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to be bright indeed, especially as no soon as the oppressive weight was refear need be entertained that the relig. | moved. Protestant associations were ious liberty now enjoyed by Protestants known to have been organized in differthroughout the peninsula will be curtail ent parts of the country, and to be in ed. The two greatest Italian statesmen, secret correspondence with each other, Cavour and Garibaldi, rival with each | though no details could be published, as other in the decided advocacy of the they would have exposed the converts principle of religious liberty, and Gari to the rigor of the Spanish law, which baldi has even denounced in a public does not authorize the profession of speech the papacy itself as antichristian, Protestantism. Toward the end of and such a declaration from the most | August, 1860, the flight of a young stupopular man of the country cannot fail dent from the clerical seminary in Grato prove a heavy blow to the Roman nada led to the arrest of Mr. Alhama, a Church.

hatmaker of Granada, who has been for

several years presiding over the ProtestTHE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. It ant society in that city. A search in his is difficult to obtain reliable information house led to the discovery of the names on the position of the Roman Catholic and addresses of nearly all the Spanish priesthood with regard to the extraordi. Protestants in Granada. At first eight. nary political changes of the two last een persons were arrested, but it seemed years. It cannot be doubted that quite as if the government was afraid openly a number of them warmly sympathize to admit how widely Protestant ideas with the cause of the union. The pope have spread, and all of them, except himself not long ago publicly expressed Alhama, have since been discharged, his regret that a Neapolitan bishop had either entirely or on bail. In Malaga written to him in favor of Garibaldi. and Seville no arrests were made; but in In the city of Naples an association of Barcelona, on October 8, another leading priests has been formed to labor for the man among the Spanish Protestants, confirmation of the Union, and their Manuel Matamoros, was arrested, and committee has issued a pamphlet, in more information on the Protestant assowhich they solicit the co-operation of the ciations fell, on that occasion, into the entire clergy of the kingdom. The col- hands of the police. Matamoros was porteurs also report from various partssent, toward the close of December, to of Italy that they occasionally meet Granada, where he is to be tried, togethwith priests who gladly buy the Bible, er with Alhama and others. Both the and approve of the objects of the Bible prisoners astonished the judge by Societies. But only a few have as frankly acknowledging that they no yet been found willing to shake off longer believed in the doctrines of the openly the belief in the spiritual su Roman Catholic Church, but only in the premacy of the pope, and to embrace word of God. Matamoros says that the the principles of evangelical Chris work in Barcelona has not suffered in tianity.

the slightest degree; that in Andalusia The reduction of the number of con (of which Seville is the capital) they have vents is likely to take place on a grand received a fearful blow; but time will scale. With regard to the Jesuits, we obliterate their panic, and all go on as learn from a letter addressed by the before. According to another report, general of the order to Victor Emanuel, i six Protestants have fled to Gibraltar, that that order has lost three colleges in to avoid captivity. The English branch Lombardy, six in Modena, eleven in the of the Evangelical Association has solicpontifical states, nineteen in the king- ! ited the government to exert itself in dom of Naples, and fifteen in Sicily. behalf of the prisoners; and Lord John

Russell has assured the committee who SPAIN.

waited on him that he cordially sympa. PROTESTANTISM. - It has been well | thizes with the object of their petition, known for some time in the Protestant though it may not be in the power of world, that the work of evangelization, the government to give to it an oficial 80 auspiciously begun in Spain a few support. years ago, during the short period of liberal government, had not been extin

TURKEY guished, but was smouldering on, ready THE GREEK CHURCH.—The election of to burst forth with increased power as a new patriarch of Constantinople, to the

