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TRANSPOSED.

How few persons, favoured by every element, safely make the promised port with swelling sails, and with all their wishes freighted! Yet even these few persons who do safely make the promised port with all their wishes freighted, soon complain. Though they are free from misfortunes, yet (though and yet, corresponding conjunctions, form only one connexion) they are not free from the course of nature, for they still are men; and when is man secure? Time is as fatal to him, as a storm is to the mariner.-The rush of years beats down their strength; (that is, the strength of these few ;) and their numberless escapes end in ruin and then their proud success only plants new terrours on the victor's brow. What pain it is to them to quit the world, just as they have made it to be their own world; when their nests are built so high, and when they are downed so deeply! They who build beneath the stars, build too low for their own safety.

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REFLECTIONS ON A SKULL.-LORD BYRON.
Remove yon skull from out the scattered heaps.
Is that a temple, where a God may dwell?

Why, ev'n the worm at last disdains her shattered cell!
Look on its broken arch, its ruined wall,
Its chambers desolate, and portals foul:
Yes, this was once ambition's airy hall,
The dome of thought, the palace of the soul.
Behold, through each lack-lustre, eyeless hole,
The gay recess of wisdom and of wit,

And passion's host, that neyer brooked control.
Can all, saint, sage, or sophist ever writ,
People this lonely tower, this tenement refit?

TRANSPOSED.

Remove thou yonder skull out from the scattered heaps. Is that a temple, where a God may dwell? Why, even the worm at last disdains her shattered cell! Look thou on its broken arch, and look thou on its ruined wall, and on its desolate chambers, and on its foul portals :-yes, this skull was once ambition's airy hall; (it was) the dome of thought, the palace of the soul. Behold thou, through each lack-lustre, eyeless hole, the gay recess of wisdom and of wit, and passion's host, which never brooked control. Can all the works which saints, or sages, or sophists have ever written, repeople this lonely Lower, or can they refit this tenement?

For future exercises in parsing, you may your select pieces from the English Reader, or any other grammatical work I

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LECTURE XIV.

OF DERIVATION.

e commencement of lecture II. I informed you treats, 3dly, of derivation.

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This branch of Etym nt as it is, cannot be very extensively treated in a work on grammar. In the course of the precedin has been frequently agitated; and now I shall c e remarks, which will doubtless be useful in illust the various methods in which one word is derived

Before you proceed, however, please to turn d again what is advanced on this subjeet on pag e PHILOSOPHICAL NOTES.

ouns are derived from verbs.

erbs are derived from nouns, adjectives, and some verbs.

ljectives are derived from nouns. ouns are derived from adjectives. lverbs are derived from adjectives.

ouns are derived from verbs; as, from "to 1 lover;" from "to visit, visiter;" from "to su " &c.

following instances, and in many others, it is diffic e whether the verb was deduced from the noun, ɔm the verb, viz. "Love, to love; hate, to hate;

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2. Verbs are derived from nouns, adjectives, and sometimes from adverbs; as, from the noun salt, comes "to salt ;" from the adjective warm, "to warm ;" and from the adverb forward, forward." Sometimes they are formed by lengthening the vowel, or softening the consonant; as, from "grass, to graze;" sometimes by adding en; as, from "length, to lengthen ;" especially to adjectives; as, from "short, to shorten; bright, to brighten."

3. Adjectives are derived from nouns in the following man ner: adjectives denoting plenty are derived from nouns by add ing y; as, from "Health, healthy; wealth, wealthy; might, mighty," &c.

Adjectives denoting the matter out of which anything is made, are derived from nouns by adding en; as, from “Oak, oaken ; wood, wooden; wocl, woollen," &c.

Adjectives denoting abundance are derived from nouns by adding ful; as, from "Joy, joyful; sin, sinful; fruit, fruitful." &c.

Adjectives denoting plenty, but with some kind of diminution, are derived from nouns by adding some; as, from " Light, lightsome; trouble, troublesome; toil, toilsome," &c.

Adjectives denoting want are derived from nouns by adding less; as, from "Worth, worthless ;" from "care, careless; joy, joyless," &c.

Adjectives denoting likeness are derived from nouns by add ing ly; as, from "Man, manly; earth, earthly; court, courtly," &c.

Some adjectives are derived from other adjectives, or from nouns by adding ish to them; which termination when added to adjectives, imports diminution, or lessening the quality; as, "White, whitish;" i. e. somewhat white. When added to nouns, it signifies similitude or tendency to a character; as, "Child, childish; thief, thievish."

