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light, the very existence of his book demonstrates its own falsehood. Des Cartes' famous argument, cogito, ergo sum, is hardly more concise than ours. Mr. Stiles's book exists; therefore it is untrue.

Educational. Second Standard Phonographic Reader. Engraved by CHAUNCEY B. THORNE.

12mo., pp. 184. Andrew J. Graham, Phonetic Depot, New York. This elegant little volume is the fourth in a series of phonographic works constructed by Mr. Graham and engraved by the skillful hand of Mr. Thorne. It mounts into an upper story of the phonographic structure where we are not familiar, namely, the reporting style. Mr. Graham has introduced some modifications of his own into phonography, which have not been fully adopted by the catholic body of phonographers, though we are told by professional reporters that many if not all his modifications add rapidity to the practiced hand. A schism in the phonographic system is in itself undesirable; but the variations are not so great but that any student can easily master both and practice either. They are not so great, indeed, as Mr. Pitman has lately proposed, though happily we are not obliged to say introduced into the system.

Belles Lettres and Classical. A Compendium of Classical Literature, comprising choice Extracts translated

from the best Greek and Roman Writers, with Biographical Sketches, accounts of their works, and notes directing to the best editions and translations. Part I. From Homer to Longinus. Part II. From Plautus to Boëthius. By CHARLES DEXTER CLEVELAND. 12mo., pp. 622. Phila

delphia : E. C. & J. Biddle & Co. 1861. Professor Cleveland has completed in the present volume his series of specimens from English, American, and classical literatures. The works are printed and bound in uniform and appropriate style, and serve not only as standards in themselves, but as means of comparing the ancient and the modern modes of thought. The specimens here given are from the best translators, and the author has been on the alert to obtain the latest results. It may be commended both to the classical scholar and the English reader.

Juvenile. Glen Morris Stories. Dick Duncan. 18mo., pp. 256. Guy Carlton. 18mo.,

pp. 254. By Francis Forrester, Esq., author of "My Uncle Toby's Li

brary.” New York: Howe & Ferry. Boston: Brown & Ferry. 1861. Our latest intelligence from the vivacious population of Young America is, that Francis Forrester, Esq., is a very great man. If he were not above the requisite age they would elect him Pres. ident. With them he is as superior in fame to President Lincoln as Noah Webster was to Daniel Webster. We left that country a good many years ago never to return; but it is pleasant to hear of the excitements prevalent there, among which calls for Mr. Forrester's “next book” are not the least animated.

Miscellaneous. The following works our space does not allow us to notice in full:

The Shadoroy Land and other Poems. By Rev. GURDON HUNTINGTON, A. M. 8vo., pp. 508. New York: Jas. Miller. 1861.

The New Testament Standard of Piety. By Wm. MCDONALD. 12mo., pp. 270. Boston: H. V. Degen & Son. 1861.

* The New American Encyclopedia. Edited by G. RIPLEY & C. A. DANA. Vol. 12. Mozambique-Parr. 8vo., pp. 798. New York: Appleton & Co.

Little Mary : An Illustration of the Power of Jesus to save even the Youngest. With an Introduction by BARON Stow, D.D. 18mo., pp. 610. Boston: Gould & Lincoln. 1861.

Silas Marner, the Weaver of Raveloe. By the author of “ Adam Bede," “ The Mill on the Floss," etc. 16mo., pp. 265. Harper & Brothers

Trumps. A Novel. By GEORGE WM. CURTIS. Splendidly illustrated by AUGUSTUS HOPPEN. 12mo., pp. 502. New York: Harper & Brothers,

Studies from Life. By the author of “ John Halifax, Gentleman," " A Life for a Life," etc. 12mo., pp. 290. New York: Harper & Brothers.

Pamphlets. The Problem of Life. A Funeral Discourse on the occasion of the death of

Hon. JOHN M'LEAN, LL.D., one of the Associate Judges of the Supreme Court of the United States. Preached in Wesley Chapel, Cincinnati, at the joint request of the Pastor and the family of the deceased. By Rev. D. W. CLARK, D. D. Published by request. 12mo., pp. 30. Cincinnati :

Methodist Book Concern. 1861. Dr. Clarke draws an eloquent and truthful portraiture of the eminent Christian jurist.

Eulogy on John W. Francis, delivered before the New York Medico-Chirurgical College March 7th, 1861. By AUGUSTUS K, GARDNER, A, M., M. D., Professor of Classical Midwifery and Diseases of Females in the New York Medical College. 8vo., pp. 24. New York: Published by order of the College. 1861.

Antidote to Rev. H. J. Van Dyke's Pro-Slavery Discourse. By Rev. Wm. H. BOOLE. Delivered in the M. Ě. Church, Mount Vernon, N. Y. 8vo., pp. 34. New York: Edmund Jones & Co. 1861.

Objects and Plans of an Institute of Technology, including a Society of Arts, a Museum of Arts, and a School of Industrial Science proposed to be established in Boston. Prepared by direction of the Committee. 8vo., pp. 29. Boston: Printed by John Wilson & Son. 1860.