importance of which, under the present | do concern, as they were not going circumstances, we called attention in the henceforth to acknowledge the Greek October number of the Methodist Quar- | patriarch. They bave, in fact, so far as terly Review, (p. 674,) took place on it is in their power, severed all connecOctober 16. It was the first time that | tion with the patriarchate of Constantinothe representatives of the laity took part | ple. They had long been threatening that in this important act, and the innovation! if the Porte would not concede to them had awakened in the Protestant Churches a national Bulgarian patriarchate the of Europe and America many hopes for whole nation would go over to Rome, the beginning of a thorough reformation and place itself under the protectorate in the Greek Church. The result of the of France. As the Porte refused to comexperiment, however, does not confirm ply with their demand, all the preliminasuch hopes. The proceedings of the ries for a union with Rome were taken, election bear a comparison with the and Roman Catholic papers in Europe most disgraceful events in Church His and this country even prematurely antory. According to the right conferred nounced the consummation of the union. on them by the new constitution, the According to the last advices, however, patriarchs, archbishops, and bishops of only a limited number, including the Turkey had nominated for the vacant editor of a Bulgarian paper in Constantisee, by writing, the candidates who to nople, have been found willing to take them seemed most worthy to occupy it. the final step. The bulk of the nation are The National Assembly, consisting of still hesitating, and waiting for further deabout forty clergymen and eighty laymen, velopments, and many are said to prefer was convened in September, and selected to enroll themselves civilly as Protest. from the names nominated by the bishops ants, as this step would not require of eleven names which were handed over them a sudden change in their religious to the Porte, to see if the government profession, which they may feel not to would object to any of them. The Porte be warranted by political causes. in this case did not make use of the right of veto, and the National Assembly THE ARMENIAN CHURCH.-We referred chose three candidates, from which the in the January number of the Methodist clerical members had to elect the patri. Quarterly Review (p. 142) to the efforts arch. Before the election took place, a made by the High Church Episcopalians portion of the assembly insisted that in England for establishing a closer union those clerical members who had been between the Church of England and the convicted before the Porte of having been eastern Churches. Intelligence has sinco guilty of bribery and other scandalous been received from Turkey that the crimes, should not vote. This gave rise Armenian press, which has risen to conto a most disgraceful quarrel, in which siderable importance since the establishecclesiastics and laymen, high and low, | ment of the American missions in Turkey, mingled in a general and uproarious has taken up the subject, and seems to refight. One of the bishops was nearly gard it with favor. A pamphlet has been strangled by an archdeacon, who, it is issued whose object is to show how nearly said, in his turn lost three fourths of his the Armenian Church is like that of En. beard by the unsanctified hands of a lay- gland. The pamphlet, to this end, quotes man who came to the rescue of the bishop. from the prayer-book the whole of the

The result of the whole was that a man twenty-fifth Article of Religion, but so has been chosen to the office of patriarch cunningly shapes the translation as to who has always shown himself a decided make it appear that the Church of Enopponent of any reform, and is even now gland, as well as the Armenian, believes in favor of overthrowing the entire new in seven sacraments, though five of them, constitution. The election has been con the pamphlet says, are received only, as firmed by the Sultan, but a large and re they are by the Armenian Church, as secspectable body of the Greeks have strong ondary sacraments. Several Armenian ly protested against it. The Bulgarians, theologians are quoted in support of this who had been treated with entire neglect theory. As this is the very same scheme when the new rules were being framed, by means of which Henry Newman and utterly refused to be represented in the other Oxford Tractarians endeavored to assembly for electing the patriarch, prove the possibility of harmonizing the either by laymen or ecclesiastics, saying thirty-nine articles with the decrees of that it was a matter in which they had | the Council of Trent, it is believed that page.

English Puseyites aided in the compila- | Church at Echmiadzin, but being sometion of the pamphlet, which has the im- what unwell, and his time of absence primatur of the patriarch on the title- | having almost expired, he abandoned

his journey to Echmiadzin, and spent Information is also given by Armenian ten days in Tiflis to confer with the archjournals of an interview which Rev. G. bishop of that city. He expressed, in Williams, of Cambridge, had with the the name of the Church of England, his acArmenian Archbishop of TiAis, in Georgia, | knowledgement of the Armenian Church relative to the scheme of a union be- | as a true, orthodox, and apostolic Church, tween the English and Armenian and kissed “the sacred hand of his holiChurches. Mr. Williams was the bearer | ness." The archbishop in return granted of letters from the Bishops of Oxford and to him his episcopal blessing, and exLincoln, who, it appears, assumed to pressed a thousand good wishes for himspeak in the name of the Church of self and his people. To the proposition England to "the catholicos, patriarch, of Mr. Williams to send a few young bishops, etc., of the orthodox Eastern Armenians to Cambridge for an educaChurch." He was to see "the holy ca- | tion no definite answer was given. tholicos," the head of the entire Armenian



| ceives in fact the character of a history The Life and Times of Aonio Paleario,

of the Church of England. The work or, a History of the Italian Reformers of

will be completed in five volumes, the the Sixteenth Century, by M. Young,

first of which contains the Anglo-Saxon (London, 1860, 2 vols.,) is a work on a

period. The Christian Observer, of Lon. subject which just now commands a

don, the monthly organ of the evangel. more than common interest. The “Sec

ical school in the Church of England, ond Reformation," which for some years

devotes a long article to the work. It has so auspiciously begun in the Apen

justly censures the prejudices and fanatnine peninsula, has naturally drawn back

icism of the author, “whose intellect is the attention of the Protestant world to

at once disturbed when the specter of a the glorious history of the first reforma

Methodist or a Puritan crosses his path," tion, and to the many good and great men

but at the conclusion of its article it who were the leaders of the evangelical

acknowledges the partial merits of the movement. Antonio, or as, in accord.