Some adjectives are formed from nouns or verbs by adding the termination able; and those adjectives signify capacity; as, "Answer, answerable; to change, changeable."

4. Nouns are derived from adjectives, sometimes by adding the termination ness; as, "White, whiteness; swift, swiftness ;" sometimes by adding th or t, and making a small change in some of the letters; as, "Long, length; high, height."

5. Adverbs of quality are derived from adjectives, by adding ly, or changing le into ly; and denote the same quality as the adjectives from which they are derived; as, from " base," comes "basely;" from "slow, slowly;" from "able, ably."

There are so many other ways of deriving words from one

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another, that it would be extremely difficult, if not impossible, to enumerate them. The primitive words of every language are very few; the derivatives form much the greater number. A few more instances only can be given here.

Some nouns are derived from other nouns, by adding the terminations hood or head, ship, ery, wick, rick, dom, ian, ment and age.

Nouns ending in hood or head, are such as signify character or qualities; as, "Manhood, knighthood, falsehood," &c.

Nouns ending in ship, are those that signify office, employment, state, or condition; as, "Lordship, stewardship, partnership," &c. Some nouns in ship are derived from adjectives; as, "Hard, hardship," &c.

Nouns which end in ery, signify action or habit; as, "Slavery, foolery, prudery," &c. Some nouns of this sort come from adjectives; as, "Brave, bravery," &c.

Nouns ending in wick, rick, and dom, denote dominion, jurisdiction, or condition; as, "Bailiwick, bishoprick, kingdom, dukedom, freedom," &c.

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Nouns which end in ian, are those that signify profession; as, Physician, musician," &c. Those that end in ment and age, come generally from the French, and commonly signify the act or habit; as, "Commandment," "usage."

Some nouns ending in ard, are derived from verbs or adjectives, and denote character or habit; as, Drunk, drunkard; dote, dotard.”

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Some nouns have the form of diminutives; but these are not many. They are formed by adding the terminations kin, ling, ing, ock, el, and the like; as, "Lamb, lambkin; goose, gos ting; duck, duckling; hill, hillock; cock, cockerel," &c.

OF PREPOSITIONS USED AS PREFIXES.

I shall conclude this lecture by presenting and explaining a list of Latin and Greek prepositions which are extensively used in English as prefixes. By carefully studying their signification, you will be better qualified to understand the meaning of those words into the composition of which they en ter, and of which they form a material part.

I. LATIN PREFIXES.

A, ab, abs-signify from or away; as, a-vert, to turn from; ab-ject, to throw away; abs-tract, to draw away.

Ad-to or at; as, ad-here, to stick to; ad-mire, to wonder at.
Ante-means before; as, ante-cedent, going before.

Circum-signifies round, about; as, circum-navigate, to sail round.
Con, com, co, col-together; as, con-join, to join together; com-press, to
press together; co-operate, to work together; col-lapse, to fall together.
Contra-against; as, contra-dict, to speak against.

De-from, down; as, de-duct, to take from; de-scend, to go down.
Di, dis-asunder, away; as, di-lacerate, to tear asunder; dis-miss, to send

away.

for, forth, forward; as, pro-noun, for a noun; pro-tend, to ro-ject, to shoot forward."

er-past, beyond; as, preter-perfect, pastperfect; preter-natu e course of nature.

again or back; as, re-peruse, to peruse again; re-trace, to trac -backwards; as, retro-spective, looking backwards. side, apart; as, se-duce, to draw aside.

under; as, sub-scribe, to write under, or sub-sign. -under; as, subter-fluous, flowing under.

--above or over; as, super-scribe, to write above; super-v

-over, beyond, from one place to another; as, trans-port, to -ans-gress, to pass beyond.

II. GREEK PREFIXES.

gnifies privation; as, a-nonymous, without name. i-both or two; as, amphi-bious, partaking of both or two nat -against; as, anti-masonry, against masonry.

through; as, dia-meter, line passing through a circle. -over; as, hyper-critical, over or too critical.

-under, implying concealment or disguise; as, hypo-crite, o g his real character.

-denotes change or transmutation; as, meta-morphose, to c

e.

-contrary or against; as, para-dox, a thing contrary to re

-round about; as, peri-phrasis, circumlocution.

yl, sym-together; as, syn-tax, a placing together; syn-od, a ming together; syl-lable, that portion of a word which is take sym-pathy, fellow-feeling, or feeling together.

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