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more, Money, Grote, Tester, Ducat, and Pound; also Pringle and Bodle, two obsolete Scottish coins. The last, however, may be a corruption of Bothwell, as the name of the coin was adopted from that of the person. Angel, Noble, and Mark, although names of coins, are referable to other classes of names already discussed.
There are two other compounds of Penny, viz. Hankpenny, of whose etymology I know nothing, and Godspenny, a northern provincialism for the usual deposit made to bind a bargain.
Upon a person named Penny some one wrote, by way of epitaph, the following distich :
“ Reader, if cash thou art in want of any,
Dig four feet deep, and thou shalt find a Penny.”
Another group of family names, equally difficult to account for, is that which corresponds with terms expressive of the various staTES OF THE AIR, viz. Rainy, Thunder, Storm, Frost, Snow, Hail (with Hailstone), Fog, Tempesi, Showers, Breeze, Gale, Mist, Dew, Sunshine, Fairday, Fineweather, Fairweather, and Merryweather !
Other names express certain NUMBERS, as Six, Ten, Eighteen, Forty; with Once and Twice, Second and Third, Double and Treble !
These names appear so absurd that they might readily be pronounced corruptions of other words, had we not examples of similar appellations in other countries. There were lately at Rome two cardinals called Settantadue and Quarantotto, the Italian for 'seventy-two' and 'forty-eight. The name of the eminent sculptor, Trentanove, signifies 'thirty-nine ;' and in Belgium there is a family called Vilain Quatorze, or fourteenthrascal !
Some represent MEASURES, both of length and capacity, as Measures, Furlong, Cubitt, Yard, Halfyard, and Inches ; also Gill, Gallon, Peck, Bag, and Bushell.
A few seem to refer to SPORTS and AMUSEMENTS, as Ball, Bowles, Cricket, Dodd, Cards, Whist, Fairplay, and Playfair. Dodd, however, may be from · Doda,' an Anglo-Saxon name, and Card, I have elsewhere shown, means a tinker. Dyce does not belong to this list, for De Dice or Diss is a local surname of high antiquity, borrowed from the town of Diss, co. Norfolk.*
A trio represent paces : Trot, Gallop, Canter!
Ship, Cutter, Barge, Boat, Galley, and Wherry, with Anchor, are probably from Inn Signs (Chapter XI), but we can scarcely assume as much of Deck, Keel, Forecastle, Locker, Tackle, Rope, Cable, Cuddy, Mast, Helm, and Rudder.
From PREDILECTIONS: Loveday, Lovegrove, Loveland, Lovethorpe.
From DISEASES: Cramp, Collick, Toothacher, (!) Headache, and Ague. Fever is the old French, Lefevre (smith), and Akinhead, Akinside (perhaps also Headache), are more probably local, as the A.-S. 'Ac,' an oak, enters into the composition of many names of places.
Last but not least among these curiosities of nomenclature, are those surnames which correspond with PARTS of the HUMAN FIGURE.
These are somewhat numerous. There were lately living in a very small village in Sussex, three cottagers bearing the singular names of Head, Body, and Shoulders, while their near neighbour (a thousand pardons !) was Gutsall, a licensed victualler! It may not be unamusing to classify this description of names according to their proper position in the human frame, thus :
* Vide Chron. Josceline de Brakelonde, printed by the Camden Society, pref. viii.
HEAD, with its numerous compounds (already accounted for), with Pate and Skull, Face and Forehead!
Hair (also Haire), and that of various colours.
It must not be imagined that I have overlooked the nose:—that is too prominent a feature to be forgotten. I am not aware, however, of any person's having borne this name since the days of Publius Ovidius Naso, unless indeed Ness, a modern surname, may be considered equivalent to 'nesse' or ' nese,' the old English form of the word. It sometimes occurs in composition with other words, as Thicknesse, 'thick-nose,' Longness, 'longnose;' and Filtnesse, which, if I may be allowed a jocular etymology, is no other than "fodus nasus;" or, in plain English, foul-nose! Having thus disposed of the head, let us descend to the
Neck and Shoulders, and thence to the
Body, (whose compounds, such as Goodbody, Freebody, and Handsomebody, belong to the category of moral and personal characteristics or qualities—see Chapter VIII.)
Side, Back, Bones, and Skin.
Next, in respect of the nether man,' Shanks, and Legge, * with its Kneebone. downward progress we pass the Shin, and the
* This may have been a sign. In an old ballad called • London's Ordinary,' we read :
“ The hosiers will dine at the Leg,
Foote, with its
Toe, Heele, and Sole, where having reached terra firma,' we remain as much in the dark as ever as to the motives which led our whimsical ancestors to the adoption or imposition of such very absurd and extraordinary surnames.
A few names have been borrowed from a still more trivial source, namely, the parts of the inferior animals, such as Horne, Wing, Pinyon, Quill, Feather, Scutt, Beak, Shell, and Crowfoot ! Maw, which might have been placed in this list, does not belong to it, for · The Doctor' tells us that “the name of Mc Coghlan is in Ireland beautified and abbreviated into Maw; the Mc Coghlan, or head of the family, was called the Maw; and a district of King's County was known within the memory of persons now living by the appellation of the Maw's county."
There are certain other names of common objects which have become surnames—in what manner I shall not attempt to conjecture. I select a few :
Chaff, Seeds, Sheath, Candy, Bratt, (!) Cracknell, Dram, Lintell, Pummell, Record, Wire.
Pettigrew is an antique spelling of 'pedigree.' Palsgrave has “Petygrewe, genealogy."
Some proceed from other nouns of the intangible class, as, Profit, Loss, Gain, Zeal, Refuge, Service, Paradise, Sleep, Slumber, Wink, Shade, Wedlock, Kiss, (a lawyer), Buss (a doctor), Cant, (!) Delight, and Goodsinging !
Here are a couple of PRONOUNS : Thee and Self.
A few VERBS : Swear, Revere, Chew, Droop, Strain, Trundle, Tripp, Can, Vex, Stray, Speak, Twist, Pluck, Touch.
ADVERBIAL: Inwards, Upwards.
A CONJUNCTION 'And. (This family bear for coatarmour an & !)
Some PARTICIPLES : Smitten, Blest, Blessed ; Painting, Twining, Going, Pointing, Healing, Weeding, Hearing, Chopping, Cutting, Living, Dining, and Withering. (Some of these are probably local.) Dunbibbin should join the Temperance Society.
The following names, which look like compounds of two or more common words, may be 'set down' among our nominal curiosities, although I have no doubt that more etymological skill, and a more extensive knowledge of our topographical nomenclature than I possess, might place many of them in another chapter :
Bread-cutt, Dry-cutt, and Not-cutt.
Cow-van, Buck-tooth, Peg-ram, Good-ram, Buck-mill, Bull-pits.
Cut-love, Chil-man and Chil-maid Popkiss.*
Cut-bush, Willo-shed, Ivy-leaf, Bean-skin, Hard-bean, and Twelve-trees !
Cook-worthy, Wed-all, Mother-all.
* As Hotchkiss is, in all probability, a corruption of Hodgkins, Popkiss may be derived from some“ nurse name" in the same way. Corruptions do not usually proceed upon any principles of analogy; otherwise we might expect to find Makins converted into May-kiss, and Wilkins into Will-kiss !