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purest clay is that which burns white." not the Pierian spring."

"Drink deep, or taste

4. "What though the swelling surge thou see?" &c. "What if the foot, ordain'd the dust to tread?" &c.

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"This

REMARKS. According to the principle of analysis assumed by many of our most critical philologists, but is always a disjunctive conjunction; and agreeably to the same authorities, to construe it, in any case, as a preposition, would lead to errour. See false Syntax under Rule 35. They maintain, that its legitimate and undeviating office is, to join on a member of a sentence which expresses opposition of meaning, and thereby forms an exception to, or takes from the universality of, the proposition contained in the preceding member of the sentence. That it sustains its true character as a conjunction in all the examples under number 1, will be shown by the following resolution of them."All were well but the stranger [was not well."] “I. saw nobody but [I saw] the stranger." "None deserve the fair but the brave [deserve the fair."] They postpone the thing which [they ought to do, and do not, but which [thing] they cannot avoid purposing to do." life, at best, [is not a reality,] but it is a dream. It [affords not unbounded fruition] but it affords a scanty measure of enjoyment." "If he touch the hills, but exert no greater power upon them, they will smoke;"-"If he exert no greater power upon the hills, but [be-out this fact] if he touch them, they will smoke." "Man is not a stable being, but he is a reed, floating on the current of time." This method of analyzing sentences, however, if I mistake not, is too much on the plan of our pretended philosophical writers, who, in their rage for ancient constructions and combinations, often overlook the modern associated meaning and application of this word. It appears to me to be more consistent with the modern use of the word, to consider it an adverb in constructions like the following: "If he but (only, merely) touch the hills they will smoke."

Except and near, in examples like the following, are generally construed as prepositions: "All went except him," "She stands near them." But many contend, that when we employ but instead of except, in such constructions, a nominative should follow: "All went but he [did not go."] On this point and many others, custom is variable; but the period will doubtless arrive, when but, worth, and like, will be considered prepositions, and, in constructions like the foregoing, invariably be followed by an objective case. This will not be the case, however, until the practice of supplying an ellipsis after these words is entirely dropped.

Poverty, under number 2, is governed by the preposition notwithstanding, Rule 31. The adjectives wide, soft, white, and deep, under number 3, not only express the quality of nouns, but also qualify verbs: Note 4, under Rule 18.-What, in the phrases" what though" and "what if," is an interrogative in the objective case, and governed by the verb matters understood, or by some other verb; thus, "What matters it--what dost thou fear, though thou see the swelling surge?" "What would you think, if the foot, which is ordained to tread the dust, aspired to be the head?"

In the following examples, the same word is used as several parts of speech. But by exercising judgment sufficient to comprehend the meaning, and by supplying what is understood, you will be able to analyze them correctly.

EXERCISES IN PARSING.

I like what you dislike.

Every creature loves its like.

Anger, envy,

and like passions, are sinful.

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Charity, like the sun, brightens every object around it.
Thought flies swifter than light.

He thought as a sage, though he felt as a man.
Hail often proves destructive to vegetation.
I was happy to hail him as my friend.

Hail! beauteous stranger of the wood.

The more I examine the work, the better I like it.
Johnson is a better writer than Sterne.
Calm was the day, and the scene delightful.
We may expect a calm after a storm.

To prevent passion is easier than to calm it.
Damp air is unwholesome.

Guilt often casts a damp over our sprightliest hours.
Soft bodies damp the sound much more than hard ones.
Much money has been expended.

Of him to whom much is given, much will be required.
It is much better to give than to receive.

Still water runs deep.

He laboured to still the tumult..

Those two young profligates remain still in the wrong.
They wrong themselves as well as their friends.

I will now present to you a few examples in poetry. Parsing in poetry, as it brings into requisition a higher degree of mental exertion than parsing in prose, will be found a more delightful and profitable exercisc. In this kind of analysis, in order to come at the meaning of the author, you will find it necessary to transpose his language, and supply what is understood; and then you will have the literal meaning in prose. EXERCISES IN PARSING.

APOSTROPHE TO HOPE.-CAMPBELL

Eternal Hope! when yonder spheres sublime
Pealed their first notes to sound the march of time
Thy joyous youth began :-but not to fade.-
When all the sister planets have decayed;
When wrapt in flames the realms of ether glow,
And Heaven's last thunder shakes the world below;
Thou, undismay'd, shalt o'er the ruins smile,
And light thy torch at Nature's funeral pile!

TRANSPOSED.

Eternal Hope! thy joyous youth began when yonder sublime spheres pealed their first notes to sound the march of time :but it began not to fade.-Thou, undismayed, shalt smile over the ruins, when all the sister planets shall have decayed; and thou shalt light thy torch at Nature's funeral pile, when wrapt

in flames, the realms of ether glow, and Heaven's last thunder shakes the world below.

ADDRESS TO ADVERSITY.-GRAY.

Daughter of heaven, relentless power,
Thou tamer of the human breast,
Whose iron scourge, and tort'ring hour,
The bad affright, afflict the best!
The gen'rous spark extinct revive;
Teach me to love and to forgive;

Exact my own defects to scan:

What others are to feel; and know myself a man.
TRANSPOSED.

