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Pilate. The emperor has seen fit to show greater forbearance than other European governments, for instance, the King of Sardinia, used to show, and has contented himself with having an official blame inflicted on the bishop by the CmatU (TEtat. A subsequent circular of Mr. Delaugle, Minister of Justice, informs the attorney general that the articles 201 and 204 of the Penal Code are still in force, which condemn to imprisonment or banishment any minister of religion who in print or speech publicly criticises an act of the government.
The Roman Catholic party of France claim to be numerically very strong, and to be rapidly increasing in strength, and they adduce as a proof the steady increase of church-goers in all parts of the empire during Lent, which this year was more noticeable than in any previous year. This proof will appear, however, as less conclusive, when we take into consideration, on the one hand, the vast theatrical display of the churches during this period, which attracts thousands who show no interest in the religious exercises, and, on the other hand, that after Lent the attendance regularly again declines. In the French Senate an address to the emperor, indorsing his policy in Italy, has been adopted by all except four votes. In the Corps Legislatif an amendment to the address, which advocated the temporal power of the Pope, has received the considerable number of ninety-one votes; but after its rejection the entire address, indorsing the emperor's policy, has been adopted against only fifteen votes.
The convents which, owing to the patronage of the government, had multiplied so rapidly in France during the past thirty years, have been foremost in stirring up the passions of the people against the pretended anti-Roman policy of the emperor. The government has therefore resolved to enforce against some of the convents the law according to which their legal existence requires a previous authorization. Some of those monastic communities, which have been founded without authorization, have been suppressed; and from others all the members, who were not natives of France, have been expelled. These measures have greatly embittered the hostility already existing between the government and the clergy.
The Protestant Churches.—The religious anniversaries have been well attended and animated meetings. Though the operations of the religious societies of France are of course conducted on a much smaller scale than those of England, their proceedings derive a peculiar interest from the circumstance that they indicate the progress of Protestant Christianity in the chief Roman Catholic country. Many of the statistical figures in the annual reports gave striking proofs of this progress. We learn, for instance, that three millions of Bibles have been circulated in France during the last eighteen years, that a Protestant Almanac has a yearly circulation of two hundred thousand copies, and that the foreign Missionary Society is considerably extending its sphere of action, embracing now South Africa, China, and Hayti.
The Protestant Churches.—From all parts of Italy we have a cheering view of the progress of evangelical principles. Tuscany and Naples, in particular, have become the center of the most zealous endeavors for the evangelization of the country. In Florence the Theological Seminary of the Waldensians is gaining a firm footing. Through the princely liberality of four individuals, aided by a donation from the Irish Presbyterian Church, the Palazzo Ricasoli, formerly Salviati, in Florence, has been purchased and made over for the accommodation of church, theological college, schools, etc. The establishment of Protestant schools is vigorously pushed on. According to late advices about a dozen well-trained youths were about to leave the Waldensian Normal School at La Tour; but these being insufficient to meet the demand, it was intended to begin a Protestant Normal School for Central Italy in Florence. The institution of Protestant deaconesses, which was established last year in the same city, has enrolled about forty pupils, and has already one or two Italian girls in preparation as teachers. The Swiss school in Florence is under the direction of a young Swiss clergyman of great educational ability, who will actively co-operate in personal effort, as well as by advice, in advancing the interests of the evangelical Italian schools.
In Naples a Neapolitan Evangelization Aid Society has been formed, which, according to its programme, has rive principal objects in view, namely: 1. To assist native Protestant preachers; 2. To assist in establishing schools on strictly Protestant principles; 3. To aid the work of colportage, Scripture reading, etc.; 4. To translate into Italian Protestant religious and controversial works: 5. To establish a printing press, and publish journals, newspapers, etc., in order to show what the Protestant doctrines really are. Gavazzi has continued to preach live times a week to an earnestly attentive audience, and the tone of his sermons is said to have become more evangelical. Another converted ex-priest, Rev. Mr. Cresi, is occupying a hall in another part of the city for religious services, and he was, at the close of April, on the point of opening a ragged school, lor which a Protestant lady had kindly paid the rent, while another Protestant lady has volunteered to instruct the children.
