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FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE YEAR BOOK
MAP SHOWING THE BIENNIAL SPREAD OF BOLL WEEVIL IN THE SOUTH
Beginning in Texas in 1901, the boll weevil scourge expanded until in 20
years it had infested practically all of the cotton producing area

Cotton reduction from full yield per acre from boll weevil, 1909–54

Percentage

Crop season

Virginia

North Carolina

Percent average

of 13 States

South Carolina

Georgia

Florida

Missouri

Tennessee

Alabama

Mississippi

Texas

Oklahoma

Arkansas

0

0

0

0 0

0

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9.0

3.0

1909 1910. 1911 1912 1913. 1914. 1915 1916. 1917. 1918. 1919. 1920 1921. 1922 1923 1924. 1925. 1926. 1927. 1928. 1929. 1930 1931. 1932 1933. 1934. 1935. 1936 1937 1938 1939. 1940. 1941. 1942 1943. 1944. 1945. 1946. 1947 1948. 1949 1950. 1951 1952 1953. 1954.

0
0
0 0

0

14.0 0

13.0 0 (13.0 07.0 0 8.0

3.0 2.0

16.0 10.0 12.0 4.0 3.0 17.0 0 8.0 12.0 14.0 7.0 8.0 4.0 7.0 2.0

9.0 1.0 4.0 10.0 11.0 21.0 26.0 32.0 23.0 2.0 1.0 3.0 10.0 6.0 7.0 6.0 9.0 1.0 5.0 3.0 5.0 13.0 13.0 16.0

2.0 6.0 23.0 27.0 63.0 54.0 16.0 11.0 8.0 12.0 15.0 8.0 7.0

21.0

0 1.0 0

0 0 12.0 0 0 0 13.0 3.0 21.0

27.0 11.0 24.0 19.0 40.0 31.0 32.0 45.0 28.0 44.0 32.0 37.0 33.0 15.0 28.0 70 6.0 5.0 4.0 18.0 9.0 14.0 9.0 15.0 14.0 7.0 14.0 7.0 10.0 22.0

25.0 8.0 9.0 12.0 18.0 12.0 15.0

6.0 7.0 10.0 7.0 18.0 13.0 14.0 14.0 10.0

14.0 27.0 19.0 15.0 13.0 15.0 10.0

8.0 8.0 14.0 14.0 21.0 20.0 15.0 15.0 13.0 7.0 35.0 18.0 25.0 22.0 6.0 10.0 7.0 14.0 15.0 6.0 4.0

1.0 7.0 9.0 21.0 2.0 0 2.0 3.0 2.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 9.0 8.0 2.0 4.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

4.0 0 15.0 0 5.0 2.0 18.0 4.0 33.0 6.0 24.0 16.0 25.0 28.0 32.0 29.0

22.0 12.0 10.0 29.0 20.0 36.0 32.0 32.0 30.0 26.0

28.0 33.0 31.0 12.0 7.0 5.0 3.0

6.0 15.0 16.0 12.0 14.0 14.0 16.0 4.0 3.0 8.0 15.0 21.0

25.0 12.0

15.0 11.0 14.0 9.0 9.0 4.0 3.0 5.0 4.0 10.0 11.0 18.0 13.0 12.0 10.0 20.0 23.0 13.0 6.0 11.0 5.0 5.0 4.0 9.0 12.0 17.0 19.9 10.0 9.0

7.0 4.0 31.0 27.0 33.0 23.0 9.0 7.0

12.0 7.0 1.0 3.0 7.0 8.0 16.0 19.0 7.0 4.0 14.0 20.0 4.0 16.0 10.0 8.0 2.0 11.0 20.0 12.0 13.0 4.0 9.0 11.0 6.0 4.0 7.0 8.0 5.0 8.0 5.0 7.0 11.0 7.0 4.0 4.0 12.0 10.0 4.0 4.0 3.0 12.0 4.0 4.0 2,0 2.0

3.0 1.0 0 1.0 0 1.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 1.0 1.0 9.0 41.0 26.0 19.0 4.0 2.0 8.0 31.0 26.0 11.0 3.0 6.0 14.0 10.0 6.0 6.0 1.0 2.0 4.0 4.0 2.0 8.0 10.0 3.0 3.0 13.0 11.0

9.0 10.0

8.0 29.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0

6.0 7.0 2.0 2.0 3.0 3.0 5.0 7.0 10.0 3.0 5.0 9.0 2.0 18.0 16.0 4.0 2.0 3.0 11.0 15.0 6.0 2.0 3.0 13.0 9.0 4.0 4.0 1.0 2.0 5.0 3.0 2.0 11.0 5.0 2.0 1.0 3.0 6.0

