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(a) When both are running free, with the wind on the same side,
the vessel which is to windward shall keep out of the way of
the vessel which is to leeward. (e) A vessel which has the wind aft shall keep out of the way of
the other vessel. ART. 18. When two steam-vessels are meeting end on, or nearly end on, so as to involve risk of collision, each shall alter her course to starboard, so that each may pass on the port side of the other.
This article only applies to cases where vessels are meeting end on, or nearly end on, in such a manner as to involve risk of collision, and does not apply to two vessels which must, if both keep on their respective courses, pass clear of each other.
The only cases to which it does apply are, when each of the two vessels is end on, or nearly end on, to the other; in other words, to cases in which, by day, each vessel sees the masts of the other in a line, or nearly in a line, with her own; and by night, to cases in which each vessel is in such a position as to see both the side-lights of the other.
It does not apply, by day, to cases in which a vessel sees another ahead crossing her own course; or by night, to cases where the red light of one vessel is opposed to the red light of the other, or where the green light of one vessel is opposed to the green light of the other, or where a red light without a green light, or a green light without a red light, is seen ahead, or where both green and red lights are seen anywhere but ahead.
ART. 19. When two steam-vessels are crossing, so as to involve risk of collision, the vessel which has the other on her own starboard side shall keep out of the way of the other.
ART. 20. When a steam-vessel and a sailing vessel are proceeding in such directions as to involve risk of collision, the steam-vessel shall keep out of the way of the sailing vessel.
ART. 21. Where by any of these rules one of two vessels is to keep out of the way, the other shall keep her course and speed.
ART. 22. Every vessel which is directed by these rules to keep out of the way of another vessel, shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, avoid crossing ahead of the other.
ART. 23. Every steam.vessel which is directed by these rules to keep out of the way of another vessel shall, on approaching her, if necessary, slacken her speed or stop or reverse.
ART. 24. Notwithstanding anything contained in these rules, every vessel, overtaking any other, shall keep out of the way of the overtaken vessel.
Every vessel coming up with another vessel from any direction more than two points abaft her beam, i. e., in such a position, with reference to the vessel which she is overtaking that at night she would be unable to see either of that vessel's side.lights, shall be deemed to be an over, taking vessel; and no subsequent alteration of the bearing between the two vessels shall make the overtaking vessel a crossing vessel within the meaning of these rules, or relieve her of the duty of keeping clear of the overtaken vessel until she is finally past and clear.
As by day the overtaking vessel can not always know with certainty whether she is forward of or abaft this direction from the other vessel, she should, if in doubt, assume that she is an overtaking vessel and keep out of the way.
ART. 25. In narrow channels every steam-vessel shall, when it is safe and practicable, keep to that side of the fair-way or mid-channel which lies on the starboard side of such vessel.
ART. 26. Sailing vessels under way shall keep out of the way of sail. ing vessels or boats fishing with nets, or lines, or trawls. This rule shall not give to any vessel or boat engaged in fishing the right of ob. structing a fair-way used by vessels other than fishing.vessels or boats.
ART. 27. In obeying and construing these rules due regard shall be had to all dangers of navigation and collision, and to any special circumstances which may render a departure from the above rules neces. sary in order to avoid immediate danger.
SOUND-SIGNALS FOR VESSELS IN SIGIT OF ONE ANOTHER.
ART. 28. The words "short-blast” used in this article shall mean a blast of about one second's duration.
When vessels are in sight of one another, a steam-vessel under way, in taking any course authorized or required by these rules, shall indicate that course by the following signals on her whistle or siren, viz:
One short blast to mean, “ I am directing my course to starboard.”
NO VESSEL, UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES, TO NEGLECT PROPER PRE
ART. 29. Nothing in these rules shall exonerate any vessel, or the owner, or master, or crew thereof, from the consequences of any neglect to carry lights or signals, or of any neglect to keep a proper Jook-out, or of the neglect of any precaution which may be required by the ordinary practice of seamen, or by the special circumstances of the case.
RESERVATION OF RULES FOR HARBORS AND INLAND NAVIGATION.
ART. 30. Nothing in these rules shall interfere with the operation of a special rule, duly made by local authority, relative to the navigation of any harbor, river, or inland waters.
