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NOTE. When a relative pronoun is preceded by two antecedents of different persons, the relative and the verb may agree in person with either, but not without regard to the sense; as, "I am the man who command you ;" or, "I am the inan who commands you." The meaning of the first of these examples will more obviously appear, if we render it thus: "I who coininand you, am the man."

When the agreement of the relative has been fixed with either of the preceding antecedents, it must be preserved throughout the sentence; as, "I am the Lord, that maketh all things; that stretcheth forth the heavens alone; that spreadeth abroad the earth by myself," &c.


Thou who has been a witness of the fact, canst state it.

The wheel killed another man, which make the sixth which have lost their lives by this means.

Thou great First Cause, least understood!

Who all my sense confined.

Note, 2d part. Thou art the Lord, who didst choose Abraham, and brought him forth out of Ur of the Chaldees.


The relative is the nominative case to the verb, when no nominative comes between it and the verb; as, "The master who taught us, was emi



If he will not hear his best friend, whom shall be sent to admonish him.

This is the man whom, he informed me, was my benefactor.


When a nominative comes between the relative and the verb, the relative is governed by the following verb, or by some other word in its own member of the sentence; as, "He whom I serve, is eternal."

NOTE 1. Who, which, what, the relative that, and their compounds, whom ever, whomsoever, &c., though in the objective case, are always placed before the verb; as, "He whom ye seek, has gone hence."

2. Every relative must have an antecedent to which it relates, either expressed or implied; as, "Who steals my purse,steals trash ;" that is, he who.

3. The pronouns whichsoever, whatsoever, and the like, are sometimes elegantly divided by the interposition of the corresponding nouns; as, “On which side soever the king cast his eyes," &c.

4. The pronoun what is sometimes improperly used instead of the conjunction that; as, "He would not believe but what I was in fault." It should be, "but that," &c.


That is the friend who I sincerely esteem.

Not proper, because who, which is the object of the action expressed by the transitive verb "esteem," is in the nominative case. It ought to be whom, in the objective; and then it would be governed by esteem, according to Rule 16. (Repeat the Rule:)—and, also, according to Rule 20. "That is the friend whom I sincerely esteem."

They who much is given to, will have much to answer for. From the character of those who you associate with, your own will be estimated.

He is a man who I greatly respect.

Our benefactors and tutors are the persons who we ought to love, and who we ought to be grateful to.

They who conscience and virtue support, may smile at the caprices of fortune.

Who did you walk with?

Who did you see there?
Who did you give the book to?


When a relative pronoun is of the interrogative kind, it refers to the word or phrase containing the answer to the question for its subsequent, which subsequent must agree in case with the interrogative; as, "Whose book is that? Joseph's;" "Who gave you this? John."

NOTE. Whether the interrogative really refers to a subsequent or not, is doubtful; but it is certain that the subsequent should agree in case with the interrogative.


Who gave John those books? Us. Of whom did you buy them? Of a bookseller, he who lives in Pearl-street.

Who walked with you? My brother and him.

Who will accompany me to the country? Her and me.


Adjectives belong to, and qualify nouns, expressed or understood; as, "He is a good, as well as a wise man."

NOTE 1. Adjectives frequently belong to pronouns; as, "I am miserable; He is industrious."

2. Numeral adjectives belong to nouns, which nouns must agree in nuinber with their adjectives, when of the cardinal kind; as, "Ten feet; Eigh'y fathoms." But some anomalous and figurative expressions form an exception to this rule; as, "A fleet of forty sail;" "Two hundred head of cattle."

3. Adjectives sometimes belong to verbs in the infinitive mood, or to a par of a sentence; as, “To see is pleasant; To be blind is unfortunate; To die for our country, is glorious."


4. Adjectives are often used to modify the sense of other adjectives, or the action of verbs, and to express the quality of things in connexion with the action by which that quality is produced; as, Red hot iron; Pale blue lining; Deep sea-green sash; The apples boil soft; Open your hand wide; The clay burns white; The fire burns blue; The eggs boil hard."

5. When an adjective is preceded by a preposition, and the noun is understood, the two words may be considered an adverbial phrase; as, "In general, in particular;" that is, generally, particularly.

6. Adjectives should be placed next to the nouns which they qualify; as, "A tract of good land."

7. We should generally avoid comparing such adjectives as do not literalby admit of comparison; such as, more impossible, most impossible; more unconquerable, more perfect, &c. See REMARKS on adjectives, page 76.

8. When an adjective or an adverb is used in comparing two objects, it should be in the comparative degree; but when more than two are compared, the superlative ought to be employed; as, "Julia is the taller of the two; Her specimen is the best of the three."

FALSE SYNTAX. Note 2. The boat carries thirty tun.

The chasm was twenty foot broad, and one hundred fathom in depth.

Note 6. He bought a new pair of shoes, and an elegant piece of furniture.

My cousin gave his fine pair of horses for


poor tract of

Note 7. The contradictions of impiety are still more incomprehensible.

