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Metaphors abound in all writings. In the scriptures they may be found in vast variety. Thus, our blessed Lord is called a vine, a lamb, a lion, &c.; and men, according to their different dispositions, are styled wolves, sheep, dogs, serpents, vipers, &c.
Washington Irving, in speaking of the degraded state of the American Aborigines who linger on the borders of the white settlements," employs the following beautiful metaphor: "The proud pillar of their independence has been shaken down, and the whole moral fabrick lies in ruins."
2. AN ALLEGORY may be regarded as a metaphor continued; or, it is several metaphors so connected together in sense, as frequently to form a kind of parable or fable. It differs from a single metaphor, in the same manner that a cluster on the vine differs from a single grape.
The following is a fine example of an allegory, taken from the 60th psalm. wherein the people of Israel are represented under the image of a vine. "Thou hast brought a vine out of Egypt: thou hast cast out the heathen and planted it. Thou preparedst room before it; and didst cause it to take deep root, and it filled the land. The hills were covered with the shadow of it; and the boughs thereof were like the goodly cedars. She sent out her boughs into the sea, and her branches into the river."
3. A SIMILE or COMPARISON is when the resemblance between two objects, whether real or imaginary, is expressed in form.
Thus, we use a simile, when we say, "The actions of princes are like those great rivers, the course of which every one beholds, but their springs have been seen by few." "As the mountains are round about Jerusalem, so the Lord is round about his people." "The musick of Caryl was like the memory of joys that are past, pleasant and mournful to the soul." "Our Indians are like those wild plants which thrive best in the shade, but which wither when exposed to the influence of the sun."
"The Assyrian came down, like the wolf on the fold,
4. A METONYMY is where the cause is put for the effect, or the effect for the cause; the container for the thing contained; or the sign for the thing signified.
When we say, "They read Milton," the cause is put for the effect, meaning "Milton's works." Gray hairs should be respected;" here the effect is put for the cause; meaning by "gray hairs," old age, which produces gray hairs. In the phrase, "The kettle boils," the container is substituted for the thing contained. "He addressed the chair;" that is, the persen in
5. A SYNECDOCHE OR COMPREHENSION.
When the whole is
put for a part, or a part for the whole; a genus for a species, or a species for a genus; in general, when any thing less, or any thing more, is put for the precise object meant, the figure is called a Synecdoche.
Thus, "A fleet of twenty sail, instead of, ships." "The horse is a noble animal;" "The dog is a faithful creature:" here an individual nut for the species. We sometimes use the "head" for the person, and th for the sea. In like manner, an attribute may be put for a # vject; sa, "Youth" for the young, the "deep" for the sea.
6. PERSONIFICATION OF PROSOPOPEIA is that figure by which we attribute life and action to inanimate objects. When we say, "the ground thirsts for rain," or, "the earth smiles with plenty ;" when we speak of "ambition's being restless," or, a disease's being deceitful" such expressions show the facility, with which the mind can accommodate the properties of living creatures to things that are inanimate.
The following are fine examples of this figure:
"Cheer'd with the grateful smell, old Ocean smiles ;"
"The wilderness and the solitary place shall be glad for them; and the desert shall rejoice and blossom as the rose."
7. AN APOSTROPHE is an address to some person, either absent or dead, as if he were present and listening to us. The address is frequently made to a personified object; as, "Death is swallowed up in victory. O death! where is thy sting? O grave! where is thy victory ?"
"Weep on the rocks of roaring winds, O maid of Inistore; bend thy fair head over the waves, thou fairer than the ghost of the hills, when it moves in a sun-beam at noon over the silence of Morven."
8. ANTITHESIS. Comparison is founded on the resemblance, antithesis, on the contrast or opposition, of two objects.
Example. "If you wish to enrich a person, study not to increase his stores, but to diminish his desires."
9. HYPERBOLE or EXAGGERATION consists in magnifying an object beyond its natural bounds. "As swift as the wind; as white as the snow; as slow as a snail ;" and the like, are extravagant hyperboles.
"I saw their chief, tall as a rock of ice; his spear, the blasted fir; hu shield, the rising moon; he sat on the shore, like a cloud of mist on the hills."
10. VISION is produced, when, in relating something that is past, we use the present tense, and describe it as actually pass ing before our eyes.
11. INTERROGATION. The literal use of an interrogation, is to ask a question; but when men are strongly moved, whatever they would affirm or deny with great earnestness, they naturally put in the form of a question..
Thus Balaam expressed himself to Balak: "The Lord is not man, that he should lie, nor the son of man, that he should repent. Hath he said it? and shall he not do it? Hath he spoken it? and shall he not make it good?" "Hast thou an arm like God? or canst thou thunder with a voice like him ?"
