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magistrate. His election was a triumphant one; of 294 votes for President, he received 234; and his progress from his residence, the log cabin, to the White House was marked by the most gratifying demonstrations of popular affection and confidence. His inaugural address, though not marked by any uncommon ability as a literary performance, yet was of such a tone and character as to strengthen his hold upon the affections of the American people. From the time when he was first nominated for the office of President of the United States till his death, he had been rising in public esteem and confidence; he entered upon the duties of his office with an uncommon degree of popularity, and a high expectation was cherished that his administration would be honorable to himself and advantageous to the wountry. His death, which took place just a month after his inauguration, caused a deep sensation throughout the country, and was regarded as a most calamitous event. He was the first President of the United States that has died in office. The members of his cabinet, in their official notification of the event, say :-“The people of the United States, overwhelmed, like ourselves, by an event so unexpected and so melancholy, will derive consolation from knowing that his death was calm and resigned, as his life had been patriotic, useful, and distinguished ; and that the last utterance of his lips expressed a fervent desire for the perpetuity of the constitution, and the preservation of its true principles, In death, as in life, the happiness of his country was uppermost in his thoughts."
TENTH President of the United States, was born in Charles City county, Virginia, on the 21st of March, 1790. In his early youth he was noted for his love of books, and at twelve years of age he entered William and Mary College. He passed through the course at the age of seventeen, and on that occasion delivered an address or the subject of female education, which was pronounced by the faculty to have been the best commencement oration delivered there within their recollection.
After leaving college, Mr. Tyler devoted himself to the study of law under the instruction of Edmund Randolph. At nineteen years
he was admitted to practice law in bis native county; and a few days after he reached the ago of twenty-one, he was chosen nearly unanimously a member of the house of delegates, in which he took a seat, December, 1811. The war breaking out soon after, Mr. Tyler supported the policy of Mr. Madison and the Democratic party, and his speeches commanded universal attention. During the session of 1815-16, while he was still a member of the house of delegates, Mr. Tyler was elected one of the executive council
, in which capacity he acted until November, 1816, when he was elected to fill the vacancy in the congressional representation of Richmond district.
He had just reached the twenty-sixth year of his age, when he entered the House of Representatives. There he continued to distinguish himself as an eloquent orator and consistent Dem. ocrat, until 1821, when ill health compelled him to resign his office. Soon after he entered the legislature, and distinguished himself as the advocate of a system of internal improvements.
İn December, 1825, Mr. Tyler was elected governor of Virginia ; re-elected at the next session of the legislature, and before the expiration of his term chosen to succeed John Randolph as United States senator, He was at this time the most popular of the Virginia statesmen. In the Senate, Mr. Tyler joined the opposition to Mr. Adams' administration; and when General Jackson succeeded to the chief magistracy, he supported the policy of that energetic officer. the 20th of February, 1836, Mr. Tyler resigned his seat in the Senate, in consequence of his opinion upon the right of instruction, and retiring to Williamsburg, commenced the practice of his profession. In the Spring of 1838, he was elected by the Whigs of James City county a member of the house of delegates, in which body he acted with the newly-formed Whig party. In 1839, the Whigs placed Mr. Tyler on the ticket with General Harrison, as their candidato for the Vice-preside asy. This ticket was triumphant, and
he assumed the office to which he had been chosen in March, 1841. One month after, by the death of General Harrison, Mr. Tyler became President of the United States. His course while in office was such as to lose him the popularity which he once possessed. At the expiration of his term, he retired to his seat near Williamsburgh, where he has since continued to reside.
JAMES KNOX POLK,
ELEVENTH President of the United States, was born in Mecklenburg county, North Carolina, on the 2d of November, 1795. The original name of his ancestors was Pollock, which, by an easy transition, assumed its present form. Connections of the family were honorably distinguished at the framing of the Mecklenburgh Declaration of Independence, and throughout the revolutionary struggle. In 1806, while James was very young, his family removed to Tennessee, and settled in the fertile valley of Duck river. The opportunities for instruction in this neighborhood were limited. With much exertion James acquired the elements of a good English education. In the autumn of 1815, he entered the University of North Carolina, being then in the twentieth year of his age.
