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Chapter death of its most distinguished member, Sir Robert Peel ; 1
VII.

and on the 14th April, 1863, the like tribute was paid to
the memory of Sir George Cornewall Lewis.? On Friday,
31st May, 1878, the house adjourned, in the course of a
debate, in consequence of the sudden death of one of its
members, Mr. Wykeham-Martin, in the library of the
house, where his body was then lying:8 On Monday, 8th
May, 1882, both houses adjourned, without transacting any
but formal business, on account of the assassination of
Lord Frederick Cavendish, chief secretary to the Lord-
Lieutenant of Ireland, and Mr. Burke, under secretary, on
the previous Saturday, in Phænix Park, Dublin. On the
24th June, 1861, the Lords adjourned, nem. diss., on the
death of the lord chancellor, Lord Campbell.

On Thursday, 19th May, 1898, in consequence of the
death of Mr. Gladstone, the House of Commons, after
resolving that it would on the following day resolve itself
into a committee to consider of an address to the Crown

praying for the interment of his remains in Westminster
Aldresses Abbey, and the erection of a monument at the public
for public
money, see expense, adjourned without transacting any other busi.
p. 570.

ness.5
Occasionally the house adjourns on the occasion of royal Royal

funerals.
funerals. The funeral of the Duke of Sussex was appointed
for 4th May, 1843, and the house adjourned over that day.
The Duke of Cambridge was buried on the 16th July,
1850, when the house sat from twelve till three, and then
adjourned in consequence of the funeral. But on the
funeral of the Princess Sophia, 5th June, 1848, the house
did not adjourn; and again, the Duchess of Gloucester was
buried on Friday, the 8th May, 1857 (the day after the
lords commissioners' speech had been delivered), but the

| 105 C. J. 484. The French As- tioned, in private, by eminent sembly, in their Procès Verbal, ex- statesmen, as invidious distinctions pressed regret at the loss of this might be drawn between the claims eminent statesman, 163 H. D. 3 s. to such an honour.-Mr. Speaker 772.

Denison's Diary, p. 131. · Notwithstanding the universal 3 133 C. J. 264. regard for Sir G. Lewis, tho pro 114 L. J. 139; 137 C. J. 185. priety of this proceeding was ques 5 153 ib. 213.

VII.

tha Hana

house sat on that day as usual; and not without due con- Chapter sideration. The funeral was at Windsor, at twelve; and

the house did not meet until a quarter before four. Ascension On Ascension-day, since 1849,- orders have been usually Select day, &c.

committees, made by the House of Commons, that no committees shall see p. 413. have leave to sit until two o'clock, in order to give members an opportunity of attending divine service. This motion was negatived in 1872. In 1873, however, it was carried by a large majority, and has since been repeated in every succeeding year. On the 19th March, 1866, appointed by the Bishop of London as a day of prayer and humiliation, it was ordered that no committees do meet

before one o'clock.
Other days. In connection with the commemoration of the comple-

tion of the sixtieth year of Queen Victoria's reign in 1897,
the house adjourned over the day of the Queen's procession

through London.
Speaker of The duties of the Lord Speaker of the upper house, and

of the Speaker of the Commons, will appear in the various
proceedings of both houses, as they are explained in different
parts of this work : but a general view of the office is neces.
sary, in this place, for understanding the forms of parlia-
mentary procedure.

of Lords.

The house having resolved to S. 901 ; 14th Feb. 1893, 8 Parl. Deb. attend the funeral of the Duke of 4 s. 1397. Wellington adjourned for that pur. 20th May, 1873. pose, 108 C. J. 21. 29.