12. EXCLAMATIONs are the effect of strong emotions, such as surprise, admiration, joy, grief, and the like.
"O that I had in the wilderness a lodging place of way-faring men!" "O that I had wings like a dove! for then would I fly away, and be at rest!"
13. IRONY is expressing ourselves in a manner contrary to our thoughts; not with a view to deceive, but to add force to our remarks. We can reprove one for his negligence, by saying, "You have taken great care, indeed."
The prophet Elijah adopted this figure, when he challenged the priests of Baal to prove the truth of their deity. "He mocked them, and said, Cry aloud, for he is a god: either he is talking, or he is pursuing, or he is on a journey, or, peradventure, he sleepeth, and must be waked."
14. AMPLIFICATION OF CLIMAX consists in heightening all the circumstances of an object or action, which we desire to place in a strong light.
Cicero gives a lively instance of this figure, when he says, "It is a crime to put a Roman citizen in bonds: it is the height of guilt to scourge him; little loss than parricide to put him to death: what name, then, shall I give to the act of crucifying him?"
Corrections of the False Syntax arranged under the Rules and Notes.
RULE 4. Frequent commission of sin hardens men in it. Great pains have been taken, &c.-is seldom found. The sincere are, &c.-is happy What avail, &c.-Disappointments sink-the renewal of hope gives, &c.-is without limit. has been conferred upon us.-Thou canst not heal-but thou mayst do, &c.-consists the happiness, &c.-Who touchedst, or didst touch Isaiah's hallowed lips with fire.
Note 1. And wilt thou never be to Heaven resigned ?—And who had great abilities, &c.
Note 2. Are peace and honour.—was controversy.
RULE 7. Them that you visited.-him that was mentioned.-he who preached repentance, &c.-they who died.-he who succeeded.
RULE 8. Time and tide wait, &c.-remove mountains.—are both uncertain. dwell with, &c.-affect the mind, &c.-What signify the counsel and care, &c.—are now perished.-Why are whiteness and coldness, &c.-bind them continually, &c.-render their possessor, &c.-There are errour and discrepance-which show, &c.
RULE 9. Is the same in idea.-is in the porphyry.-is remarkable, &c.— which moves merely as it is moved.-affects us, &c.-Man's happiness or misery is, in a great measure &c.-for it may be, &c.—was blameworthy.
RULE 10. The nation is powerful.-The fleet was seen, &c.-The church has, &c.-is, or ought to be, the object, &c.—it is feeble.
RULE 11. My people de &c.-The multitude eagerly pursue pleasure as their, &c.—were divided in their sentiments, and they have referred, &c.—The people rejoice-give them sorrow.
RULE 12. Homer's works are &c.-Asa's heart. James Hart's book.
Note 1. It was the men, women, and children's lot, &c. or, It was the lot of the men, women, and children.-Peter, John, and Andrew's, &c.
Note 2. This is Campbell the poet's production; or, The production of Campbell, &c.--The silk was purchased at Brown's the mercer and haberdasher.
Note 4. The pupil's composing, &c.—-rule's being observed.—of the presi dent's neglecting to lay it before the council
RULE 13. Of his audience.--put it on Jacob.-sprinkle them-and thes shall, &c.-of his reputation.
Note. You were blamed; you were worthy.--where were you?-how far were you?
RULE 14. Who hast been, &c.—who is the sixth that has lost his life by
Who all my sense confinedst; or, didst confine.
Note. And who broughtest him forth out of Ur.
RULE 15. Who shall be sent, &c.--This is the man who, &c.
RULE 16. They to whom much is given. &c.-with whom you associate, &c. -whom I greatly respect, &c.--whom we ought to love, and to whom, &c.— They whom conscience, &c.--With whom did you walk ?--Whom did you see?--To whom did you give the book?
RULE 17. Who gave John those books? We.-him who lives in Pearlstreet--My brother and he.--She and I.
RULE 18: Note 2. Thirty tuns.-twenty feet-one hundred fathoms. Note 6. He bought a pair of new shoes-piece of elegant furniture.-pair of fine horses-tract of poor land.
Note 7. Are still more difficult to be comprehended.-most doubtful, or pre carious way, &c.-This model comes nearer perfection than any I, &c.
RULE 19: Note. That sort.--these two hours.--This kind, &c.---He saw one person, or more than one, enter the garden.
Note 2. Better than himself.--is so small.―his station may be, is bound by the laws.
Note 3. On each side, &c.--took each his censer.
RULE 20. Whom did they, &c.-They whom opulence,-whom luxury, &c, ---Him and them we know, &c.-Her that is negligent, &c.-my brother and me, &c.--Whom did they send, &c.--Them whom he, &c.
RULE 21. It is I.-If I were he.-it is he, indeed.--Whom do you, &c.Who do men say, &c.-and who say ye, &c.-whom do you imagine it to have been?--it was I; but you knew that it was he.
