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A SUPPLEMENTARY CODE OF THE BRITISH BOARD OF TRADE,
[As amended and recommended.]
Important signals which may be made at night or during fog, either by
flashes of white light or by a combination of long and short sounds on the steam-whistle, fog-horn, siren, bugle, etc.
[In the day-time they will be made by flags. ]
INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE USE OF FLASHING OR SOUND SIGNALS.
With flashing signals the lamp must always be turned towards the person addressed.
To attract attention, a series of rapid short flashes or sounds should be made and continued until the person addressed gives the sign of attention by doing the same.
If, however, it is supposed that the person addressed can not reply, the signal may be made after a moderate pause, or under certain circumstances, the communication may be made direct without preparatory signs.
After making a few rapid short flashes or sounds as an acknowledgment, the receiver must watch, or listen attentively until the communication is completed, when he must make the sign indicated below, showing that the message is understood.
If the receiver does not understand the message, he must wait until the signal is repeated.
Duration of short: Bashes or sounds
JK You are standing into danger.....
When a vessel is in "tow," the following flashes or sounds may be made from her to the tug or towing vessel : KR Steer more to port .... KS Steer more to starboard..
PILOT SIGNALS DURING FOG.
For vessels requiring pilots .....
REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE UPON GENERAL DIVIS
IONS 9, 10, 11, AND 12 OF THE PROGRAMME.
COMMITTEE No. 3.
To consider and report upon General Divisions 9, 10, 11, and 12:
REPORTING, MARKING, AND REMOVING DANGEROUS WRECKS OR OB.
STRUCTIONS TO NAVIGATION.
(a) A uniform method of reporting and marking dangerous wrecks and derelicts.
(6) The division of labor, cost, and responsibility among the several maritime nations, either by geographical apportionment or otherwise
Of the removal of dangerous derelicts.
And of searching for doubtful dangers with a view of removing them from the charts.
GENERAL DIVISION 11.
NOTICE OF DANGERS TO NAVIGATION.
Notice of changes in lights, buoys, and other day and night marks.
GENERAL DIVISION 12.
A UNIFORM SYSTEM OF BUOYS AND BEACONS.
(a) Uniformity in color of buoys.
WASHINGTON, D. C., December 28, 1889. Rear-Admiral S. R. FRANKLIN, U. S. Navy,
President International Marine Conference, etc.: SIR: In submitting their report the committee have thought it the most convenient plan to deal separately with each of the General Di. visions which have been discussed and considered by them.
GENERAL DIVISION 9.
WARNINGS OF APPROACHING STORMS,
(a) The transmission of warnings.
(a) THE TRANSMISSION OF WARNINGS.
The committee understand that the various meteorological offices in Europe are in frequent and intimate communication, and interchange telegraphic information for the purpose of weather forecasting on that side of the Atlantic Ocean, while the meteorological offices of the United States and the Dominion of Canada act in concert on the Western side, and also, that a similar custom prevails in many Eastern countries.
Tbe preparation of the weather forecasts and the transmission of warnings regarding expected storms must, by the very nature of the subject, be dealt with locally; and it is, in the opinion of the committee, very questionable whether any useful purpose would be gained by the adoption of uniformity of methods except so far as the general progress of scientific knowledge indicates the direction of possible improvement, and this, it is hardly necessary to say, is more likely to be secured by work carried on independently rather than under any uniform system.
(b) THE UNIFORMITY OF SIGNALS EMPLOYED. Storm-warning signals were first introduced in the interests of the shipping or fishing.vessels lying at anchor in harbor or proposing to put to sea. Lately the same warning-signals have been freely extended to
coast stations with a view to give information regarding the weather to passing vessels. Inasmuch as these may be local or foreign traders, the committee are of opinion that such signals should, as far as possible, be in international agreement.
The established signals originally in use in Europe are evidently founded on the seaman's knowledge of the “law of storms,” and, while warning him of an approaching cyclone, indicate whether the northern or southern portion is expected to pass over the district. Experience proves that this was practically sufficient information for the masters of vessels in the neighboring harbor who would know whether the cyclone was approaching or had passed, but it is scarcely sufticient for coasting vessels, especially those proceeding on a course at right angles to the direction in which the cyclone is moving.
In the opinion of the committee it is therefore desirable that stormsignals displayed at coast stations should give to passing vessels some further information as to whether storms are approaching or have passed the station, and, in reference to this, the committee desire to call attention to the fact that this want has been supplied by the system now in use in the United States. The German system indicates four directions from which a storm is expected, and whether its probable course is to the right or the left. (See Appendix C.)
In dealing with this matter the committee have had the advantage of hearing the views of General A. W. Greely, the Chief Signal Officer in charge of the United States Weather Bureau, and he has summarized them in a memorandum contained under cover of a letter dated December 23, 1889, both of which are appended to this report and to which the committee desire to draw special attention. (See Appendix A.)
It will be seen that, in this memorandum, General Greely has indi. cated the practical reasons for adopting, in lieu of cone-shaped signals, tbe use of colored flags for notifying storm warnings on the coasts of the United States, which, it is claimed, can be seen (except in very calm weather) at a greater distance and by means of which additional information can be given.
The committee consider that this subject is of such a technical nature that they are not prepared to express a decided opinion upon it. They recommend, however, the Conference to invite the various maritime countries to consider the best practical mode of signaling by day, whether by shapes, colored or black, by flags, or by the two combined, and by night by means of lights, colored or white, arranged to represent distinctive forms.
Together with the memorandum alluded to General Greely inclosed a copy of General Orders, No. 29, dated from the Signal Office, War Department, November 11, 1889, from which a paragraph is quoted, and also a paper of diagrams showing the storm, cautionary, and winddirection signals in use in the United States. These signals are reproduced in Appendix B to this report.
S. Ex. 53, pt. 3—19