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| 10. Limitation of indebtedness of counties, cities, towns and villages; exception as to city of New York. No county, city, town or village shall hereafter give any money of property, or loan its money or credit to or in aid of any individual, association or corporation, or become directly or indirectly the owner of stock in, or bonds of, any association or corporation; nor shall any such county, city, town or village be allowed to incur any indebtedness except for county, city, town of village purposes. This section shall not prevent such county, city, town or village from making sạch provision for the aid or support of its poor as may be authorized by law. No county or city shall be allowed to become indebted for any purpose or in aor manner to an amount which, including existing indebtedness, shall exceed ten per centum of the assessed valuation of the real Astate of such county or city subject to taxation, as it appeared by the assessment-rolls of said county or city on the last assessment for state or county taxes prior to the incurring of such indebtedness; and all indebtedness in excess of such limitations, except such as now may exist, shall be absolutely void, except as herein otherwise provided. No county or city whose present inilebtedness exceeds ten per centum of the assessed valuation "f its real estate subject to taxation, shall be allowed to become indebted in any further amount until such indebtedness shall be Princed within such limit. This section shall not be construed to prevent the issuing of certificates of indebtedness or revenue bonds issued in anticipation of the collection of taxes for amounts actually contained, or to be contained in the taxes for the year then such certificates or revenue bonds are issued and payable ont of such taxes; nor to prevent the city of New York from isning bonds to be redeemed out of the tax levy for the year Dext succeeding the year of their issue, provided that the amount of such bonds which may be issued in any one year in excess of the limitations herein contained shall not exceed one-tenth of one per centum of the assessed valuation of the real estate of said city subject to taxation. Nor shall this section be construed to prevent the issue of bonds to provide for the suppy of water; bat the term of the bonds issued to provide the supply of water, in excess of the limitation of indebtedness fixed herein, shall not esmu twenty years, and a sinking fund shall be created on the issuing of the said bonds for their redemption, by raising annually a som which will produce an amount equal to the sum of the principal and interest of said bonds at their maturity. All certificates of indebtedness or revenue bonds issued in anticipatjon of the collection of taxes, which are not retired within five Fears after their date of issue, and bonds issued to provide for the supply of water, and any debt hereafter incurred by any portion or part of a city, if there shall be any such debt, shall le included in ascertaining the power of the city to become otherwise indebted; except that debts incurred by the city of New York after the first day of January, nineteen hundred and four, and debts incurred by any city of the second class after the first day of January, nineteen hundred and eight, and debts incurred by any city of the third class after the first day of

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January, nineteen hundred and ten, to provide for the supply of water shall not be so included; and except further that any debt hereafter incurred by the city of New York, for a public improvement owned or to be owned by the city, which yields to the city current net revenue, after making any necessary allowance for repairs and maintenance for which the city is liable, in excess of the interest on said debt and of the annual installments necessary for its amortization may be excluded in ascertaining the power of said city to become otherwise indebted, provided that a sinking fund for its amortization shall have been established and maintained and that the indebtedness shall not be so excluded during any period of time when the revenue aforesaid shall not be sufficient to equal the said interest and amortization installments, and except further that any indebtedness heretofore incurred by the city of New York, for any rapid transit or dock investment, may be so excluded proportionately to the extent to which the current net revenue received by said city therefrom shall meet the interest and amortization installments thereof, provided that any increase ing the debt incurring power of the city of New York which shal result from the exclusion of debts heretofore incurred, shall be available only for the acquisition or construction of properties to be used for rapid transitor dock purposes. The legislature shall prescribe the method by which and the terms and conditions under which the amount of any debt to be so excluded shall be determined, and no such debt shall be excluded except in accordance with the determination so prescribed. The legislature may in its discretion confer appropriate jurisdiction on the appellate division of the supreme court in the first judicial department for the purpose of determining the amount of any debt to be so excluded. No indebtedness of a city valid at the time of its inception, shall thereafter become invalid by reason of the operation of any of the provisions of this section. Whenever the boundaries of any city are the same as those of a county, or when any city shall include within its boundaries more than one county, the power of any county wholly included within such city to become indebted shall cease, but the debt of the county, heretofore existing, shall not, for the purposes of this section, be reckoned as a part of the city debt. The amount hereafter to be raised by tax for county or city purposes, in any county containing a city of over one hunired thousand inhabitants, or any such city of this State, in addition to providing for the principal and interest of existing debt shall not in the aggregate exceed in any one year two per centum of the assessed valuation of the real and personal estate of such county or city, to be ascertainer! as prescribed in this section in respect to county or city debt.

