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of a sentence, and a compouna semence, turn

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vo or more adjuncts are connected with the verb manner, and by the same preposition or conjunctio ce is compound, and may be resolved into as ma s as there are adjuncts; as, "They have sacrific and fortune, at the shrine of vanity, pride, and extr But when the adjuncts are connected with the ve nt manner, the sentence is simple; as, "Grass of uality, is produced in great abundance in the northe our country."

COMMA.

1. The members of a simple sentence should not, separated by a comma; as, "Every part of matt th living creatures."

n Punctuation.-Idleness is the great fomenter of all corrup human heart. The friend of order. has made half his way t inery is a sign of littleness.

2. When a simple sentence is long, and the nomina ompanied with an inseparable adjunct of importance it a comma immediately before the verb; as, "The of the present age, has not allowed us to neglec tion of the English language;" "Too many of the friendships of youth, are mere combinations in

- The indulgence of a harsh disposition is the introduction to y. To be totally indifferent to praise or censure is a real defect The intermixture of evil in human society serves to exercise graces and virtues of the good.

3. When the connexion of the different parts of a

fore, not much approved." But when these interruptions are slight and unimportant, it is better to omit the comma; as, "Flattery is certainly pernicious ;" "There is surely a pleasure in beneficence."

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Exercises.-Charity like the sun brightens all its objects. Gentleness is in truth the great avenue to mutual enjoyment. You too have your failings. Humility and knowledge with poor apparel excel pride and ignorance under costly attire. The best men often experience disappointments. Advice should be seasonably administered. No assumed behaviour can always hide the real character.

RULE 4. The nominative case independent, and nouns in apposition when accompanied with adjuncts, must be distinguished by commas; as, "My son, give me thy heart;" "Dear Sir, I write to express my gratitude for your many kindnesses ;” “I am obliged to you, my friends, for your many favours ;" " Paul, the apostle of the Gentiles, was eminent for his zeal and knowledge:" "The butterfly, child of the summer, flutters in the sun."

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But if two nouns in apposition are unattended with adjuncts, or if they form only a proper name, they should not be separated; as, "Paul the apostle, suffered martyrdom ;" "The statesman Jefferson, wrote the declaration of Independence."

Exercises.-Lord thou hast been our dwelling place in all generations. Continue my dear child to make virtue thy chief study. Canst thou expect thou betrayer of innocence to escape the hand of vengeance? Death the king of terrours chose a prime minister. Hope the balm of life sooths us under every misfortunc. Confucius the great Chinese philosopher was eminently good as well as wise. The patriarch Joseph is an illustrious example of true piety.

RULE 5. The nominative case absolute and the infinitive mood absolute with their adjuncts, a participle with words depending on it, and, generally, any imperfect phrase which may be resolved into a simple sentence, must be separated from the rest of the sentence by commas; as, "His father dying, he succeeded to the estate ;" "To confess the truth, I was in fault ;' "The king, approving the plan, put it in execution ;" "He, having finished his academical course, has returned home, to prosecute his professional studies.”

Exercises.-Peace of mind being secured we may smile at misfortune. To enjoy present pleasure he sacrificed his future ease and reputation. His talents formed for great enterprises could not fail of rendering him conspicuous. The path of piety and virtue pursued with a firm and constant spirit will assuredly lead to happiness. All mankind compose one family assembled under the eye of one common Father.

RULE 6. A compound sentence must be resolved into simple ones by placing commas between its members; as, "The decay, the waste, and the dissolution of a plant, may affect our spirits, and suggest a train of serious reflections."

Three or more nouns, verbs, adjectives, participles, or adverbs, connected by conjunctions, expressed or understood, must be separated by commas; as, "The husband, wife,* and children, suffered extremely ;""In a letter, we may advise, exhort, comfort, request, and discuss ;""David was a brave, wise, and pious man;" "A man, fearing, serving, and loving his Creator, lives for a noble purpose;" "Success generally depends on acting prudently, steadily, and vigorously, in what we undertake."

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Two or more nouns, verbs, adjectives, participles, or adverbs, occurring in the same construction, with their conjunctions understood, must be separated by commas ; as, "Reason, virtue, answer one great aim;" "Virtue supports in adversity, moderates in prosperity;" "Plain, honest truth, needs no artificial covering;" "We are fearfully, wonderfully framed."

Exercises. We have no reason to complain of the lot of man nor of the mutability of the world. Sensuality contaminates the body depresses the understanding deadens the moral feelings of the heart and degrades man from his rank in creation.

Self-conceit presumption and obstinacy blast the prospects of many a youth. He is alternately supported by his father his uncle and his elder brother. The man of virtue and honour will be trusted relied upon and esteemed. Conscious guilt renders one mean-spirited timorous and base. An upright mind will never be at a loss to discern what is just and true lovely honest and of good report. Habits of reading writing and thinking are the indispensable qualifications of a good student. The great business of life is to be employed in doing justly loving mercy and walking humbly with our Creator. To live soberly righteously and piously comprehends the whole of our duty.

In our health life possessions connexions pleasures there are causes of

* The correctness and importance of this rule appear to be so obvious, as to render it not a little surprising, that any writer, possessing the least degree of rhetorical taste, should reject it. I am bold to affirm, that it is observed by every correct reader and speaker; and yet, strange as may seem, it is generally violated by those printers who punctuate by the ear, and all others who are influenced by their pernicious example; thus,

The head, the heart and the hands, should be constantly and actively employed in doing good." Why do they not omit the comma where the conjunction is understood? It would be doing no greater violence to the principles of elocution; thus, "The head the heart and the hands, should be, &c." or thus, "The head the heart, and the hands, should be employ. ed," &c. Who does not perceive that the latter pause, where the conjunction is expressed, is as necessary as the former, where the conjunction is understood? And, since this is the case, what fair objection can be made to the following method of punctuation? "The head, the heart, and the hands, should be constantly and actively employed in doing good;" "She is a woman, gentle, sensible, well-educated, and religious."