The recognition of the civil and political rights of Protestants is evidently progressing. One of the leading men among the Italian converts, Professor Mazzarella, has been elected a member of the Italian Parliament. Several outrages against the rights of Protestants have occurred at the instigation of the priests in Tuscany, Protestant families having been forcibly prevented from having their children baptized and their dead buried; yet, in most cases, the government and also the local authorities have made laudable efforts for maintaining the principles of religious toleration. The Monitors Tosco.no has published a circular from Minghetti, the Minister of the Interior, addressed to all governors, intendants, etc., ordering that henceforth a portion of the publio Campo Santo in every town or village, shall be marked off by a wall or hedge, for the burial of all non-Catholics, unless the municipality choose to provide a separate cemetery.
The Roman Catholic Church.—If obedienco to all Papal decrees, and a belief in the efficiency of the ecclesiastical ceusures, wore an essential feature of the Roman Catholic system, nearly all Italy might be said this day to have left the communion of Rome. For, although the Pope has pronounced excommunication against all who have aided or may
aid in the reunion of his former territory with the new kingdom of Italy, the representatives of the Italian people, assembled in Parliament, have not onlr sanctioned the formation of a united Italy, but they have, with almost perfect unanimity, declared that the nation hag a right to Rome as its capital, and that they must have it. All the bishops side with the pope, and we have heard only of a single Neapolitan bishop who has openly declared himself in favor of the recent political changes; but this fact only corroborates the view that the political emancipation of Italy from the influence of Rome may be regarded as complete. The same cannot yet be said to be the case with regard to the ecclesiastical emancipation. Victor Emanuel Cavour, and Garibaldi have shown, on many occasions, that they have either none or but little regard for the doctrinal system of Rome, and that they would rejoice at its overthrow or thorough reformation. But there are indications that thousands, who are willing to accept the abolition of the temporal power as a fact, or even to hail it as the harbinger of a new glorious era in the history of Italy, cling firmly to "the religion of their fathers," and even hope that the loss of temporal power may redound in a great spiritual reformation. Cavour himself; in a speech in the Italian Parliament, expressed the belief that tho political unity of Italy being once carried through, the "Catholic" party would develop apower which it had never possessed under the old regime, and that the time, therefore, might soon come when he would be himself in Parliament, a member of the oppositional minority.
Protestantism.—Some of the Spanish converts, whose arrest we recorded in the April number of the Methodist Quarterly Review, have been liberated on bail, but Matamoros and Alhama have been refused this favor. One of the Spanish authorities at Granada told Matamoros that he pitied his sad case, but that it would have been better for him if he had committed robbery or murder. The prisoners expected that the maximum of punishment which the law permits would be inflicted upon them. They have found a warm friend and advocate in Sir Robert Peel who in the beginning of this year happened to travel to Grenada in the same diligence with Matamoros, and being interested in his case, afterward visited him and Alhama in prison. Sir Robert ha? twice brought their case before the House of Commons, and on April 30 an influential meeting was held at London, under the presidency of the Earl of Shaftesbury, for the purpose of calling on the English government to interfere so as to put a stop to the religious persecution of the Spanish Protestants; but Lord Russell, notwithstanding his sympathies with their cause, did not seem disposed to make any official application on the subject to ttie Spanish government. In the meanwhile it is gratifying to hear that the liberal democratic party of Spain are cordially sympathizing with the friends of religious and civil freedom in Europe and America, that they are making greater efforts than ever before for securing to their own country the privileges of religious liberty, and that they are confident of a speedy success.
The Greek Church.—The Bulgarian question still awaits its final solution. The expectations of the Roman missionaries, who hoped that they would draw over the entire people to their Church, have not been realized. The only Bulgarian bishop who at first favored a union with Rome, hesitated when the final step was to be taken, and the number of Bulgarians who really have gone over seems to be very small. The shrewdest and most active among the Roman missionaries in Turkey, Mr. Bore, has headed a Bulgarian deputation to Rome, which was to announce the submission of the entire nation to the Pope as an event likely to take place Bhortly. One of the clerical members of the deputation has been appointed by the Pope patriarch of the United Bulgarians, and the nucleus of a United Bulgarian Church having thus been formed, it may be expected that the endeavors
for gaining the entire nation for the cause of the union will be redoubled.
