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How few persons, favoured by every element, safely make the promised port with swelling sails, and with all their wishes freighted! Yet even these few persons who do safely make the promised port with all their wishes freighted, soon complain. Though they are free from misfortunes, yet (though and yet, corresponding conjunctions, form only one connexion) they are not free from the course of nature, for they still are men; and when is man secure? Time is as fatal to him, as a storm is to the mariner. The rush of years beats down their strength; (that is, the strength of these few ;) and their numberless escapes end in ruin and then their proud success only plants new terrours on the victor's brow. What pain it is to them to quit the world, just as they have made it to be their own world; when their nests are built so high, and when they are downed so deeply! They who build beneath the stars, build too low for their own safety.
REFLECTIONS ON A SKULL.-LORD BYRON.
And passion's host, that neyer brooked control.
Remove thou yonder skull out from the scattered heaps. Is that a temple, where a God may dwell? Why, even the worm at last disdains her shattered cell! Look thou on its broken arch, and look thou on its ruined wall, and on its desolate chambers, and on its foul portals :-yes, this skull was once ambition's airy hall; (it was) the dome of thought, the palace of the soul. Behold thou, through each lack-lustre, eyeless hole, the gay recess of wisdom and of wit, and passion's host, which never brooked control. Can all the works which saints, or sages, or sophists have ever written, repeople this lonely Lower, or can they refit this tenement?
future exercises in parsing, you may select pieces from the English Reader, or any other grammatical work
have already hinted, that parsing in poetry, as it brings more immediately into requisition the reasoning faculties, than parsing in prose, will necessarily tend more rapidly to facilitate your progress: therefore it is advisable that your future exercises in this way, be chiefly confined to the analysis of poetry. Previous to your attempting to parse a piece of poetry, you ought always to transpose it, in a manner similar to the examples just presented; and then it can be as easily analyzed as prose.
Before you proceed to correct the following exercises in falsə syntax, you may turn back and read over the whole thirteen lectures, unless you have the subject-matter already stored in your mind.
At the commencement of lecture II. I informed you that Etymology treats, 3dly, of derivation. This branch of Etymology, important as it is, cannot be very extensively treated in an elementary work on grammar. In the course of the preceding lectures, it has been frequently agitated; and now I shall offer a few more remarks, which will doubtless be useful in illustrating some of the various methods in which one word is derived from another. Before you proceed, however, please to turn back and read again what is advanced on this subjeet on page 27, and in the PHILOSOPHICAL NOTES.
1. Nouns are derived from verbs.
2. Verbs are derived from nouns, adjectives, and sometimes from adverbs.
3. Adjectives are derived from nouns.
4. Nouns are derived from adjectives. 5. Adverbs are derived from adjectives.
1. Nouns are derived from verbs; as, from "to love," comes "lover;" from "to visit, visiter;" from "to survive, surviver," &c.
In the following instances, and in many others, it is difficult to determine whether the verb was deduced from the noun, or the noun from the verb, viz. "Love, to love; hate, to hate; fear, to fear; sleep, to sleep; walk, to walk; ride, to ride; aet, to act," &c.
2. Verbs are derived from nouns, adjectives, and sometimes from adverbs; as, from the noun salt, comes "to salt;" from the adjective warm, to warm ;" and from the adverb forward, forward." Sometimes they are formed by lengthening the vowel, or softening the consonant; as, from "grass, to graze;" sometimes by adding en; as, from "length, to lengthen;" especially to adjectives; as, from "short, to shorten; bright, to brighten."
3. Adjectives are derived from nouns in the following man ner: adjectives denoting plenty are derived from nouns by add ingy; as, from "Health, healthy; wealth, wealthy; might, mighty," &c.
Adjectives denoting the matter out of which anything is made, are derived from nouns by adding en; as, from " Oak, oaken wood, wooden; wocl, woollen," &c.
Adjectives denoting abundance are derived from nouns by adding ful; as, from "Joy, joyful; sin, sinful; fruit, fruitful." &c.
Adjectives denoting plenty, but with some kind of diminution, are derived from nouns by adding some; as, from "Light, lightsome; trouble, troublesome; toil, toilsome," &c.
Adjectives denoting want are derived from nouns by adding less; as, from "Worth, worthless;" from "care, careless; joy, joyless," &c.
Adjectives denoting likeness are derived from nouns by add ing ly; as, from "Man, manly; earth, earthly; court, courtly," &c.