6.1 5.1 1.3 3.5 7.5 6.1 10.2 14. 2 8.6 5.4 13.0 19.7 31. 23. 3 19.2 8.1 4.1 7.1 19.4 14.1 13.3 5.0 8.3 15, 2 9.1 7.3 8.1

9.0

5.3 9,9 8.7 6.5 15.4 8.0 6.1 3. 9 10. 2 13.0 7.6 5.0 17.5 22.6 6.7 5.0 5.7 3.3

2.0

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9.1

Louisiana

0
0
1.0
0
0
2.0
7.0
0

0
0
3.0
13.0
31.0
40.0
27.0
16.0
12.0

4.0
27.0
15.0
18.0
13. O

8.0 15.0 14.0 11.0 15.0

5.0 11.0 16.0 8.0 4.0 27.0 12.0 15.0

6.0 10.0 15.0 19.0

8.0
29.0
31.0
5.0
7.0
9.0
6.0

0
0
4.0
0
1.0
2.0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

4.0
10.0 6.0
5.0 4.0

42.0 40.0 11.0 14.0 25.0 18.0 20.0 24.0 12.0 10.0 25.0 26.0

5.0 25.0 23.0

5.0 10.0

9.0 12.0 18.0 17.0

3.0 11.0 15.0 11.0

9.0
11.0
5.0
6.0
9.0
8.0
10.0
22.0
9.0
6.0
4.0
19.0
23.0
9.0
3.0
15.0
27.0
10.0
6.0
5.0
5.0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
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1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
0

AVERAGE PERCENT LOSS 1940-54

15-year

average

11. 4

13.3

13.5

15.4

13.2

. 27

13.2 10.9 11.5

Source: Information furnished by Cotton Insects Division, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine USDA.

1940-54 Cotton reduction from full yield per acre due to boll weeril

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

3, 280 440, 779 38, 640 24, 600 6, 126, 916 109, 620 22, 680 5,940, 527 83, 880 22, 320 6,542, 118 104, 400 14, 300 4,410, 600 51, 840 15, 570 5, 464, 409 66, 400 23, 010 10, 987, 717 104, 550 28, 320 14, 061, 472 123, 690 16,9207, 260, 588 69, 680 53, 190 20, 589, 174 160, 660 40, 500 23, 394, 150 125, 550 25, 080 13, 286, 911 43, 550 21, 510 10,723, 707 45, 990 27, 750 12, 538, 695 62, 100 10, 8505, 195, 321 30, 060

17, 200 2.32 48, 6001 12,38 37, 320; 9,921, S 43, 950 13,6 21, 360 & 5735 26, 300 8,150 800 42, 150 20 665, 508 48, 070 24,013, 228 28, 720 12, 402, 744 67,570 26,554, 556 51, 150 29, 111,335 18, 700 9, 21, 090 20, 230 9,776, 163 25, 830 , 551, 93 12, 900 6,083, 046

838, 360

349, 880 146, 963, 084 1, 220, 610 510, 050 201, 948 015

Florida

Alabama

Bales

Tons

Dollars

Bales

Tons

Dollars

2, 940 3, 230 2, 080 1, 600 1, 040 1, 120 1,200 1, 650 1,050 2, 880 2, 860 3, 200 2,700 4,050 1,000

1, 260
1, 520

910
700
480
450
400
600

420 1, 260 1, 320 1,400 1, 170 1, 650

432

178, 361

93, 480 337, 212 158,000 231,062 120, 250 197, 030 105, 490 128, 908 50, 300 140, 871

83,790 217, 780 139, 740 306, 420 93, 100 188, 486 83. 790 205, 410 264, 120 275, 884 190, 080 661, 780 81, 810 599, 796 53. 400 744, 668 96, 300 195, 610 36, 400

41, 640 5. 454, 679 70, 400 17.044, 476 53, 690 13,785, 044 40, 370 12, 769, 22 19, 300 6,255, 740 31, 860 11,079, 382 53, 210 27, 099, 275 34, 700 17,752, 405 32, 8301 14, 924. 861 108, 81044, 183, 370 74, 580 44.030. 778 33, 390 17, 615, 583 21. 360 11, 221, 276 37,700 18.057, 310 14, 850 7, 165,970

[graphic]

Total.