RULE 25. Bid him come.-durst not do it.-Hear him read, &c.—makes us approve and reject, &c.-better to live-than to outlive, &c.-to wrestie.
RULE 26: Note.-The taking of pains: or, without taking pains, &c.-The changing of times,--the removing and setting up of kings.
RULE 28: Note 3. He did me--I had written--he came home.-befaller my cousin he would have gone.--already risen-is begun.-is spoken.would have written-had they written, &c.
RULE 29: Note 1. It cannot, therefore, be, &c.--he was not often pleas ing.--should never be separated.--We may live happily, &c.
RULE 30: Note. I don't know any thing; or, I know nothing, &c.-I did not see anybody; or, I saw nobody, &c.-Nothing ever affects her.—and take no shape or semblance, &c.-There can be nothing, &c.-Neither precept nor discipline is so forcible as example.
RULE 31. For himself.-among themselves.--with whom he is, &c.—With whom did, &c.-From whom did you receive instruction?
RULE 33. My brother and he, &c.-You and I, &c. He and I--John and ke, &c.--Between you and me, &c.
RULE 34. And entreat me, &c.--and acting differently, &c.
Note 1. But he may return--but he will write no more.
Note 2. Unless it rain.-If he acquire riches, &c.
RULE 35. Than I.--as well as he, than they.-but he.--but he and I.-but them who had gone astray.
Promiscuous Examples.--Him who is from eternity, &c.-depends all the happiness,—which exists, &c.—the enemies whom, &c.-Is it I or he whom you requested?-Though great have been,-sincerely acknowledge. There in the metropolis.-exercising our memories.—was consumed.-Aflu. ence may give-but it will not of this world often choke.-Them that hon
eur-and they that despise.-I intended to call last week.-the fields look fresh and gay.-very neatly, finely woven paper.-where I saw Gen. Andrew Jackson, him who.-Take the first two,-last three.-thirty feet high-a union, a hypothesis.-I have seen him to whom you wrote, he would have come back, or returned.-understands the nature,-he rejects.-If thou study, --thou wilt become.-is not properly attended to.-He knew.-therefore, to have done it.-than the title.-very independently.-duty to do.-my friend's entering. is the best specimen, or it comes nearer perfection than any, &c.— blow them, will go, &c.-Each of those two authors has his merit.-Reason's wholc,-lie in.-strikes the mind,—than if the parts had been adjusted,—with perfect symmetry.
Satire does not carry in it.-composes the triangle.-persons' opportunities were ever.--It has been reported.-should never be.-situation in which.-is thoroughly versed in his.-are the soul,-follows little.-An army presents
are the duties of a christian.-happier than he.-always have inclined, and which always will incline him to offend.--which require great.-Them tha honour me, will I.-has opinions peculiar to itself.-that it may be said he attained monarchical.-hast permitted,-wilt deliver.-was formerly propagated. the measure is,-unworthy your.--were faithless.-After I had visited, nor shall I, consent.-Yesterday I intended to walk out, but was.-make or are thirteen,-leave three.-If he go,-make the eighth time that he will have visited.-is nobler.- --was possessed, or that ever can be.-one great edifice,-smaller ones.-honesty is.--it to be.--will follow me,----I shall dwell. --is gone astray.---he could not have done.--feeling a propensity.
Corrections of the Exercises in Punctuation.
RULE 1. Idleness is the great fomenter of all corruptions in the human heart. The friend of order has made half his way to virtue. All finery is a sign of littleness.
RULE 2. The indulgence of a harsh disposition, is the introduction to future misery. To be totally indifferent to praise or censure, is a real defect in character. The intermixture of evil in human society, serves to exercise the suffering graces and virtues of the good.
RULE 3. Charity, like the sun, brightens all its objects. Gentleness is, in truth, the great avenue to mutual enjoyment. You, too, have your failings. Humility and knowledge, with poor apparel, excel pride and ignor ance, under costly attire. The best men often experience disappointments, Advice should be seasonably administered. No assumed behaviour can always hide the real character.
RULE 4. Lord, thou hast been our dwelling place in all generations. Continue, my dear child, to make virtue thy chief study. Canst thou ex pect, thou betrayer of innocence, to escape the hand of vengeance? Death, the king of terrours, chose a prime minister. Hope, the balm of life, sooths us under every misfortune. Confucius, the great Chinese philosopher, was eminently good, as well as wise. The patriarch Joseph is an illustrious example of true piety.
RULE 5. Peace of mind being secured, we may smile at misfortune. To enjoy present pleasure, he sacrificed his future ease and reputation. His talents, formed for great enterprises, could not fail of rendering him conspicuous. The path of piety and virtue, pursued with a firm and constant spirit, will assuredly lead to happiness. All mankind compose one family; assembled under the eye of one common Father.