At the university, År. Polk's career was distinguished, and he graduated in 1818, with the highest honors of his class. În 1819, ke commenced the study of the law in the office of Felix Grundy, so distinguished as a representative and senator in Congress. Being admitted to the bar in 1820, he commenced practice in the county of Maury. In 1823, he was chosen to represent his district in the State Legislature, where he became distinguished for ability in debate.
In August, 1825, Mr. Polk, then in his thirtieth year, was chosen to represent his district in Congress. He was a decided Democrat, and an early and warm friend of General Jackson. He resolutely opposed the administration ef Mr. Adams : and, when General Jackson became Presi.
dent, was one of the leading advocates of his political meas
In December, 1835, Mr. Polk was elected Speaker of the House of Representatives, and again chosen to that station in 1837. After a service of fourteen years in Congress, Mr. Polk, in 1839, declined a re-election from the district which had so long sustained him. In August of the same year, he was elected governor of Tennessee. In 1841, he was a candidate for re-election to the same office, but was defeated, the Whig candidate, James C. Jones, being elected.
On the 29th of May, 1844, Mr. Polk received the nomination of the Democratic National Convention at Baltimore, for President of the United States. To this high office he was elected in the fall of the same year, by a majority in the electoral college of 65 votes. His administration was one of the most eventful in the annals of the republic, and the duties of the administration were consequently arduous. The war with Mexico was vigorously and triumphantly prosecuted ; a large extent of territory was added to the domain of the United States, and the Democratic system of measures fully carried into operation. After the close of his term, Mr. Polk retired to Tennessee, with a broken constitution. He died on the 15th of June, 1848, at the age or fifty-three years.
TWELFTH President of the United States, was born in Orange county, Virginia, in November, 1784. His father, Colonel Richard Taylor, soon after the birth of Zachary, removed to Kentucky, and settled near Louisville. After receiving a limited education, Zachary, displaying a strong predilection for the exercises and accomplishments which become a soldier, obtained a lieutenancy in the Seventh Regiment of the United States Infantry. At this period (1808), every thing portended a war with Great Britain But before it broke out in 1812, Zachary had risen to the
rank of captain. His first exploit, the defence of Fort Harrison against the Indians, indicated his firmness and ability, For this gallant defence he was promoted to the rank of major. During the remainder of the war, he had no opportunity of distinguishing himself.
In 1832, Taylor was promoted to the rank of colonel. On the commencement of the Florida war, he was ordered to service in that quarter. In this “war of movements," Colonel Taylor was more successful than his predecessors. He brought the Indians to a ger.eral action in December, 1837, at Okeechobee. The Indians were defeated with considerable loss, and forced to maintain peace for a while.
Taylor was now raised to the rank of brevet brigadiergeneral.
When the government of the United States determined to send an army into Texas, in 1845, General Taylor was chosen to command it. His brilliant campaign during the Mexican war will be found
of history. It is sufficient here to say, that it raised his reputation as a skilful general and daring soldier to such a height as to secure for him the admiration of his countrymen, and prepare the way for offering him the brightest testimony of their esteem -the presidential chair.
In 1848, General Taylor received the nomination of the Whig National Convention, for the presidency; was elected by a handsome majority, and was inaugurated on the 4th of March, 1849. “A Whig, but not an ultra Whig;" he chose moderate Whigs to form his cabinet, and made moderation the prominent feature of his administration. forming the duties of his high office for about fifteen months, to the general satisfaction of the people, President Taylor died at Washington, on the 9th of July, 1850. His last words eloquently expressed the character of his life: “I have endeavored to do my duty."