book in the following terms: "As the ance with the predilection of his times for

historian of a period of our history which classic names, be later used to call him

has had some charms for ourselves, we self, Aonio Paleario, has established, by

admire his diligence, and admit not only his work on the Benefit of Christ's Death,

his accuracy and research, but the skill (noticed, p. 340,) a just claim to be count

with which he has disentangled obscure ed among them.

and complicated events, and the interest

which he has thrown over those portions Among the most important recent En

of the story which in other hands might glish works on Church history belongs the

have been dry and barren." "Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury," (London, vol. 1, 1860,) by Dr. Hook, the The same number of the Christian 05. well known High Church dean of Chiches- server reviews Dr. Hessey's Bampton ter. The work contains much more than | Lectures on “ Sunday: its origin, History, what the title would indicate, for it not and present Obligation." (London, 1860.) only gives the biographies of the incum | The Bampton Lectures have of late rebonts of the See of Canterbury, of many gained their ancient celebrity. In 1858 of whom nothing is known except their | Mr. Mansel exerted his logical mind names, but it makes the life of every pre- against the German Rationalism now late who is under review the center making its advances in England. In around which we see the ecclesiastical 1859 Mr. Rawlinson brought modern world revolve; and thus the work re- | discovery to bear on the history of the ancient world, and on the defense of the l of the Archbishop of Armagh, by E. H. Bible from critics of the same school. Todd, D.D.; The Churches of the East, Dr. Hessey followed, in 1860, with the by Rev. G. Williams, D.D., of whose relectures above mentioned. The Observer ! cent travels in the East we have spoken thinks we may thank Dr. Hessey "for a in our department of Foreign Religions clear historical account of the Sunday |

rical account of the Sunday | Intelligence. from the apostles' time to our own,'' and expresses its agreement with much that he says; but strongly dissents from some

GERMANY. of his views, as smacking of neology. An important contribution to the biblical

On the history of the celebrated Jan- literature of Germany is a new manual senist Convent of Port Royal, on which of "Introduction to the Holy Scripwe already have excellent works in tures,” by the late Professor Bleek, of German by Reuchlin, and in French by | Bonn. (Einleitung in die heil. Schrift. St. Beuve, the first thorough English Berlin, 1860.) It was left nearly ready work has been recently published by for publication by the deceased author, Beard, Port Royat: a Contribution to and only the necessary references to the the History of Religion and Literature literature published since the death of in France, (London, 1861.)

Bleek (1859) had to be added by the edOn the atonement, which has been

itors, T. F. Bleek and A. Kamphausen.

The first volume contains the introduction for several years the subject of an ani

to the Old Testament; the second volmated theological discussion in England,

| ume, the New Testament, is to be issued as neological views concerning it have found many advocates both in the

during the present year. The work is inChurch of England, and among Dissent

troduced by a preface of the venerable

Dr. Nitzsch. The great reputation of ers, a new extensive work has been

the distinguished author is a sufficient published by Robert S. Candlish, (The

guaranty that this new manual will Atonement: its Realitu. Completeness, and Extent, pp. 400, London, 1861.) The

rank among the best of its kind. Christian Observer recommends two

" The Life and the Doctrines of John small treatises, published on the subject Scotus Erigena in their Relation to the in 1860, by Wilson, (The True Doctrine Preceding and to Modern Philosophy of the Atonement Asserted and Vindicated.) | and Theology, (Leben und Lehre des Joh. and Bagot, (The Atonement: an Argu- Scotus Erigena, Gotha, 1860,) is the title ment,) as containing more of the results of a new work, by Rev. Th. Christlieb, of patient thought upon this great doc | the pastor of a German congregation trine than has been lately given within in England. The work is introduced 80 sroall a compass.

by a preface of Professor Landerer, of Of Alford's Greek Testament, vol. 4,

Tübingen, and is certainly a very sea

sonable one, for there is hardly ono part ii, is announced, which completes

among the prominent theologians of the the work.

middle ages whose doctrines offer a betAmong other new publications are ter field for new investigation and eluci. the following: Maurice's Lectures on the dation, than Scotus Erigena. SimulApocalypse; Hugh Miller, The Headship of taneously with the above work, another Christ, and the Rights of the Christian has been published by Dr. Kaulich on People; Foulkes, À Synopsis of Hindu the speculative system of Scotus Erigena, Systems and Sects; Palmer, Egyptian (Das Speculative System des J. S. E. Chronicles, with a Harmony of Sacred Prague, 1860.) and Egyptian Chronology.

