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or any other part of speech, be careful to pursue the systematick order, and to conjugate every verb until you become familiar with all the moods and tenses.

"He should have been punished before he committed that atrocious deed."


Should have been punished is a verb, a word that signifies to do-passive, it denotes action received or endured by the nom. -it is formed by adding the perfect part. punished to the neuter verb to be-regular, the perf. part. ends in ed-potential mood, it implies obligation, &c.-pluperfect tense, it denotes a past act which was prior to the other past time specified by committed"-third pers. sing. num. because the nom. "he" is with which it agrees: RULE 4. The verb must agree, &c.—Conjugated, Indic. mood, pres. tense, he is punished; imperf. tense, he was punished; perf. tense, he has been punished; and so on. Conjugate it through all the moods and tenses, and speak the participles.


Columbus discovered America. America was discovered by Columbus. The preceptor is writing a letter. The letter is written by the preceptor. The work can be done. The nouse would have been built ere this, had he fulfilled his promise. If I be beaten by that man, he will be punished. Young man, you wish to be respected, you must be more assiduous. Being ridiculed and despised, he left the institution. He is reading Homer. They are talking. He may be respected, if he become more ingenuous. My worthy friend ought to be honoured for his benevolent deeds. This ought ye to have done.



All the most important principles of the science, together with many of the rules, have now been presented and illustrated. But before you proceed to analyze the following exercises, you may turn over a few pages, and you will find all the rules presented in a body. Please to examine them critically, and parse the examples under cach rule and note. The examples, you will notice, are given to illustrate the respective rules and notes under which they are placed; hence, by paying particular attention to them, you will be enabled fully and clearly to comprehend the meaning and application of all the rules and notes.

As soon as you become familiarly acquainted with all the definitions, so that you can apply them with facility, you may omit them in parsing; but you must always apply the rules of Syn tax. When you parse without applying the definitions, you may proceed in the following manner:

L with "mercy," according to RYLE 21. The ver e the same case after it as before it.

a preposition, connecting "badge" and "nobility the relation between them.

lity is a noun of multitude, mas. and fem. gender sing, and in the obj. case, and governed by "of:" epositions govern the objective case.


n to unlearn what you have learned amiss. I forfeit for myself is a trifle; that my indisc reach my posterity, wounds me to the heart. Jane Gray fell a sacrifice to the wild ambition Northumberland.

Missipsi charged his sons to consider the sena of Rome as proprietors of the kingdom of Numid el smote the children of Israel in all their coasts at is left on record of his actions, he plainly appe oved, what the prophet foresaw him to be, a man ruelty, and blood.

en hides from brutes what men, from men what

hat formed the ear, can he not hear?

at hath ears to hear, let him hear.

1. Learn, in the first of the preceding examples, is a transiti the action passes over from the nom. you understood, to th re for its object: RULE 24. In the next example, that my i d reach my posterity, is a part of a sentence put as the nomin wounds, according to the same Rule.

noun sacrifice, in the third example, is nom. after the active b fell: RULE 22. The noun proprietors, in the next sent ective case, and put by apposition with senate and people :

ed by consider understood according to Rule 35.

Thing, the antecedent part, is in the nom. case after to be, understood, and put by apposition with he, according to RULE 21, and NOTE. Which, the relative part, is in the obj. case after to be expressed, and put by apposition with him, according to the same RULE. Man is in the obj. case, put by ap position with which: RULE 7. The latter part of the sentence may be liferally rendered thus: He plainly appears to have proved to be that base character which the prophet foresaw him to be, viz. a man of violence, cruelty, and blood. The antecedent part of the first what, in the next sentence, governed by hides; and which, the relative part, is governed by know under stood. The antecedent part of the second what, is governed by hides under stood, and the relative part is governed by know expressed.

4. The first he, m the seventh example, is, in the opinion of some, nomi. to can hear understood; but Mr. N. R. Smith, a distinguished and acute grammarian, suggests the propriety of rendering the sentence thus; "He that formed the ear, formed it to hear; can he not hear?" The first he, in the last example, is redundant; yet the construction is sometimes admissible, for the expression is more forcible than it would be to say, "Let him hear who hath ears to hear ;" and if we adopt the ingenious method of Mr. Smith, the sentence is grammatical, and may be rendered thus; "He that hath ears, hath ears to hear; let him hear."

Idioms, anomalies, and intricacies.

1. "The wall is three feet high."
2. "His son is eight years old."
3. "My knife is worth a shilling."

4. "She is worth him and all his connexions."

5. "He has been there three times."

6. "The hat cost ten dollars."

7. "The load weighs a tun.”

8. "The spar measures ninety feet.”

REMARKS. Anomaly is derived from the Greek, a, without, and omalos, similar; that is, without similarity. Some give its derivation thus ; anomaly, from the Latin, ab, from, or out of, and norme, a rule, or law, means an outlaw; a mode of expression that departs from the rules, laws,, or general usages of the language; a construction in language peculiar to itself. Thus, it is a general rule of the language, that adjectives of one syllable are com pared by adding r, or er, and st, or est, to the positive degree; but good, better, best; bad, worse, worst, are not compared according to the general rule. They are, therefore, anomalies. The plural number of nouns is generally formed by adding s to the singular: man, men; woman, women; child, children; penny, pence, are anomalies. The use of news, means, alms, and amends, in the singular, constitutes anomalies. Anomalous constructions are correct according to custom; but, as they are departures from general rules, by them they cannot be analyzed.

An idiom, Latin idioma, a construction peculiar to a language, may be an anomaly, or it may not. Án idiomatical expression which is not an anomaly can be analyzed.