As a considerable pause in pronunciation is necessary between the last noun and the verb, a comma should be inserted to denote it; but as no pause is allowable between the last adjective and the noun, or between the last adverb and the verb, the comma, in such instances, is properly emitted; thus, "David was a brave, wise, and pious man."

decay imperceptibly working. Deliberate slowly execute promptly. An idle trifling society is near akin to such as is corrupting. This unhappy person had been seriously affectionately admonished but in vain.

RULE 7. Comparative sentences whose members are short, and sentences connected with relative pronouns the meaning of whose antecedents is restricted or limited to a particular sense, should not be separated by a comma; as, "Wisdom is better than riches;" "No preacher is so successful as time;" "He accepted what I had rejected;" "Self-deniai is the sacrifice which virtue must make ;" "Substract from many modern poets all that may be found in Shakspeare, and trash will remain ;" "Give it to the man whom you most esteem." In this last example, the assertion is not of "man in general," but of "the man whom you most esteem."

But when the antecedent is used in a general sense, a comma is properly inserted before the relative; as, "Man, who is born of a woman, is of few days and full of trouble ;""There is no charm in the female sex, which can supply the place of virtue."

This rule is equally applicable to constructions in which the relative is understood; as; "Value duly the privileges you enjoy ;" that is, " privileges which you enjoy."

Exercises.-How much better it is to get wisdom than gold! The friendships of the world can exist no longer than interest cements them. Eat what is set before you. They who excite envy will easily incur censure. A man who is of a detracting spirit will misconstrue the most innocent words that ear be put together. Many of the evils which occasion our complaints of the world are wholly imaginary.

The gentle mind is like the smooth stream which reflects every object in its just proportion and in its fairest colours. In that unaffected civility which springs from a gentle mind there is an incomparable charm. The Lord whom I serve is eternal. This is the man we saw yesterday.

RULE 8. When two words of the same sort, are connected by a conjunction expressed, they must not be separated; as, "Libertines call religion, bigotry or superstition;" "True worth is modest and retired;" "The study of natural history, expands and elevates the mind," "Some men sin deliberately and presumptuously." When words are connected in pairs, the pairs only should be separated; as, "There is a natural difference between merit and demerit, virtue and vice, wisdom and folly ;" ;" "Whether we eat or drink, labour or sleep, we should be temperate."

But if the parts connected by a conjunction are not short, they may be separated by a comma; as, "Romances may be said to be miserable rhapsodies, or dangerous incentives to evil.”

Exercises.-Idleness brings forward and nourishes many bad passions. True friendship will at all times avoid a rough or careless behaviour. Health and peace a moderate fortune and a few friends sum up all the undoubted

articles of temporal felicity. Truth is fair and artless simple and sincere uniform and consistent. Intemperance destroys the strength of our bodie and the vigour of our minds.

RULE 9. Where the verb of a simple member is understood, a comma may, in some instances, be inserted; as, "From law arises security; from security, curiosity; from curiosity, knowledge." But in others, it is better to omit the comma; "No station is so high, no power so great, no character so unblemished, as to exempt men from the attacks of rashness, malice, and envy."

Exercises.—As a companion he was severe and satirical ; as a friend captious and dangerous. If the spring put forth no blossoms in summer there will be no beauty and in autumn no fruit. So if youth be trifled away without improvement manhood will be contemptible and old age miserable.

RULE 10. When a simple member stands as the object of a preceding verb, and its verb may be changed into the infinitive mood, the comma is generally omitted; as, "I suppose he is at rest;" changed, "I suppose him to be at rest.”

But when the verb to be is followed by a verb in the infinitive mood, which, by transposition, may be made the nominative case to it, the verb to be is generally separated from the infinitive by a comma; as, "The most obvious remedy is, to withdraw from all associations with bad men;" "The first and most obvious remedy against the infection, is, to withdraw from all associations with bad men.'

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Exercises.-They believed he was dead. He did not know that I was the man. I knew she was still alive. The greatest misery is to be condemned by our own hearts. The greatest misery that we can endure is to be condemned by our own hearts.

NOTES.

1. When a conjunction is separated by a phrase or member from the member to which it belongs, such intervening phrase appears to require a comma at each extremity; as, "They set out early, and, before the close of the day, arrived at the destined place." This rule, however, is not generally fol lowed by our best writers; as, "If thou seek the Lord, he will be found of thee; but if thou forsake him, he will cast thee off for ever;" "But if the parts connected are not short, a comma may be inserted."

2. Several verbs succeeding each other in the infinitive mood, and having a common dependance, may be divided by commas; as, "To relieve the indigent, to comfort the afflicted, to protect the innocent, to reward the deserving, are humane and noble employments.

3. A remarkable expression, or a short observation, somewhat in the form of a quotation, may be properly marked with a comma as, "It hurts a man's pride to say, I do not know," "Plutarch calls lying, the vice of slaves." 4. When words are placed in opposition to each other, or with some marked variety, they must be distinguished by a comma; as

"Tho' deep, yet clear; tho' gentle, yet not dull;

"

Strong, without rage; without o'erflowing, full,”

"Good men, in this frail, imperfect state, are often found, not only in union with, but in opposition to, the views and conduct of each other."

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