22, 746

96, 780 4,075, 675

Georgia

Year

Bales

Tons

Dollars

1940. 1941 1942 1943 1944. 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949. 1950. 1951 1952. 1953. 1954.

101, 000
168, 480
129, 300
127, 050
64, 800
53, 520
116, 970
97, 650
97, 630
211, 400
122, 000
55, 860
51, 030
105, 280
36, 720

44, 900 5,954, 639
75, 06019, 059, 392
46, 650 14,798, 640
52, 200 15, 694, 823
25, 600 8, 251, 520
21, 440 7, 272, 862
46, 83023, 162, 895
37, 950 18, 070, 618
39, 390 17, 800, 900
88, 200 35, 499, 170
51, 250 28, 515, 375
22, 92012, 221, 220
20, 790 10,703, 826
42,980 19, 567, 974
15, 300 7,341, 452

Total. - 1,538, 690

631, 460 244, 915, 306

32, 600

13, 972 4,609, 278/1, 649, 420 668, 690 268, 439, 378

Mississippi

Louisiana

Arkansas

Year

Bales

Tons

Dollars

Bales

Tons

Dollars

Bales

Tons

Dollars

1940. 1941 1942 1943. 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954.

125,000 55, 600 7, 344, 884
327, 520 145, 820 36, 649, 129
118, 080 52, 680 14, 293, 404
92, 050 39, 600 11, 534, 030
77, 480 31, 800 10, 181, 486
187, 200 76, 800 27, 514, 000
198, 930 80, 750 38, 638, 248
141, 210 54, 270 28, 233, 954

94, 120 36, 480 17, 121, 480
401, 490 165, 240 67, 292, 087
306, 360 122, 820 71, 232, 012
112, 560 45, 920 24,341, 176

76, 240 30, 200 15, 653, 780 127. 740 52,500 24, 862, 878 62, 840

26, 160 12, 458, 152 Total.- 2, 448, 820 1,016, 700 407, 350, 700

45, 600 20, 300 2,624,096 30, 020 13, 360 1,686, 903 68, 860 30, 800 7, 382, 749 57, 200 25, 520 6,096, 149 53, 370 23, 850 6,049, 035 74, 250 33, 100 8,552, 465 44, 340 17, 940 5, 257, 722 22, 440 9, 180 2,667.300 24, 800 10,000 3,078, 720

13, 940

5, 580 1,733, 585 73, 530 30, 970 10, 145, 316 31, 260 12, 930 4, 154, 142 56, 810 23, 690 10,885, 509 76, 860 35, 160 14,919, 128 45, 450 18, 090 8,813, 300 51, 040 19, 600 9,657, 456 22, 680 9,060 4,146, 918 79, 280 30, 240 13, 809, 950

97,500 39, 600 15, 975, 285 408,000 168,500 64, 308, 750 115, 020 45, 630 26,732, 916 283, 400 116, 480 65, 526, 708 76,000 30, 80016, 072, 280 162, 370 68, 120 35, 524, 359 45, 360 17, 820 9, 481, 050 81. 960 32, 580 16,525, 350 40, 300 16, 600

7,613, 160 61, 920 24, 800 11, 406, 080 28, 600 11, 800 5,544, 580

40, 530 15, 950 7, 817,934 838, 220 346, 950 139, 802, 636 1, 474, 470 611, 100 264, 386, 259

1940–54 Cotton reduction from full yield per acre due to boll weevil-Continued

[blocks in formation]

Total.

298, 500

121, 120

56, 518, 042

14,060

6. 040

2, 143, 277

Oklahoma

Texas

Year

Bales

Tons

Dollars

Bales

Tons

Dollars

1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948, 1949 1950. 1951 1952 1953 1954.

16, 040 57, 440 70, 800 115, 200 190, 200 37, 050 28, 820 29, 700 37, 400 48, 800 70, 180 36. 960 15, 840 17, 480 5, 860

7, 160 25, 600 31, 600 49, 200 77, 700 15, 600 11, 990 12, 330 15. 800 19, 680 28, 420 15, 280 6, 240 7,000 2, 440

881, 856
5, 548, 616
7, 460, 240
12, 921,000
21,888,000
4, 524, 195
5, 305, 476
5,985, 275
6, 423, 890
7, 717, 632
16,068, 194
7,689, 984
2,857, 920
2, 943, 692
1,054, 801

226, 380
291, 720
212, 660
112, 920
105, 840
215, 280
166, 900
137, 480
126, 120
181,200
353, 520
162, 960
152, 320
86, 340
78, 800

101, 080
130, 130
94, 920
45, 240
42, 720
89, 880
69, 400
56, 680
52, 240
73, 140
147,840
68, 400
63. 200
35, 940
32, 940

13, 503, 749 29, 800, 628 23, 103, 220 13, 097, 940 12,985, 128 27, 913, 452 32, 925, 940 26, 197, 628 22, 150, 168 28,627, 638 82, 375, 056 34, 650, 312 29, 479, 520 15, 107, 631 14,807, 234

!!

