as all the circumstances were changed, so the success was different. The first Protestant missionary in that region was sent out by the first American Missionary Society. “The Connecticut Missionary Society,” believed to be the oldest missionary association, was formed in June, 1795, with the direct object in view to Christianize the heathen in North America, and to support and promote Christian knowledge in the new settlements within the United States. Before this society Mr. David Bacon presented himself, as a candidate for a field of labor at