The great majority of tho nation, however, persevere in their efforts to secure the independence of all the Bulgarian Churches from the oppressive rule of the Greek Patriarch, and the formation of a Free Bulgarian Church. A memorial signed by two bishops, six other ecclesiastics, and twenty-seven of the leading men of the nation, has been addressed to the members of the Evangelical Alliance of Constantinople, asking for their kind offices in behoof of the objects for which tho Bulgarians are seeking. The Evangelical Alliance has warmly recommended the matter to the representatives of the seven Protestant countries, part of whom, at least, have promised to exert themselves in favor of the just rights of the Bulgarians. The Patriarch of Constantinople, supported by the influence of Russia, has obtained from the Porte a decree of banishment for the Bulgarian bishops, but the execution of the decree has been prevented in time. The Turkish government has, on the contrary, so far yielded to the demands of the Bulgarians, as to consent to the calling of a convention of delegates from all parts of Bulgaria, to test the sentiments of the people at large in regard to their relations to the Greek Patriarch.
Protestantism.—The Protestant missions among the Mussulmans have been steadily going on, but threatening clouds are beginning to rise upon the horizon. Tho Porte intends to organize a decided opposition against what they consider the encroachments of the Bible into their nationality. Their plan seems to be this: to make diligent search for the New Testament and Bibles in Turkish, and for their owners and readers; to confiscate the books; to frighten or punish (according to the degree of culpability) the individuals; and to exile those who have really made defection.
Fourth Series, Vol. XIII.—32
Art. X.—FOREIGN LITERARY INTELLIGENCE.
ENGLAND. Rev. Donald M'Donald, of Scotland, is the author of an able work, entitled, Creation and the Fall. More lately he has published a second work, from the press of T. & T. Clark, entitled an Introduction to the Pentateuch. It maintains ably the Mosaic authorship and historical authority of the Five Books.
Dr. A. P. Stanley (author of Sinai and Palestine and Life of Arnold) has published Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church, with an Introduction on the Study of Ecclesiastical History. Stanley is Regius Professor of Ecclesiastical History in the University of Oxford.
Dr. Tulloch has published a volume, entitled, English Puritanism and its Leaders. The characters he portrays are Cromwell, Milton, Baxter, and Bunyan.
Bagster Jfc Co. publish A Methodization of the Hebrew Verb, on an original plan, lor the use of learners.
The Genetic Cycle in Organic Nature; or, The Succession of Forms in the Propagation of Plants and Animals. By George Ogilvie, Regius Professor in Aberdeen University, is published by Longman & Co. Professor Ogilvie is author of a previous work, entitled, Master-Builder's Plan in Typical Forms of Animals.
The Introduction of Christianity into Britain; an argument in favor of St. Paul's having visited the extreme Boundaries of the West. By Rev. B. W. Seville, A. M.
The first and second volumes of Lord Stanhope's Life of the Younger Pitt have appeared. The biographies hitherto of this, as of most other British statesmen, are very incomplete. Lord Stanhope has had access to documents hitherto unused, and his work, though unsatisfactory, is a great improvement upon its predecessors.
Bohn has published the first volume of the Letters and Works of Lady Mary Montague. By Lord Wharncliffe. It is a third edition with additions.
Murray advertises as "just ready," The Gorilla Country; Explorations and
Adventures in Equatorial Africa, with Accounts of the Cannibals and other Savage Tribes, and of the chase of the Gorilla, the Nest-building Ape, Chimpanzee, Hippopotamus, etc. By M. Paul Du Chaillu. With map and eighty illustrations. This work is awaited with high expectation by scientific men and the public generally.
A Life of Professor Parson, by the Rev. John Selby Walton, with a portrait, is promised by Longman i Co.
A Life of Edward Irving, in two volumes, by Mrs. Oliphant, is in preparation from Hurst & Blackett's press.
Professor Owen has published the Posthumous Papers of Dr. John Hosier, with an "Introductory Lecture on the Hunterian Collection of Fossil Remains."
Of Darwin's Work on Species six thousand copies have been sold in England. He has issued a new edition, with various additions and corrections. Prefixed is an "Historical Sketch of the recent Progress of Opinion on the Origin of Species."
The Oxford Essays and Reviews have called out the following publications:
The Dangers and Safeguards of Modern Theology, by the Bishop of London.
Scripture and Science not at Variance; with Remarks on the Historical Character, Plenary Inspiration, and surpassing importance of the Earlier Chapters of Genesis. By John H. Pratt, M. A, Archdeacon of Calcutta.