5 152 C. J.299. For adjournments 2 So far back as 15th May, 1604, over Queen Victoria's birthday when it “ being put to question whether it was kept on a day other than we should sit on Ascension-day, Saturday, see 119 ib. 256; 120 ib. upon division “resolved to sit.” But 298; 124 ib. 219. For many years on the 1st June, 1614, it was re- it was customary to adjourn over solved, upon division, not to sit. the Derby day. This adjournment

3 122 C. J. 255 ; 126 ib. 202 ; 146 was generally moved by the leader ib. 264 ; 147 ib. 283; 159 ib. 179. of the house from 1856 until 1878, This order was repeated on nine and on subsequent occasions the occasions between 1856 and 1871 adjournment was moved by inde. inclusive. For the same purpose pendent members (see p. 256, n). The from 1853 till 1902, when the House motion was negatived, Tuesday, 31st of Commons met on Wednesdays at May, 1892, 147 C. J. 306; but the twelve o'clock, it was customary house was counted out on the followfor the House to meet on Ash ing day. The motion was negatived Wednesday at two o'clock, 28th in succeeding years, until 1896, since Feb. 1854, 109 ib. 106; 214 H. D. 3 which year it has not been moved.

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Speaker

191.

Chapter The lord chancellor, or lord keeper of the great seal of His duty.

to attend, --_England, is Prolocutor or Speaker of the House of Lords, Lord

e of the by prescription ;l and by standing order No. 5, it is deSpeaker, clared to be his duty ordinarily to attend as Speaker: but see p. 359.

if he be absent, or if there be none authorized under the
great seal to supply that place in the House of Peers, the

Lords may choose their own Speaker during that vacancy.?
Dutics of It is singular that the president of this deliberative body Not neccs-

that sarily a when not a is not necessarily a member. It has even happened that peer. peer, see p. the lord keeper has officiated, for years, as Speaker, without

having been raised to the peerage. On the 22nd November,
1830, Mr. Brougham sat on the woolsack as Speaker, being
at that time lord chancellor, although his patent of creation
as a peer had not yet been made out.4

When the great seal has been in commission, it was usual Great seal
for the Crown to appoint (if he be a peer) the chief justice mission.
of the Court of King's Bench or Common Pleas, the chief
baron of the Exchequer, or the master of the Rolls,
to be Lord Speaker. In 1827, Sir John Leech, master
of the Rolls, and Sir William Alexander, chief baron of
the Court of Exchequer, and in 1835, Sir L. Shadwell,
vice-chancellor, though not peers, were appointed Lord
Speakers, while the great seal was in commission. On
the meeting of Parliament, in 1819, the lord chancellor

in com

1 Lord Ellesmere, Office of Lord Chancellor, ed. 1651.

2 See also observations as to the obligations of the lord chancellor to attend, 23rd Aug. 1831, and 20th June, 1834, 6 H. D. 3 s. 453; 7 ib. 646-662; 24 ib. 597. 600. 604.

8 “When Sir Robert Henley was keeper of the great seal, and presided in the House of Lords as lord keeper, he could not enter into debate as a chancellor, being a peer, does, and therefore, when there was an appeal from his judgments in the Court of Chancery, and the law lords then in the house moved to reverse his judgments ... the lord keeper could not state the grounds of his opinions given in judgment

and support his decisions." Lord
Eldon's Anecdote Book; 1 Twiss,
Life, 319; 5 Lord Campbell, Lives
of Chancellors, 188.

- 63 L. J. 114; so also Sir E.
Sugden, 1852, 84 ib. 34; Sir F.
Thesiger, 1858; Lords' Minutes,
1858, p. 123 ; Sir R. Bethell, 1861 ;
Sir W. Page Wood, 1868; Sir
Hardinge Giffard, 25th June, 1885.

5 66 L. J. 113; 70 ib. 42; 82 ib.
71; 84 ib. 126.
659 ib. 278.

? 67 ib. 291. On the 25th Oct.
1566, Sir R. Cattelyn, C. J. of Q.
B., was appointed Lord Speaker, by
commission, which appears to be the
first instance of a commoner holding
that office, 1 ib. 637.

VI.

being absent, the prince regent appointed Sir R. Richards, Chapter
lord chief baron of the Exchequer, to supply his place, as _VI.