The Perfect Man." A Sermon delivered in the M. E. Church at Beverley, N. J., on Sabbath morning, February 18th, 1860. By the Rer. RULIFF V. LAWRENCE, of the N. J. Conference. 8vo., pp. 16. Published by request.



OCTOBER, 1861.


Lectures on Lugic. By Sir WILLIAM HAMILTON, Bart., Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Ed. ited by the Rev. H. L. MANSEL, B.D., LL.D., Waynefleet Professec of Moral and Metaphysical Philosophy, Oxford, and JOHN VETTCH, M. A., Professor of Logic, Rhetoric, and Metaphysics, St. Andrews. 8vo. Boston: Gould & Lincoln. 1860.

etaphysical Phil. LL.D., Waynurh. Ed.

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WITHIN the last thirty-five years the study of logic has greatly revived in Great Britain, where for a long period it had been nearly neglected or inadequately pursued. The new interest awakened in the subject was largely due to the publication of Whately's Elements of Logic; for, erroneous and imperfect as this work was, it was greatly superior to any previous treatise on this branch of knowledge in the English language, at least for a long period. Several works of more or less value have followed at intervals; but the general interest in the science at present existing is chiefly, if not solely, indebted to the works of J. Stuart Mill and Sir William Hamilton, writers who, nevertheless, represent nearly opposite tendencies of the study. In the profound and comprehensive work of Mr. Mill, logic is represented as “a study of things in their natural order, with a view to the discovery of systematic methods for bringing our thoughts into harmony with that order;" “the rationale of the conditions for extracting real science from the things about which we may think.” With


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Hamilton it is a study of thoughts abstract from their connection with things—the rationale of the conditions under which we must think about anything. The discussion of the subject here involved respecting the proper province of logic will be referred to further on.

We have no need to certify the superiority of Sir William Hamilton as a philosophical writer. Doubtless there are few who, however they may dissent from some of his doctrines, will deny that he occupies the most influential.position, within his chosen sphere, of any writer of the present age. His extraordinary erudition, his familiar acquaintance with all that is best in the best writers of all times and nations, his thorough command of his own vast resources, his discriminating judgment preventing any subserviency to the valuable opinions of which he was yet ready to avail himself, and the clearness, precision, and force with which he conveys his doctrines, compel the recognition of his pre-eminence among the philosophic thinkers of the present century.

There are several treatises of his on logic, which have been published either in separate dissertations, or in connection with his philosophical discussions. There are also fragments showing that he meditated a great work on the subject, which would scarcely have been inferior to any since the days of Aristotle. This project, like others of our author, was never consummated.

It is with lively satisfaction that we hail the appearance of the volume before us, and its prompt republication in this country in a form so handsome and convenient. The lectures are thirty-five in number. They were delivered to the undergraduates of the University, and are a model of instruction by means of lectures. Of course, there are many abstruse discussions and speculations which could not be contained in such a series.

Of the lectures the first four are introductory, and contain the definition of logic, a statement of its utility, and its divisions. The remainder of the course is in two parts-Pure or Formal Logic, and Modified Logic. The former the author regards as the exclusively legitimate province of logical study, and on this there are twenty-two lectures. On the latter there are only nine, and these are avowedly supplementary. After the introduction there are two lectures embracing a statement

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of the axioms and postulates of logic, accompanied by a copious historical and critical commentary. These two lectures are a great improvement on most of the British manuals on logic, inasmuch as in the latter these first principles are in a certain sort taken for granted, though not expressly stated; thus confusing the student in the beginning of his study by vague uncertainties.

The next six lectures contain an analysis, partly formal and partly psychological; of Conception. These lectures are perhaps, as a whole, the most valuable, certainly the most interesting, in the volume. The remaining lectures, before coming to the division of modified logic, are devoted to the process of propositions and syllogisms, and to the doctrine of methodology.

The appendix occupies nearly a quarter of the volume, and contains a more thorough discussion of certain recondite principles, and especially of doctrines relating to logical processes.

There has been much controversy as to the proper objectmatter of logic, and especially as to whether it is a science or an art; a question all the more unlikely to be settled from the total want of agreement as to the limitation of these terms in their relation to each other. Plato and the Platonists regarded it as a science; but with them it covered nearly all the ground occupied by metaphysics. Aristotle himself does not define it; but many of his ancient followers, as well as some since the revival of letters, deny it to be either science or art. The Stoics generally, as also the Arabian and Latin schoolmen, viewed it as a science. The Ramists, many of the later Aristotelians, and a majority of the Cartesians, maintained it to be an art; though a party was found who regarded it as both science and art. In Germany, since Leibnitz, it has been almost universally regarded as a science. Sir William Hamilton remarks that, so far as logic is concerned, the decision is not of the very smallest import. “The controversy was, in fact, only about what was properly an art and what was properly a science; and as men attached one meaning or another to these terms, so did they affirm logic to be an art or a science, or both, or neither.” Whately considers it in its most extensive sense to be “the science and also the art of reasoning." But he evidently confuses the distinction of science theoretical and science practical, with the distinction of science and art.

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