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another, that it would be extremely difficult, if not impossible, to enumerate them. The primitive words of every language are very few; the derivatives form much the greater number. few more instances only can be given here.
Some nouns are derived from other nouns, by adding the terminations hood or head, ship, ery, wick, rick, dom, ian, ment and age.
Nouns ending in hood or head, are such as signify character or qualities; as, "Manhood, knighthood, falsehood," &c.
Nouns ending in ship, are those that signify office, employment, state, or condition; as, "Lordship, stewardship, partnership," &c. Some nouns in ship are derived from adjectives; as, "Hard, hardship," &c.
Nouns which end in ery, signify action or habit; as, "Slavery, foolery, prudery," &c. Some nouns of this sort come from adjectives; as, "Brave, bravery," &c.
Nouns ending in wick, rick, and dom, denote dominion, jurisdiction, or condition; as, " Bailiwick, bishoprick, kingdom, dukedom, freedom," &c.
Nouns which end in ian, are those that signify profession; as, "Physician, musician," &c. Those that end in ment and age, come generally from the French, and commonly signify the act or habit; as, "Commandment," " usage."
Some nouns ending in ard, are derived from verbs or adjectives, and denote character or habit; as, "Drunk, drunkard; dote, dotard."
Some nouns have the form of diminutives; but these are not many. They are formed by adding the terminations kin, ling, ing, ock, el, and the like; as, "Lamb, lambkin; goose, gos ting; duck, duckling; hill, hillock; cock, cockerel," &c.
OF PREPOSITIONS USED AS PREFIXES.
I shall conclude this lecture by presenting and explaining a list of Latin and Greek prepositions which are extensively used in English as prefixes. By carefully studying their signification, you will be better qualified to understand the meaning of those words into the composition of which they en ter, and of which they form a material part.
I. LATIN PREFIXES.
A, ab, abs-signify from or away; as, a-vert, to turn from; ab-ject, to throw away; abs-tract, to draw away.
Ad-to or at; as, ad-here, to stick to; ad-mire, to wonder at.
Circum-signifies round, about; as, circum-navigate, to sail round. Con, com, co, col-together; as, con-join, to join together; com-press, to press together; co-operate, to work together; col-lapse, to fall together. Contra-against; as, contra-dict, to speak against.
De-from, down; as, de-duct, to take from; de-scend, to go down.
E, ef, ex-out; as, e-ject, to throw out; ef-flux, to flow out; ex-clude, to shut out.
Extra-beyond; as, extra-ordinary, beyond what is ordinary.
In, im, il, ir—(in, Gothick, inna, a cave or cell ;) as, in-fuse, to pour in. These prefixes, when incorporated with adjectives or nouns, commonly reverse their meaning; as, in-sufficient, im-polite, il-legitimate, ir-reverence, irresolute.
Inter-between; as, inter-pose, to put between.
Intro-within, into; intro-vert, to turn within; intro-duce, to lead into.
Per-through, by; as, per-ambulate, to walk through; per-haps, by haps.
Pro-for, forth, forward; as, pro-noun, for a noun; pro-tend, to stretch forth; pro-ject, to shoot forward.
Præter-past, beyond; as, preter-perfect, pastperfect; preter-natural, be yond the course of nature.
Re-again or back; as, re-peruse, to peruse again; re-trace, to trace back.
Sub-under; as, sub-scribe, to write under, or sub-sign.
Super--above or over; as, super-scribe, to write above; super-vise, to overlook.
Trans-over, beyond, from one place to another; as, trans-port, to carry over; trans-gress, to pass beyond.
II. GREEK PREFIXES.
A-signifies privation; as, a-nonymous, without name.
Amphi-both or two; as, amphi-bious, partaking of both or two natures.
Dia-through; as, dia-meter, line passing through a circle.
Hypo-under, implying concealment or disguise; as, hypo-crite, one dissembling his real character.
Meta-denotes change or transmutation; as, meta-morphose, to change the shape.
Para contrary or against; as, para-dox, a thing contrary to received opinion.
Peri-round about; as, peri-phrasis, circumlocution.
Syn, syl, sym-together; as, syn-tax, a placing together; syn-od, a meeting or coming together; syllable, that portion of a word which is taken together; sym-pathy, fellow-feeling, or feeling together.
RULES OF SYNTAX,
WITH ADDITIONAL EXERCISES IN FALSE SYNTAX.
The third part of Grammar is SYNTAX, which treats of the agreement and government of words, and of their proper arrangement in a sentence.
