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La Crosse River, St. Peter's, and throughout the pine region, creating at once an immense trade in pine lumber. The great center of the pineries at this time is in the lower peninsula of Michigan, south of old Mackinaw. This lumber region is one of the wonders of our country, and it is supposed that Michigan is the greatest lumber region of the world. Here are not only interminable forests of choice pine but water outlets on every side. At the northern extremity is the Straits of Mackinaw; at the east, Saginaw and Sable; at the west is Traverse Bay, the Muskegon, and Grand River ; while to the south is the northern outlet of Lake Erie. On every side lakes and rivers are ready to transport the products of Michigan, which enjoys every advantage which belongs to the northern temperate zone. As this immense production, this flow inward of the growing population, this growth of industry goes on, there will finally arise a great commercial city on the straits. Before we speak of this let us glance at the commerce of the lakes, which has grown already out of this recent development of mines, and fisheries, and pineries. Even the people of the United States, accustomed to the rapid growth of their own country, have scarcely been able to realize that of this lake commerce. But a very few years since scarcely a single steamer proceeded beyond Detroit, and not five years since the newspapers announced as an extraordinary event the annual voyage of a passenger vessel to the upper end of Lake Superior. Recently, however, the canal round the Sault of St. Mary has been completed, and this has given a great impetus to the navigation of Lake Superior. In 1854 but two steamboats and tive sail vessels reached Superior City. In 1856, two years after, forty steamers and sixteen sail vessels reached that port. Now, hundreds of vessels navigate that lake from one extremity to the other. What the commerce of this great northern lake will be may be judged by the startling facts, that there are now sixteen hundred vessels navigating the northwestern lakes, manned by thirteen thousand seamen, and trading with ports on five thousand miles of lake and river coasts. The exports and imports amount to hundreds of millions in value, and are still increasing at a most rapid rate. Since the continuation of the canal round the Sault of St. Mary, the annual value of exports and imports which pass through the Straits of Mackinaw is estimated at one hundred millions of dollars, and this commerce of the great lake will flow on till it exceeds that of the Caspian or the Black Sea; till its shores shall be lined with cities, and the story of Marquette, and the victory of Pontiac, become the classic legends of marveling boyhood. With these facts before us, it is no surprise to find that while the immediate country round old Mackinaw is yet a wilderness, an enterprising gentleman has laid out a city on the site of “Old Mackinaw." There was one laid out years before at the upper end of Lake Superior, and is now a large town, growing with great rapidity. At the Straits of Mackinaw, as well as the upper end of Lake Superior, there must be large cities to supply the demands of commerce. It is not a matter of speculation, but a necessity of nature. The same necessity has already created Buffalo, Toledo, Detroit, Chicago, and St. Louis. The demand for such towns on the shores of Lakes Huron and Superior, and especially at the Straits of Mackinaw, whose bay and Lake Michigan flow together, are obviously far greater than those which have already caused the growth of Buffalo and Chicago. They have grown to supply the commerce of comparatively limited districts. One means of testing this is to apply radial lines to the site of any city existent or proposed, so as to include what naturally belongs to them, and thus compare them with one another. The radial lines of New York and Philadelphia extend across the ocean to Europe on one hand, and across the mountains to the Valley of the Mississippi on the other. In looking to this fact we are no longer surprised that New York has its million of inhabitants, and Philadelphia its six hundred thousand.
If we look to the radial lines of Chicago, we find that they are limited on the south by the competion of St. Louis, and on the North by Milwaukee. Yet Chicago, at the southern end of Lake Michigan, has risen to be a large city by a sudden and extraordinary growth, arising from the rich, thonghi limited country about it. Apply these radial lines to Mackinaw, and we find that they naturally include all of Michigan, a large part of Wisconsin, and a large part of Canada West; but in reference to water navigation no interior site in America is equal to that of Mackinaw. Here concentrate the navigation of eighty thousand square miles of water surface, which
earer to Bufae preferred.heapest,
has no common center but that of the Straits of Mackinaw. Two facts must be observed : that a commercial point which concentrates the trade of Lakes Superior, and Michigan must lie within the circuit of their coasts; but there is no such point, but Mackinaw. The other is that the point of commerce which offers the shortest distance, and therefore the cheapest, to the great markets of the Atlantic, will be preferred. Mackinaw is five hundred miles nearer to Buffalo than is Fond du Lac, and three hundred miles nearer than Chicago. So it is the same distance nearer to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, or the city of New York. It is on the south side only, through the peninsular of Michigan, and toward the states of Indiana and Ohio, that the position of Mackinaw seems deficient in communications. But we no sooner see this than we see also two great lines of railroad, progressing from the South through the peninsula toward Mackinaw. The one passes on the west side from Fort Wayne (Indiana) through Grand Rapids and Traverse Bay. The other through Lansing and Amboy, both terminating on the north at Mackinaw, and both, by connection with Indiana and Ohio roads, at Cincinnati on the south ; thence, they will soon be carried to the orange-growing shores of Florida. Thus may some future traveler be borne in a few hours from the soft air of the southern Atlantic to the keen breezes of the North, and bathe his languid limbs in the clear cold waters of Michigan.