Speaker.
Deputy At all times there are deputy Speakers, appointed by
Speakers.

commission to officiate as Speaker during the absence of the
lord chancellor or lord keeper. When the lord chancellor
and all the deputy Speakers are absent at the same time,
the Lords elect a Speaker pro tempore : 2 but he gives place
immediately to any of the lords commissioners, on their
arrival in the house; who, in their turn, give place to each
other according to their precedence, and all at last to the
lord chancellor. In 1824, Lord Gifford, chief justice of the
Common Pleas, was appointed sole deputy Speaker. And
on the 22nd April, 1831, when the king was approaching
to prorogue Parliament, the lord chancellor suddenly left
the woolsack to attend his Majesty, upon which Lord Shaftes-
bury was appointed Speaker pro tempore, and the debate,
which had been interrupted for a time, proceeded until his
Majesty entered the house. For several years from 1851,
there was only one deputy Speaker in the commission—the
chairman of the Lords' committees : but on the 24th April,
1881, the lord chancellor acquainted the house of the
appointment by the Crown of four peers to be deputy
Speakers, in the absence of the lord chancellor and the
chairman of committees. On the 6th July, 1865, the lord
president of the council, being unanimously chosen Lord
Speaker pro tempore, in the absence of the lord chancellor,
and of Lord Redesdale, the deputy Speaker sat as Lord
Speaker, and, as one of the lords commissioners, delivered

the royal speech, and prorogued the Parliament.
Duties of The duties of the office are thus generally defined by
Speaker in
the Lords, standing order No. 20—

1 52 L. J. 7. This was said to be 356 L. J. 39; Lord Colchester's in accordance with the precedent of Diary, iii. 311. Sir Robert Atkins, in the reign of 63 L. J. 511. King William, Lord Colchester's 5 267 H. D. 3 s. 1204. For later Diary, iii, 68.

cases of appointments of deputy 2 Lord Sheffield, 80 L.J. 10; 24th Speakers, see 119 L. J. 28; 136 ib. Feb. 1873, Lord Chelmsford ; and 198. again in 1882.

6 97 ib. 639.

Chapter

vii.

“The lord chancellor, when he speaks to the house, is always to speak uncovered, and is not to adjourn the house, or to do anything else as mouth of the house, without the consent of the Lords first had, except the ordinary thing about bills, which are of course, wherein the Lords may likewise overrule; as, for preferring one bill before another, and snch-like; and in case of difference among the Lords, it is to be put to the question ; and if the lord chancellor will speak to anything particularly, he is to go to his own place as a peer."1

ommons.

Position of The position of the Speaker of the House of Lords is His anomaSpeaker,

lous posisee pp. somewhat anomalous ; for though he is the president of a tion. 311, 323, 349.

deliberative assembly, he is invested with no more authority
than any other member. Upon points of order, if a peer,
he may address the house; though, if not a member, his
office is limited to the putting of questions, and other formal

proceedings.? Election of, The duties of the Speaker of the House of Commons are Duties of see p. 154.

the ** as various as they are important. He presides over the Speaker

waf of the reprimand, deliberations of the house, and enforces the observance of com see p. 94. His casting all rules for preserving order in its proceedings; he puts toice, see p. 364: his every question, and declares the determination of the house. speech and As “mouth of the house,” he communicates its resolutions tote in com. mittee, see to others, conveys its thanks, and expresses its censure, p. 368; his specch its reprimands, or its admonitions. He issues warrants to (money bills),

execute the orders of the house for the commitment of p. 208. offenders, for the issue of writs, for the attendance of witFires hour of meeting nesses in custody, for the bringing up prisoners in custody, of the house, p. 212. 1 By virtue of his office he goes ib. 121.

to the left of the chamber, above all 3 When the words uttered by Mr. dukes not being of the blood royal, Speaker from the chair are called 31 Hen. VIII. c. 10, 8. 4.

forth by the proceeding then before ? See Debate in the Lords, 22nd the house, his words are entered, June, 1869, in which it was sug- either with or without the order of gested that the chancellor should the house, in the “votes," and upon be invested with more extended the journal. An address, however, powers: but it was pointed out, on delivered from the chair on the 31st the other side, by some peers and by July, 1893, made on the request of the chancellor himself, that as he was the prime minister at the close of a a minister of the Crown, not chosen personal explanation relating to the by the house itself, and was often a disorder which had arisen in commember of the least experience in mittee on a previous day, was the house, he could not properly entered in the journal, on the exercise the same powers as those of motion of the prime minister on the Speaker of the Commons. See the 1st August 148 C. J. 477. also, 136 'Parl. Deb. 4 s. 1394 ; 137

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