"Essays and Reviews" anticipated. Extracts from a work published in the year 1825. and attributed to the Lord Bishop of St. David's.
The "Essays and Reviews" and fte People of England; a popular Refutation of the principal Propositions of the Essayists. With an appendix, containing the protest of the bishops and clergy, the proceedings in convocation, and all the documents and letters connected with the subject
Sermons, chiefly on the Theory of Belief, by the late James Shergold Boone. This volume is highly commended "to the higher class of minds" by the Literary Churchman, as specially adapted to "the present crisis."
Dr. Temple (one of the authors of Essays and Reviews, and successor to Dr. Arnold at Rugby) has published Sermons preached in Rugby School Chapel in 1858, 1859, 1860. From M'Millan's press.
Henry Calderwood has published at the press of M'Millan A Co., a second edition of his Philosophy of the Infinite; a treatise on Man's Knowledge of the Infinite Being in answer to Sir William Hamilton and Mr. ManseL To this edition are added an answer to Sir Willliam Hamilton's letter to the author, and a Review of Mr. Mansel's Limits of Religious Thought. Mr. Calderwood is a clear thinker and often an eloquent writer. His work is abundantly worthy of republication in this country.
The Westminster Review notices, unfavorably to the institution it describes, The Underground Railroad from Slavery to Freedom, by Rev. W. M. Mitchell, of Toronto, C. W. The same Review speaks with earnest contempt of "Negroes and Negro Slavery; the first an inferior race, the latter its normal condition; by J. H. Van Evrie, M. D., New York." It commends "Secession, Concession, or Self-Possession—Wliicht a letter addressed by a citizen of Massachusetts to Charles Sumner; published by Walker 4; Wise, Boston."
The London Athenaum says: "The first number of a new 'German Quarterly Review of English Theological Inquiry and Criticism' has appeared at Gotha, from the press of Herr Perthes. The work is conducted by Dr. Heidenheim, who resides, we believe, in England, and is a minister of the English Church. The purpose of the conductor is, not merely to discuss for the benefit of German theologians the development of doctrine in the Church to which he has attached himself, but to lay before German scholars the results of English enterprise and travel, so far as these tend to illustrate the Scripture records. Some of the ineditcd treasures of the British Museum are to appear in this Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift."
Tho Athenaum furnishes the following item of Egyptological intelligence: "M. Mariette is said to have made a new and important discovery in the ruins of Memphis; it is a list of sixtytliree Egyptian kings, engraved on limestone. The Paris Library and the
British Museum are in possession of similar tablets, but they are not near so complete as the one lately discovered, which is to find its place in the new Museum in Egypt This tablet of Memphis will determine the Egyptian dynasties of tho ante-pyramidical period."
Professor A. Wuttke, of Berlin, has commenced the publication of a new Manual of Christian Ethics, (Bandbuch derChristliclien Sittenlehre, Berlin, 1861,) the first volume of which has just appeared, while the second is announced to be published before the close of the year. The author has already favorably distinguished himself among the younger theological scholars of Germany by a work on paganism, and by a number of contributions to the leading evangelical journals of his country. With regard to the character of his new work, he announces that it will neither be so speculative as some of its predecessors, nor exclusively biblical; but that he has endeavored to give a manual of ethical theology, wholly resting on the basis of the Sacred Scriptures, and wrought into a scientific system, not through a foreign philosophy, but, as he calls it, through a self-development of the spirit of the Bible. A long introduction contains, besides other valuable discussions, a history of ethics in paganism, Judaism, and Christianity.
"The Essence of the Christian Sermon according to the Prototype of the Apostolic Sermon (Das Wesen der Christlichen Predigt, etc., Gotha, 1861) is the title of an important homiletic work by Rev. Mr. Beyer. The author divides his subject into three books: in the first he treats of "the sermon as the word of God;" in the second, of "the sermon as the word of God to the congregation;" and in the third, of "the word of God to the congregation as the expression of Christian personality." Throughout the subject is discussed, as the author announces, "with particular reference to the principal tendencies of modern theology." Simultaneously another contribution to the same branch of theology is published by Rev. Mr. Kirsch, under the title, Popular Sermon, (Die
Populiire Predigt, etc., Leipsic, 1861.)
The many admirers of the exegetical works of Professor Hengstenberg will