S. Ex. 53, pt. 3-5
ART. 31. When a vessel is in distress and requires assistance from other vessels or from the shore, the following shall be the signals to be used or displayed by her, either together or separately, viz: In the day-time
1. A gun fired at intervals of about a minute;
above or below it a ball or anything resembling a ball;
5. A continuous sounding with any fog-sigual apparatus. At night,
1. A gun fired at intervals of about a minute;
throwing stars of any color or description, tired one at a time
at short intervals.
The following resolutions have been approved of by the Conference and are recommended to the attention of the powers represented thereat :
1. The power of all lights should be expressed by referring them all to one standard, by which the light issuing from the lantern should be measured.
2. The minimum power only of each light should be definitely fixed, leaving it to the judgment of the parties responsible for fitting out the vessels with proper lanterns to employ lamps of this or greater power.
3. The use of incandescent lamps should be permitted; the use of arc lights at present should be excluded for all purposes other than signaling and searching
4. Each lantern should be so constructed that the minimum power of light can be found at every point where the light is to be visible after the lamp has been fitted with proper screens.
5. The lantern should be so constructed as to insure the light having at least the required minimum power in the ideal line connecting the lantern with the horizon, even though the vessel be heeled one way or the other 10 degrees.
6. The color of the glasses by which the coloring of the light is to be produced should be so chosen that, if possible, the red light shall have no admixture of green, nor the green light of red rays, and that both colors can be readily and unmistakably distinguished.
7. No detailed description should be internationally adopted for the construction of the lamp or lantern, so that a fair chance may be given to inventors to produce serviceable articles.
8. The side lights should be so screened as to prevent the most convergent rays of the lights being seen across the bows more than half a point.
9. The side lights should be placed in steam-vessels not forward of the mast head light.
10. To meet the number of complaints as to the absence of proper lights on sailing vessels the attention of the powers is called to the better enforcement of the regulations in that behalf.
11. All steam-whistles, sirens, fog-horns, and bells should be thoroughly tested as to their efficiency, and should be capable of being heard at a stated minimum distance, and should be so regulated that the tones of whistles and sirens should be as distinct as possible from the sound of fog.horns.
12. Steam-vessels should be provided, if possible, with means of blowing off surplus steam when the engines are stopped, in such a manner as to occasion as little noise as possible.
13. In clear weather at sea no vessel should attempt to cross the bows of the leaders of any squadron of three or more ships of war in regular formation, nor unnecessarily to pass through the lines of such squadron.
14. In every case of collision between two vessels it should be the duty of the master or person in charge of each vessel, if and so far as he can do so without serious danger to his own vessel, crew, and passengers (if any), to stay by the other vessel until he has ascertained that she has no need of further assistance, and to render to the other vessel, her master, crew, and passengers (if any), such assistance as may be practicable and as may be necessary in order to save them from any danger caused by the collision, and also to give to the master or person in charge of the other vessel the name of his own vessel and her port of registry, or the port or place to which she belongs, and also the name of the ports and places from which and to which she is bound.
REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON LIGHTS.
(Accompanied by an appendix and three plates.)
Resolved, That the Chair appoint two committees, each to consist of seven delegates, to be known as the Committee on Lights and the Committee on Sound Signals, whose present duty it shall be to examine and report to the Conference the literature on these two subjects which is in the possession of the Conference.
WASHINGTON, November 4, 1889. To Rear-Admiral S. R. FRANKLIN, U. S. Navy,
President of the International Marine Conference, etc. : SIR: The Committee on Lights, pursuant to the resolution adopted by the International Marine Conference on the 17th ultimo, instructing the said committee to examine and report on the literature on lights in possession of this Conference, have agreed upon a report, which they have the honor to respectfully submit:
The literature submitted to the consideration of the Conference consists of papers, most of which offer certain distinct proposals. All these bear witness of the great interest the work of the Conference has excited, and a number of them show evident marks of the deep thought and great ingenuity brought to bear on the subject by the authors. Nevertheless, the committee have not thought it advisable to single out any special system for adoption, but content themselves with reporting in general terms upon such as are typical of their class. The committee, however, take this opportunity to express their sense of appreciation of the interest taken in the work, the sincerity of effort, and the ingenuity of which nearly every proposal bears evidence.