A collective work of great excellence Among the important works which was commenced a few years ago by a are announced as forthcoming, are a number of distinguished divines of the new and improved edition of Kitto's Reformed Church, (among them are Cyclopedia of Biblical Literature, by W. Hagenbach, Baum, Schmidt, Sudhoff, Lindsay Alexander, D.D.; a History of and others,) under the title, “Lives and the Church of England, (from the death Writings of the Fathers and Founders of Elizabeth to the present time, in 3 of the Reformed Church." All the vol. vols.,) by Rev. J. J. Perry; The Latitu- umes hitherto published have met in the dinarians, by Rev. E. Churton, Arch- | theological world with great applause, deacon of Cleveland; Historical Memoirs, and are classed among the best works of religious biography. Among them | Dictionary, by Dr. Wiser, (Prediger Les are the lives of Bucer, Bullinger, Myco- icon) vol. xvii, part ii, has been recently nius, and others. The last published vol. | published. une contains the late and select | It is an important fact, though not Writings, of Calyin," by Stahelin, Cabo i generally known, that among the many vin's Leben und ausgewählte Schriften, journals of Germany devoted to scientific Elberf., 1860.)

theology, Rationalism has only a single It is undoubtedly a merit of the Ra- | avowed representative, the Zeitschrift tionalistic Tübingen School to have given für wissenschaftliche Theologie, edited by a new impetus to the study of the apos- | Professor Hilgenfeld, of Jena. All the tolic age. There is no section of history, others are under the control of men consacred or profane, which has been of nected with either the Evangelical or late explored in all its minutest details, Lutheran parties. The principal organa with greater zeal than the history of the of the former are: 1. The Studien und primitive Church. The literature on the Kritiken, a quarterly, edited by Dr. Ullsubject is almost innumerable and most mann and Dr. Rothe; 2. The

mann and Dr. Rothe; 2. The Jahrbücher valuable, and has considerably increased | für Deutsche Theologie, published by Dr. our knowledge of that period. Hitherto Liebner, Dr. Dorner, and others, also a nearly all the important works have quarterly ; 3. Zeitschrift für histor. The been furnished by Protestant authors.ologie, quarterly, published by Dr. Nied. Recently Dr. Döllinger, well known as ner; 4. Repertorium für theologische Latone of the most learned and thorough eratur, a monthly, published by Reuter; historians the Roman Church has ever | 5. Allgemeine Kirchliche Zeitschrift, by had, has published an able work on Dr. Schenkel, ten numbers a year; 6. Christianity and the Church at the time Deutsche Zeitschrift für Christliche Wis. of their foundation. (Christenthum und senschaft, a weekly, by Dr. Hollenberg; Kirche, etc. Regensb., 1860.)

7. Theologisches Literaturblatt, a weekly.

The Lutherans have the following imAmong other Roman Catholic publica

portant literary organs: 1. Zeitschrift für tions in the department of Church his.

die gesammte Luther, Kirche, a quarterly, tory, is a work by Werner on Suarez and

edited by Dr.Rudelbach and Dr. Guericke, Scholasticism, (Suarez und die Scholas.

(Old Lutheran;) 2. Zeitschrift für Prottic, vol. i, Regensb., 1860,) and by Suing,

estantismus und Kirche, a monthly, pubon the Doctrine of Original Sin, Das

lished by the Professors of Theology at Dogma von der Erbsünde, Regensb., 1860.) |

| Erlangen, (High Lutheran ;) 3. The The recent exegetical literature com ologische Zeitschrift, published by Dr. prises new volumes of the Bible Works Kliefoth and Dr. Dieckhoff, also & of Bunsen and Lange; the second volume monthly, (High Lutheran.) There are of the Commentary of Delitzsch on the besides two journals of Lutheran Psalms, new editions of Tholuck's The theology in the German provinces of Old Testament in the New Testament, (Das | Russia, a quarterly published by the Alte Testament im N. T., 5th ed., Gotha, Professors of Theology at Dorpat, and a 1860,) and The Prophets and their Proph- / bi-monthly published at Riga. ecies, (Die Propheten, etc., 2d ed., Gotha, 1860.) J. Volckmar, one of the few sur

FRANCE. viving representatives of the Tübingen | Our religious intelligence department School, has commenced an introductiou of this number refers to the acknowledgto the Apocrypha, (Einleitung in die ment of the progress of Protestant litera. Apocryphen, vol. i, part i, Tub., 1860.) | ture on the part of the secular press. The recent Roman Catholic literature | The number of new Protestant works, comprises a work on the Messianic as well as their circulation, is steadily prophecies in Isaiah, by J. K. Mayer, on the increase, and it is especially gratiand the fourth volume of Commentary fying to see that among the new pubto the Gospels, by Schegg.

lications there are not a few which are Among the new volumes of sermons

sure to be recognized as standard works, we mention those by Brückner, Profes.

and will remain of permanent value. sor at Leipsic, Dr. Liebner, of Dresden, Of the valuable History of the French and a second edition of those of Thomas Reformation, by Pastor Puaux, (Histoire ius, Professor at Erlangen. Of an de la Reformation Française,) vols, iii, iv. extensive (Roman Catholic) Homiletic bave been published. A fifth volume is

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