It is the most uncertain way that can be devised.

This is a more perfect model than I ever saw before.
Note 8. Which of those two cords is the strongest ?

I was at a loss to determine which was the wiser of the three.


Adjective pronouns belong to nouns, expressed or understood; as, "Any man, all men."

NOTE 1. The demonstrative adjective pronouns must agree in number with their nouns; as, "This book, these books; that sort, those sorts."

2. The pronominal adjectives, each, every, either, neither, another, and one, agree with nouns in the singular number only; as, "Each man, every person, another lesson;" unless the plural nouns convey a collective idea: as, "Every six months."

3. Either is often improperly employed instead of each; as, "The king of Israel, and Jehoshaphat the king of Judah, sat either of them on his throne." Each signifies both taken separately; either implies only the one or the other taken disjunctively:-" sat each on his throne."


Note 1. Those sort of favours do real injury.

They have been playing this two hours.

These kind of indulgences soften and injure the mind.

He saw one or more persons enter the garden.

Note 2. Let each esteem others better than themselves. There are bodies, each of which are so small as to be invisible. Every person, whatever their station may be, are bound by the laws of morality and religion.

Note 3. On either side of the river was the tree of life.
Nadab and Abihu took either of them his censer.


Active-transitive verbs govern the objective case; as, "Cesar conquered Pompey ;" "Čolumbus discovered America;" "Truth ennobles her."


Ye who were dead, hath he quickened.

Ye, in the nominative case, is erroneous, because it is the object of the action expressed by the transitive verb "hath quickened ;" and therefore it should be you, in the objective case. You would then be governed by “hath quickened," agreeably to Rule 20. Active-transitive verbs govern the objective


Who did they entertain so freely?

They who opulence has made proud, and who luxury has corrupted, cannot relish the simple pleasures of nature.

He and they we know, but who are ye?

She that is negligent, reprove sharply.

He invited my brother and I to pay him a visit.

Who did they send on that mission?

They who he has most injured, he had the greatest reason to love.


The verb to be may have the same case after it as before it ; as, "I am the man," "I believe it to have been them;" "He is the thief."

NOTE 1. When nouns or pronouns next preceding and following the verb to be, signify the same thing, they are in apposition, and, therefore, in the same case. Rule 21 is predicated on the principle contained in Rule 7.

2. The verb to be is often understood; as, "The Lord made me man; He made him what he was;" that is, "The Lord made me to be man; He made him to be that which he was." "They desired me to call them brethren;" i. e. by the name of brethren. "They named him John;" i. e. by the name of John; or, by the name John: putting these two nouns in apposition


I know it to be they.

Improper, because it is in the objective case before the verb "to be," and they is in the nominative after; consequently, Rule 21 is violated. They is in apposition with it, therefore they should be them, in the objective after to be, according to Rule 21. (Repeat the Rule.)

Be composed, it is me.

I would not act thus, if I were him.
Well may you be afraid; it is him, indeed.
Who do you fancy him to be?
Whom do men say that I am? Whom say ye that I am?
If it was not him, who do you imagine it to have been?
He supposed it was me; but you knew that it was him.


Active-intransitive and passive verbs, the verb to become, and other neuter verbs, have the same case after them as before them, when both words refer to, and signify, the same thing; as, "Tom struts a soldier," "Will sneaks a scrivener;" "He was called Cesur" "The general was sa luted emperour," "They have become fools."

NCTE 1. Active-intransitive verbs sometimes assume a transitive form, and govern the objective case; as, "To dream a dream; To run a race; To walk the horse; To dance the child; To fly the kite."

2. According to a usage too common in colloquial style, an agent not literally the correct one, employed as the nominative to a passive verb, which causes the verb to be followed by an objective case without the possi bility of supplying before it a preposition: thus, " Pitticus was offered a large sum by the king;" "She was promised them (the jewels) by her mother;" "I was asked a question." It would be better sense, and more agreeable to the idiom of our language, to say, "A large sum was offered to Pitticus;" "They were promised (to) her;" "A question was put to me."

3. Some passive verbs are formed by using the participles of compound active verbs. To smile, to wonder, to dream, are intransitive verbs, for which reason they have no passive voice; but, to smile on, to wonder at, to dream of, are compound active-transitive verbs, and, therefore, admit of a passive voice; as, He was smiled on by fortune; The accident is not to be won dered at;"

"There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio,
"Than are dreamed of in your philosophy."


A verb in the infinitive mood may be governed by a verb, noun, adjective, participle, or pronoun; Cease to do evil;" "We all have our talent to be improved;" "She is eager to learn ;" They are preparing to go;" "Let him do it."



ILLUSTRATION. The supposed principle of government referred to in this rule, may be thus illustrated. In the sentence, "Cease to do evil," the peculiar manner in which cease is introduced, requires or compels us to put the verb do in the infinitive mood; and, according to the genius of our languagE. we cannot express this act of doing, when thus connected with case, other mood, unless we change the construction of the sentence. Hense



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