Thus briefly have we followed the facts presented by Mr. Strickland, till we find ourselves again standing on the site of “Old Mackinaw;" no more the single, lonely spot of civilization amid red warriors and Alpine forests, but just emerging to light amid a wonderful growth of people, of commerce, of industry, and art. The forests still stand, scarcely broken; but the sound of the advancing host, which is to level them with the ground and build up the structures of civil society, cannot be mistaken. They come with the heavy tread and confused noise of an army with banners.
The growth of the American States, as we have said, is from the outer to the inner circles; from the shores of the Atlantic and the Pacific, from the Bay of St. Lawrence and the mouths of the Hudson and the Mississippi, toward the interior. Then we had Boston, New York, Quebec, and New Orleans, long before we had Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, St. Louis, and Chicago, which are the second growth when the wave flowed over the Alleghanies. Again the wave is flowing from the valleys of the St. Lawrence, the Ohio, and the Mississippi, into the great central basin of the lakes, which, lying in the very center of the North American continent, are the last to receive, as they will ultimately concentrate, the great moving mass of humanity and civilization. The circles are growing narrower, and Mackinaw, which was the center of Indian and of missionary romance, will finally become one of the great centers of commercial growth and social progress, presenting the contrast between the solitudes of nature and the wild life of the Indian on one hand, with the busy activity of modern society, its multitude of people, and the wonderful arts.
The steady uninterrupted growth of our country, which no other nation can now interrupt, affords at once the moral evidence that what we have seen of growth and development in the past, will be exhibited in a progressive line through the future till ages have passed away. We have seen from the little settlements at Plymouth and Jamestown their gradual growth inward till cities arose along our coasts which rival the largest of ancient nations. We have seen them again extending along the Ohio and the Mississippi till great towns, filled with commerce and with arts, rose upon their banks. We have seen them enter the basin of the lakes, till Buffalo spreads itself along the rapids of Niagara, till Chicago looms up in a day, and St. Paul looks down from the far Northwest. Why should not this movement continue? What should interrupt it? We may imagine the beautiful shores of Huron and Superior alive with the chariots of commerce, and gleaming with the spires of beautiful towns. Here, where we have stood on the site of “Old Mackinaw,” beholding its world of waters, we seem to see, shining in the morning sun, some metropolis of the lakes, some Byzantium, presiding over the seas which lave its shores. Here, perhaps, in those bright days of triumphant civilization, some pilgrim student may inquire for the grave of Marquette, may read the story of Pontiac, and lament the woes of that wild nation who once frequented the shores of Huron, and sung their last songs round the “Pequod-e-nonge" of the Indian, the Mackinaw of the whites.
ART. V.–THE PAULINE USE OF THE WORD EAPE AS IT
APPLIES TO THE DOCTRINE OF DEPRAVITY.
In studying general theology as a science, it is proper to begin with the direct doctrine of God, his being and attributes. But not so with the special system of “Christian doctrine," or positive Christian theology. Here the doctrine of God is supposed to be understood. Christianity is a remedial scheme, and its whole force and fitness depend on the pre-supposition of the ruined state of man. As the value of medicine depends on the antecedent existence of disease, so the total worth of the Christian scheme must-be estimated by the actual condition and necessities of human nature, making such a scheme necessary. From our views of man, his natural condition and capabilities, must arise our peculiar doctrines concerning Christ, his mediation, his atonement, the Church, human accountability, and the means by which human nature is to achieve its exalted destiny. We say, therefore, it is from the avopatos rather than the Deóç that our inquiries relating to the Christian scheme are to take their rise.
The condition of man by nature, taking the word nature in the sense of generation, birth, is commonly denoted by the term depravity, a word which it is not easy to define with metaphysical accuracy. There is no one word in Scripture: which technically answers to the idea of depravity, unless perhaps it is poopá, which is commonly translated corruption. In Rom. viii, 21, it stands in contrast to the state of salvation by Christ, and represents simply our natural or fallen state: "For the creature itself shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God.” The corresponding word in the Old Testament is now, shahath, generally translated pit, but sometimes grave, four times corruption, (Job xvii, 14; Psa. xvi, 10; xlix, 9; Jonah ii, 6,) and twice destruction, (Psa. lv, 23; ciii, 4.) The prevailing idea of the Hebrew word is destruction, loss, ruin, not corruption in the sense of putrescence. In the New Testament the idea of corrup tion in the sense of impurity is prominent; but the radical idea, namely, that of ruin, destruction, is preserved throughout. When applied to man it sometimes denotes the special derange