SYNTAX Consists of two parts, Concord and Government.
CONCORD is the agreement which one word has with another, in gender, person, number, or case. For the illustration of agreement and government, see pages 52, and 53.
For the definition of a sentence, and the transposition of its words and members, see pages 119, 124, 128, and 167.
The principal parts of a simple sentence are the nominative or subject, the verb or attribute, or word that makes the affirmation, and the object, or thing affected by the action of the verb; as, "A wise man governs his passions." In this sentence, man is the subject; governs, the attribute; and passions the object.
A PHRASE is two or more words rightly put to gether, making sometimes a part of a sentence, and sometimes a whole sentence.
ELLIPSIS is the omission of some word or words, in order to avoid disagreeable and unnecessary repetitions, and to express our ideas concisely, and with strength and elegance.
In this recapitulation of the rules, Syntax is presented in a condensed form, many of the essential NOTES being omitted. This is a necessary consequence of my general plan, in which Etymology and Syntax, you know, are blended. Hence, to
acquire a complete knowledge of Syntax from this work, yo must look over the whole.
You may now proceed and parse the following additional ex ercises in false Syntax; and, as you analyze, endeavour to correct all the errours without looking at the Key. If, in correcting these examples, you should be at a loss in assigning the reasons why the constructions are erroneous, you can refer to the manner adopted in the foregoing pages.
The article a or an agrees with nouns in the singular number only, individually or collectively; as, "A star, an eagle, a score, a thousand."
The definite article the belongs to nouns in the singular or plural number; as, "The star, the stars; the hat, the hats."
NOTE 1. A nice distinction in the meaning is sometimes effected by the use or omission of the article a. If I say, "He behaved with a little reverence," my meaning is positive. But if I say, "He behaved with little reverence," my meaning is negative. By the former, I rather praise a person; by the latter, I dispraise him. When I say, "There were few men with him," I speak diminutively, and mean to represent them as inconsiderable; whereas, when I say, "There were a few men with him," I evidently intend to make the most of them.
2. The indefinite article sometimes has the meaning of every or each; as, "They cost five shillings a dozen;" that is, 'every dozen.'
"A man he was to all the country dear,
"And passing rich with forty pounds a year!" that is, every year.'
3. When several adjectives are connected, and express the various qualities of things individually different, though alike in name, the article should be repeated; but when the qualities all belong to the same thing or things, the article should not be repeated. "A black and a white calf," signifies, A black calf, and a white calf; but "A black and white calf," describes the two colours of one calf.
The nominative case governs the verb; as, "I learn, thou learnest, he learns, they learn."
The verb must agree with its nominative in number and person; as, "The bird sings, the birds sing, thou singest."
NOTE 1. Every verb, when it is not in the infinitive mood, must have a nominative, expressed or implied; as, "Awake, arise;" that is, Awake ye arise ye.
2. When a verb comes between two nouns, either of which may be considered as the subject of the affirmation, it must agree with that which is more naturally its subject; as, "The wages of sin is death; His meat was locusts and wild honey;" "His pavilion were dark waters and thick clouds."
EXAMPLES OF FALSE SYNTAX.
Frequent commission of sin harden men in it.
Great pains has been taken to reconcile the parties.
Not one of them are happy.
What avails the best sentiments, if people do not live suit ably to them?
Disappointments sinks the heart of man; but the renewal of hope give consolation.
The variety of the productions of genius, like that of the operations of nature, are without limit.
A variety of blessings have been conferred upon us.
Thou cannot heal him, it is true, but thou may do something to relieve him.
In piety and virtue consist the happiness of man.
Who touched Isaiah's hallowed lips with fire. Note 1. Will martial flames for ever fire thy mind, And never, never be to Heaven resigned?
He was a man whose inclinations led him to be corrupt, and had great abilities to manage the business. Note 2.
The crown of virtue is peace and honour.
When an address is made, the noun or pronoun addressed, is put in the nominative case independent; as, Plato, thou reasonest well;" "Do, Trim, said my uncle Toby."
NOTE 1. A noun is independent, when it has no verb to agree with it.
2. Interjections require the objective case of a pronoun of the first person after them, but the nominative of a noun or pronoun of the second or third person; as, "Ah! me; Oh! thou; O! virtue."
A noun or pronoun placed before a participle, and being independent of the rest of the sentence, is in the nominative case absolute; as, "Shame being lost, all virtue is lost;" "The sun being risen, we travelled on "