Total..

777, 770

326, 040

109, 270, 771

2,610, 440

1, 103,750

406,725, 244

NOTE.-This table was compiled from information furnished by the Cotton Insects Division, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, USDA, giving annual percentage loss to cotton crop for each of 13 States where boll weevil has caused crop losses. Figures on bales of cotton and tons of cottonseed destroyed, and total loss in dollars were calculated from USDA Agricultural Statistics for years 1940 through 1954.

Estimated Federal funds appropriated for research on cotton boll weevil 1896–1957

Year

Federal

Federal grant to States

Year

Federal

Federal grant to States

1890-1921.
1922
1923.
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928.
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940.
1941

$742, 238

84, 283
100, 798
116, 458
190, 986
180, 554
156, 191
159, 725
169, 899
170, 933
156, 570
110, 669
75, 408
57, 478
52, 752
54, 344
54, 204
56, 176
56. 186
44, 982
45, 045

$1, 125
1, 125
1, 125
1. 125
1, 125
1, 125
1, 125
1, 125
1, 125
1, 125
1, 125
1. 125
1, 125
1, 125
1, 125
1, 125

1942
1943.
1944.
1945.
1946
1947
1948.
1949
1950.
1951.
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956.
1957.

$53, 500 $2, 250 54, 500 2, 250 44, 436 2, 250 44, 300 2, 250 36, 400 2, 250 41, 340 2, 250 41, 946 5, 250 46,583 5, 250 67.018 5, 250 43 972 10, 500 45, 762 32, 250 53, 563

26, 250 68, 663 35, 250 68, 020 39,000 102, 900 56, 250

125, 703 90, 750 3,774, 385 337, 500

4,111,885

Total.
Grand total

Mr. WHITTEN. Mr. Coker, I wish to thank you and Mr. Young both for this statement. My office sometimes laughs when people come to see me. They say that I spend my time trying to get them sorry for me. I guess people on the Appropriations Committee of necessity have to do that. In the first place, we do not have the money, we just have to recommend it, and when we recommend it we have to try to get the 50-man Appropriations Committee to buy the recommendations.

Mr. COKER. I understand that.

Mr. WHITTEN. If the other 10 or 12 subcommittees on appropriations stay within their respective budgets and we go before the full committee with a budget over the requested amount, you can imagine what a situation we are in.

I have tabulated the figures here and in the last 5 years the appropriations for the Department of Agriculture for its regular activities have increased from $782 million to $1,540 million. No one could appreciate the boll weevil problem and its effect on

more than I. I do not believe anyone could recognize the need for research results in that field more than I.

Some years ago this subcommittee reviewed every line project submitted to us by the research administration, and it was this committee, prior to the law, which consolidated these various research funds.

The Secretary had a special fund and the Agricultural Research Marketing people had one, and we put them all together and demanded that they use these Advisory Committees to review the work they were doing to see how they could get more results. We thought that they knew more about it than we. So help me, I believe with time it has gotten completely away from what we had in mind. The Advisory Committees are used by the Department to come in and request more money.

The point that I am trying to bring out is this: I am convinced that we are making a mistake in trying to say that research results will follow in proportion to the amount of money spent. In my judgment that is just not so. We need to get to work and get some results for the money we have. I am not delivering any lecture. I am just sorely disturbed about what we can do to get better results, for what we have.

So help me, the Department has enough money to do all the worthwhile things that have been presented to us, and yet for a solid week, I may say, our committee has heard outside witnesses and we have not finished them yet-and I am convinced that the total of all of the extra requests above the budget would total another $1,500 million.

Now, I was not drafted for this job, so I can quit if I do not like it. Have we in this field right here given attention to what they are already doing and whether they are getting the maximum results they should? Well, I know that you can answer me by saying: “Well, we have not anything that will competely work on a boll weevil.”

Well DDT worked for a while and then we switched to this and that. The boll weevil, like the fly and everything else, gets immune. A new race gets immune to what would work last year. One year we really had trouble in the Mississippi Delta because we used the same

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