Some adjectives are derived from other adjectives, or from nouns by adding ish to thern; which termination when added to adjectives, imports diminution, or lessening the quality; as, "White, whitish ;" i. e. somewhat white. When added to nouns, it signifies similitude or tendency to a character; as, "Child, childish; thief, thievish."
Some adjectives are formed from nouns or verbs by adding the termination able; and those adjectives signify capacity; as, "Answer, answerable; to change, changeable."
4. Nouns are derived from adjectives, sometimes by adding the termination ness; as, "White, whiteness; swift, swiftness ;" sometimes by adding th or t, and making a small change in some of the letters; as, "Long, length; high, height."
5. Adverbs of quality are derived from adjectives, by adding ly, or changing le into ly; and denote the same quality as the adjectives from which they are derived; as, from "base," comes "basely;" from "slow, slowly;" from "able, ably." There are so many other ways of deriving words from one
another, that it would be extremely difficult, if not impossible, to enumerate them. The primitive words of every language are very few; the derivatives form much the greater number. A few more instances only can be given here.
Some nouns are derived from other nouns, by adding the terminations hood or head, ship, ery, wick, rick, dom, ian, ment
Nouns ending in hood or head, are such as signify character or qualities; as, "Manhood, knighthood, falsehood," &c.
Nouns ending in ship, are those that signify office, employment, state, or condition; as, "Lordship, stewardship, partnership," &c. Some nouns in ship are derived from adjectives; as, "Hard, hardship," &c.
Nouns which end in ery, signify action or habit; as, "Slavery, foolery, prudery," &c. Some nouns of this sort come from adjectives; as, "Brave, bravery," &c.
Nouns ending in wick, rick, and dom, denote dominion, jurisdiction, or condition; as, "Bailiwick, bishoprick, kingdom, dukedom, freedom," &c.
Nouns which end in ian, are those that signify profession; as, Physician, musician," &c. Those that end in ment and age, come generally from the French, and commonly signify the act or habit; as, "Commandment,” 99 66 usage.
Some nouns ending in ard, are derived from verbs or adjectives, and denote character or habit; as, "Drunk, drunkard; dote, dotard."
Some nouns have the form of diminutives; but these are not many. They are formed by adding the terminations kin, ling, ing, ock, el, and the like; as, "Lamb, lambkin; goose, gos ling; duck, duckling; hill, hillock; cock, cockerel," &c.
OF PREPOSITIONS USED AS PREFIXES.
I shall conclude this lecture by presenting and explaining a list of Latin and Greek prepositions which are extensively used in English as prefixes. By carefully studying their signification, you will be better qualified to understand the meaning of those words into the composition of which they en ter, and of which they form a material part.
I. LATIN PREFIXES.
A, ab, abs-signify from or away; as, a-vert, to turn from; ab-ject, to throw away; abs-tract, to draw away.
Ad-to or at; as, ad-here, to stick to; ad-mire, to wonder at.
Ante-means before; as, ante-cedent, going before.
Circum-signifies round, about; as, circum-navigate, to sail round.
De-from, down; as, de-duct, to take from; de-scend, to go down.
for, forth, forward; as, pro-noun, for a noun; pro-tend, to ro-ject, to shoot forward."
er-past, beyond; as, preter-perfect, pastperfect; preter-natu e course of nature.
again or back; as, re-peruse, to peruse again; re-trace, to trac -backwards; as, retro-spective, looking backwards. side, apart; as, se-duce, to draw aside.
under; as, sub-scribe, to write under, or sub-sign. -under; as, subter-fluous, flowing under.
--above or over; as, super-scribe, to write above; super-v
-over, beyond, from one place to another; as, trans-port, to -ans-gress, to pass beyond.
II. GREEK PREFIXES.
gnifies privation; as, a-nonymous, without name. i-both or two; as, amphi-bious, partaking of both or two nat -against; as, anti-masonry, against masonry.
through; as, dia-meter, line passing through a circle. -over; as, hyper-critical, over or too critical.
-under, implying concealment or disguise; as, hypo-crite, o g his real character.
-denotes change or transmutation; as, meta-morphose, to c
-contrary or against; as, para-dox, a thing contrary to re
-round about; as, peri-phrasis, circumlocution.
yl, sym-together; as, syn-tax, a placing together; syn-od, a ming together; syl-lable, that portion of a word which is take sym-pathy, fellow-feeling, or feeling together.