Feet and years, in the 1, and 2, examples, are not in the nominative after is, according to Rule 21, because they are not in apposition with the respective nouns that precede the verb; but the constructions are anomalous; and, therefore, no rule can be applied to analyze them. The same ideas, however, can be conveyed by a legitimate construction which can be analyzed thus, "The height of the wall is three feet;" "The age of my son is eigh


An anomaly, when ascertained to be such, is easily disposed of; but sometimes it is very difficult to decide whether a construction is anomalous or not. The 3d, 4th, and 5th examples, are generally considered anomalies; but if we supply, as we are, perhaps, warranted in doing, the associated words which modern refinement has dropped, they will cease to be anomalies; thus, "My knife is of the worth of a shilling ;""of the worth of him," &c. "He has been there for three times;" as we say, "I was unwell for three days, after I arrived;" or, "I was unwell three days." Thus it appears, that by tracing back, for a few centuries, what the merely modern English scholar supposes to be an anomaly, an ellipsis will frequently be discovered, which, when supplied, destroys the anomaly.

On extreme points, and peculiar and varying constructions in a living language, the most able philologists can never be agreed; because many usages will always be unsettled and fluctuating, and will, consequently, be disposed of according to the caprice of the grammarian. By some, a sentence may be treated as an anomaly; by others who contend for, and supply, an ellipsis, the same sentence may be analyzed according to the ellipsis supplied; whilst 'others, who deny both the elliptical and anomalous character of the sentence, construct a rule by which to analyze it, which rule has for its foundation the principle contained in that sentence only. This last mode of procedure, inasmuch as it requires us to make a rule for every peculiar construction in the language, appears to me to be the most exceptionable of the three. It appears to be multiplying rules beyond the bounds of utility.

The verbs,cost, weighs, and measures, in the 6th, 7th, and 8th examples, may be considered as transitive. See remarks on resemble, have, own, &c., page 56.


1. "And God said, 'Let there be light,' and there was light." "Let us make man." "Let us bow before the Lord." "Let high-born seraphs tune the lyre." "Blessed be he

2. "Be it enacted." "Be it remembered." that blesseth thee; and cursed be he that curseth thee." "My soul, turn from them :-turn we to survey," &c.

3. "Methinks I see the portals of eternity wide open to receive him." "Methought I was incarcerated beneath the mighty deep." "I was there just thirty years ago."

4. Their laws and their manners, generally speaking, were extremely rude." "Considering their means, they have effected inuch."

5. "Ah me! nor hope nor life remains."

"Me miserable! which way shall I fly?"

6. "O happiness! our being's end and aim!

Good, pleasure, ease, content! whate'er thy name;
That something still which prompts th' eternal sigh,
For which we bear to live, or dare to die."-

The verb let, in the idiomatick examples under number 1, has no nominative specified, and is left applicable to a nominative of the first, second, or third person, and of either number. Every action necessarily depends on an agent or moving canse; and hence it follows, that the verb,in such constructions, has a nominative understood; but as that nominative is not particnborly pointed out, the constructions may be considered anomalous.

Instead of saying, "Let it [to] be enacted;" or, "It is or shall be enacted;" "Let him [to] be blessed;" or, "He shall be blessed;" "Let us turn to survey," &c.; the verbs, be enacted, be blessed, turn, &c. according to an idiom of our language, or the poet's license, are used in the imperative, agreeing with a nominative of the first or third person.

The phrases, methinks and methought, are anomalies, in which the objective pronoun me, in the first person, is used in place of a nominative, and takes a verb after it in the third person. Him was anciently used in the same manner; as, "him thute, him thought." There was a period when these constructions were not anomalies in our language, Formerly, what we call the objective cases of our pronouns, were employed in the same manner as our present nominatives are. Ago is a contraction of agone, the past part. of to go. Betore this participle was contracted to an adverb, the noun years preceding it, was in the nominative case absolute; but now the construction amounts to an anomaly. The expressions, "generally speaking," and "considering their means," under number 4, are idiomatical and anomalous, the subjects to the participles not being specified.

According to the genius of the English language, transitive verbs and prepositions require the objective case of a noun or pronoun after them; and this requisition is all that is meant by government, when we say, that these parts of speech govern the objective case. See pages 52, 57, and 94. The same principle applies to the interjection. "Interjections require the objective case of a pronoun of the first person after them; but the nominative of a noun or pronoun of the second or third person; as, "Ah me! Oh thou! O my country!" To say, then, that interjections require particular cases after them, is synonymous with saying, that they govern those cases; and this office of the interjection is in perfect accordance with that which it performs in the Latin, and many other languages. In the examples under number 5, the first me is in the objective after "ah," and the second me, after ah understood; thus, "Ah miserable me!" according to NOTE 2, under Rule 5.--Happiness, under number 6, is nom. independent; Rule 5, or in the nom. after 0, according to this Note. The principle contained in the note, proves that every noun of the second person is in the nominative case; for, as the pronoun of the second person, in such a situation, is always nominative, which is shown by its form, it logically follows that the noun, under such circumstances, although it has no form to show its case, must necessarily be in the same case as the pronoun. Good, pleasure, ease, content, that," the antecedent part of "whatever," and which, the relative part, are nom. after art understood: Rule 21, and name is nom. to be understood.


The second line may be rendered thus; Whether thou art good, or whether thou art pleasure, &c. or be thy name that [thing] which [ever thing] it may be putting be in the imperative, agreeing with name in the third person. Something is nominative after art understood.


1. "All were well but the stranger." "I saw nobody but the stranger." "All had returned but he." "None but the brave deserve the fair." 66 The thing they can't but purpose, they postpone." "This life, at best, is but a dream." affords but a scanty measure of enjoyment." the hills, they will smoke." "Man is but a reed, floating onthe current of time."


"If he but touch

2. "Notwithstanding his poverty, he is content."

3. "Open your hand wide." "The apples boil soft." "The

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