Daughter of heaven, relentless power, thou tamer of the human breast, whose iron scourge and torturing hour affright the bad, and afflict the best! Revive thou in me the generous, extinct spark; and teach thou me to love others, and to forgive them; and teach thou me to scan my own defects exactly, or critically and teach thou me that which others are to feel; and make thou me to know myself to be a man.

:

ADDRESS TO THE ALMIGHTY.-POPE.

What conscience dictates to be done,
Or warns me not to do,

This teach me more than hell to shun,
That more than heav'n pursue.

TRANSPOSED.

O God, teach thou me to pursue that (the thing) which conscience dictates to be done, more ardently than I pursue heaven; and teach thou me to shun this (the thing) which conscience warns me not to do, more cautiously than I would shun hell. TRIALS OF VIRTUE.-MERRICK.

For see, ah! see, while yet her ways
With doubtful step I tread,

A hostile world its terrours raise,

Its snares delusive spread.

O how shall I, with heart prepared,

Those terrours learn to meet?

How, from the thousand snares to guard

My unexperienced feet?

TRANSPOSED.

For see thou, ah! see thou a hostile world to raise its terrours, and see thou a hostile world to spread its delusive snares, while I yet tread her (virtue's) ways with doubtful steps.

how shall I learn to meet those terrours with a prepared

heart? How shall I learn to guard my unexperienced fect from the thousand snares of the world?

THE MORNING IN SUMMER.-THOMPSON.

Short is the doubtful empire of the night;
And soon, observant of approaching day,
The meek-eyed morn appears, mother of dews,
At first, faint gleaming in the dappled east,
Till far o'er ether spreads the wid'ning glow,
And from before the lustre of her face

White break the clouds away.

TRANSPOSED.

The doubtful empire of the night is short; and the meek eyed morn, (which is the) mother of dews, observant of approaching day, soon appears, gleaming faintly, at first, in the dappled east, till the widening glow spreads far over ether, and the white clouds break away from before the lustre of her face. NATURE BOUNTIFUL.—ÅKENSIDE.

-Nature's care, to all her children just,
With richest treasures, and an ample state,
Endows at large whatever happy man
Will deign to use them.

TRANSPOSED.

Nature's care, which is just to all her children, largely en dows, with richest treasures and an ample state, that happy man who will deign to use them.

NOTE. What, in the second example, is a comp. rel. The antecedent part is gov. by teach understood; and the relative part by to feel expressed. To shun and to pursue, in the third example, are in the infinitive mood, gov. by than, according to a NoTE under Rule 23. Faint and from, in the 5th example, are adverbs. An adverb, in poetry, is often written in the form of an adjective. Whatever, in the last sentence, is a compound pron. and is equivalent to that and who. That is an adj. pron. belonging to "man ;" who is nom. to "will deign;" and ever is excluded from the sentence in sense. See page 113. Parse these examples as they are transposed, and you wili find the analysis very easy.

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES IN PARSING.
GOLD, NOT GENUINE WEALTH.

Where, thy true treasure? Gold

says,

"not in me;"

poor.

And, "not in me," the Diamond. Gold is

TRANSPOSED.

Where is thy true treasure? Gold says, "It is not in me;" and the Diamond says, "It is not in me." Gold is poor.

SOURCE OF FRIENDSHIP.-DR. YOUNG.

Lorenzo, pride repress; nor hope to find
A friend, but what has found a friend in thee.

TRANSPOSED.

Lorenzo, repress thou pride; nor hope thou to find a friend, enly in him who has already found a friend in thee.

TRUE GREATNESS.-POPE.

Who noble ends by noble means obtains,
Or, failing, smiles in exile or in chains,
Like good Aurelius let him reign, or bleed
Like Socrates, that man is great indeed.
TRANSPOSED.

That man is great indeed, let him to reign like unto good Aurelius, or let him to bleed like unto Socrates, who obtains noble ends by noble means; or that man is great indeed, who, failing to obtain noble ends by noble means, smiles in exile or in chains.

INVOCATION.-POLLOK.

Eternal Spirit! God of truth! to whom

All things seem as they are, inspire my song;
My eye unscale: me what is substance teach;
And shadow what, while I of things to come,
As past rehearsing, sing. Me thought and phrase
Severely sifting out the whole idea, grant.

TRANSPOSED.

Eternal Spirit! God of truth! to whom all things seen to be as they really are, inspire thou my song; and unscale thou my eyes: teach thou to me the thing which is substance; and teach thou to me the thing which is shadow, while I sing of things which are to come, as one sings of things which are past rehearsing. Grant thou to me thought and phraseology which shall severely sift out the whole idea.

THE VOYAGE of Life.

How few, favoured by ev'ry element,

With swelling sails make good the promised port,
With all their wishes freighted! Yet ev❜n these,
Freighted with all their wishes, soon complain.
Free from misfortune, not from nature free,
They still are men; and when is man secure?
As fatal time, as storm. The rush of years
Beats down their strength; their numberless escapes
In ruin end: and, now, their proud success
But plants new terrours on the victor's brow.
What pain, to quit the world just made their own!
Their nests so deeply downed and built so high!—
Too low they build, who build beneath the stars.

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