Const. 1846, art. VIII, $ 11, added in 1874, and amended in 1884, 1889, 1903, 1907 and 1909,

$ 11. State board of charities; state commission in lunacy; state commission of prisons.

The Legislature shall provide for a state board of charities, which shall visit and inspect all institutions, whether state,

county, municipal, incorporated or not incorporated, which are of a charitable, eleemosynary, correctional or reformatory character, excepting only such institutions as are hereby made subject to the visitation and inspection of either of the commissions hereinafter mentioned, but including all reformatories except those in which adult males convicted of felony shall be confined; a state commission in lunacy, which shall visit and inspect all institutions, either public or private, iised for the care and treatment of the insane (not including institutions for epileptics or idiots); a state commission of prisons which shall visit and inspect all institutions used for the detention of sane adults charged with or convicted of crime, or detained as witnesses or debtors. New,

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$ 12. Boards appointed by governor. The members of the said board and of the said commissions shall be appointed by the Governor, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate; and any member may be removed from office by the Governor for cause, an opportunity having been given him to be heard in his defense. New,

13. Existing laws to remain in force. Existing laws relating to institutions referred to in the foregoing sections and to their supervision and inspection, in so far as such laws are not inconsistent with the provisions of the Conștitution, shall remain in force until amended or repealed by the Legislature. The visitation and inspection herein provided for shall not be exclusive of other visitation and inspection now

authorized by law.

institutions,

natin. Maintenance and support of inmates of charitable

lature from making such provision for the education and support

Nothing in this Constitution contained shall prevent the Legisof the blind, the deaf and dumb, and juvenile delinquents, as to it may seem proper; or prevent any county, city, town or village from providing for the care, support, maintenance and secular wucation, of inmates of orphan asylums, homes for dependent children or correctional institutions, whether under public or private control. Payments by counties, cities, towns and villages to charitable, eleemosynary, correctional and reformatory instit1tions, wholly or partly under private control, for care, support and maintenance, may be authorized, but shall not be required by the Legislature. No such payments shall be made for any

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inmate of such institutions who is not received and retained therein pursuant to rules established by the state board of charities. Such rules shall be subject to the control of the Legislature by general laws.

New.

$ 15. Commissioners continued in office.

Commissioners of the state board of charities and commissioners of the state commission in lunacy, now holding office, shall be continued in office for the term for which they were appointed. respectively, unless the Legislature shall otherwise provide. The Legislature may confer upon the commissions and upon the board mentioned in the foregoing sections any additional powers that are not inconsistent with other provisions of the Constitution. New.

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ARTICLE NINTH,

Sec. 1. Common schools.

2. Regents of the university.
3. Common school, literature and the United States deposit funds.
4. No aid to denominational schools.

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1. Common schools. The Legislature shall provide for the maintenance and support of a system of free common schools, wherein all the children of this State may be educated. New.

$ 2. Regents of the university.

The corporation created in the year one thousand seven hundred and eighty-four, under the name of The Regents of the University of the State of New York, is hereby continued under the name of The University of the State of New York. It shall be governed and its corporate powers, which may be increased, modified or diminished by the Legislature, shall be exercised by not less than nine regents.

Ner.

deposit funds,

13. Common school, literature and the United States

The capital of the common school fund, the capital of the literature fund, and the capital of the United States deposit fund, shall be respectively preserved inviolate.

The revenue of the said common school fund shall be applied to the support of common schools; the revenue of the said literature fund shall be applied to the support of academies; and the sum of twenty-five thousand dollars of the revenues of the United States deposit fund shall each rear be appropriated to and made part of the capital of the said common school fund.

Const. 1846, art. IX, $ 1.

1 4. No aid to denominational schools.

Neither the State nor any subdivision thereof, shall use its either to be used, directly or indirectly, in aid or maintenance, property or credit or any public money, or authorize or permit other than for examination or inspection, of any school or institution of learning wholly or in part under the control or direction of any religious denomination, or in which any denominational tenet or doctrine is taught.

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New.

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