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In 1902 the standing order was amended by a provision for the appointment of a deputy chairman, who, whenever the house is informed by the clerk at the table of the unavoidable absence of the chairman of ways and means, is entitled to exercise all his powers, including those as deputy Speaker.
On the 31st January, 1881, during a protracted sitting, Speaker the Speaker retired, and the Clerk informed the house of the chair his unavoidable absence. The chairman of ways and during the means then took the chair, which, after several hours, was sitting. resumed by the Speaker. Objection was immediately taken that the Speaker, having once left the chair, was, according to the terms of the standing order, unable to resume it until the following day; but the objection was overruled by the Speaker, because the standing order could not restrain the inherent authority of the Speaker in the event of his resuming the chair and exercising the authority of his office.
When the debate had further continued for many hours, the Speaker was again replaced by the chairman of ways and means, but resumed the chair in the morning, and occupied it until the close of the debate. And now, the Speaker, under standing order No. 1, after he has taken the $. 0. 1,
Appendix I. chair at the commencement of a sitting, without any formal communication to the house, can request the chairman of ways and means or the deputy chairman to take the chair, either temporarily, or until the adjournment of the house."
1 To enable the deputy chairman to take the chair in committee of the whole house, the absence of the chairman of ways and means is announced at any time before the commencement of public business.
? 136 C. J. 50; 257 H. D. 3 s. 1707. On other occasions the Speaker vacated and resumed the chair during a sitting, 121 C. J. 234. 261. 331. 339.
3 144 ib. 393. 394 ; 145 ib. 539. 580. In session 1903, on a day on which there were two sittings (see
p. 213, n. 1), the Speaker who had taken the chair at the commencement of the afternoon sitting was unable to resume it when progress was reported from the committee of supply at the evening sitting. The house was so informed by the Clerk, and the deputy chairman who had been acting for the chairman of ways and means in his unavoidable absence took the chair as deputy Speaker, 158 C. J. 96; see also 160 ib. 65.
A brief notice may now be given of the principal officers Chapter
VII. whose duties are immediately connected with the pro
ceedings of Parliament.
as are called by writ from the Crown to attend. The
The chief officers of the upper house are—the Clerk of the Lords. the Parliaments, the gentleman usher of the Black Rod, the
clerk assistant, the reading clerk, and the Serjeant-at-arms.
i Lords' standing orders Nos.6 and 31 L. J. 586. 606, 26th Jan., 20th 7. Formerly judges of the Courts of March, 1563; West, Inq.48; D'Ewes's King's Bench and Common Pleas, Journal, 99. 143. See ib. 142 for case barons of the Exchequer, the master of Attorney-General and Solicitorof the Rolls, the attorney and General being made a joint comsolicitor-generals, and the king's mittee with the lords. serjeants, were summoned, at the Their place is on the woolsacks. beginning of every Parliament, to The last attendance of the judges be " present in Parliament, with us was during the session of 1897, 129 and with others of our council to L. J. 100. 105, &c. If the Scotch treat and give advice" (Macqueen, judges are called upon to deliver 36, n.). Since the Judicature Act, their opinions, the house orders 1873, all the judges of the High chairs to be placed for the judges Court of Justice and of the Court of below the bar, 25 ib. 99; 46 ib. Appeal have been summoned, Parl, 172. 189. Paper, No. 212 (sess. 1901), p. vii. 5 The masters in ordinary in
? Hale, Hist. of House of Lords; chancery, until the abolition of Introd. to Sugden's Law of Real their offices, attended the House of Property, 2; see also Lord Lynd. Lords, and carried bills and mesburst's speech, 23rd June, 1851, 117 sages to the House of Commons. H. D. 3 s. 1069.
Chapter keep secret all such matters as shall be treated" therein,
" and not disclose the same before they shall be published,
The gentleman usher of the Black Rod is appointed by Black Rod.
The Serjeant-at-arms is also appointed by the Crown. SerjeantHe attends the lord chancellor with the mace, and executes at-arms. the orders of the house for the attachment of delinquents, when they are in the country. He is, however, the officer
of the lord chancellor, rather than of the house. Duty of the shorthand writer to the houses of Parliament is Short hand shorthand
writer, eriter is appointed by the Clerk of the Parliaments and by the Lord
1 87 L. J. 44. For the earliest revert to the Clerk of the Parliagrant by letters patent, 2 Henry ments; and that he should promote VI., see Parl. Paper, No. 96 (sess. one of the senior clerks of his de. 1856).
partment, whom he shall consider 2 5 Geo. IV. c. 82, s. 3. Regarding most fit for the post," 2nd report, these appointments, the select com cl. 17 (217), sess. 1889; report conmittee on the office of the Clerk of sidered and agreed to, 15th Aug. the Parliaments made the following 1889, 121 L. J. 403. report: “The committee strongly 3 56 L. J. 369, a; 84 ib. 91 ; recommend that the appointment to Lords' s. 0. 63, at least one of these clerkships should
Clerk of the House of Commons, pursuant to a resolution Chapter
VII. agreed to by both houses during the session of 1813. He _ attends at the bar of the House of Lords when persons are committees;
p. 414; on summoned to attend the house, when evidence is tendered election
trials, P. on the second reading of divorce bills, and on peerage 655.' siis cases. He also records the opinions given by the lords of te appeal, when the house sits as a judicial court. The short- court of
laro, p. 431. band writer attends at the bar of the House of Commons when members or other persons are summoned to attend the house, and whenever the Speaker, by order, gives utterance to the opinion of the house; and it is the duty of the shorthand writer on these occasions to record the words uttered by the Speaker, and by the persons who
have been summoned to attend the house. Chief The chief officers of the House of Commons are the Clerk officers of
of the house, the Serjeant-at-arms, the clerk assistant, anıl mons.
Le second clerk assistant. The Clerk of the house is appointed
styled “ Under Clerk of the Parliaments, to attend upon the
1 49 L. J. 449.482; 68 C. J. 497; House of Commons' officers, &c., report of committee, sess. 1833, question 973. See also 48 Parl. Deb. 4 s. 923.
? 2 Hatsell, 255; London Gazette, 1st Oct. 1850, 3rd Feb. 1871, 4th May, 1886, 13th Feb. 1900, 18th Feb. 1902; see also 3 C. J. 54. 57.
For earliest grant of appointment
3 6th Feb. 1811, 66 ib. 82.
4 1 ib. 306 ; 6 ib. 542; 17 ib. 724, &c.
Chapter the conduct of the business of the house in the official
__departments under his control. He also assists the Speaker,
and advises members, in regard to questions of order and
the table of the house, on the left hand of the Clerk. Botion to A record of the proceedings of the house, entitled “The Votes and alter entry
proceed. in, see p. Votes and Proceedings," made by the clerks at the table, ings, and 301.
is printed and distributed every day (see p. 232). From
'19 & 20 Vict. c. 1; Treasury Minute, 1856 (Sess. Paper No. 132).
? They had been printed, with some interruptions, since 1680. A delay of several days formerly took place in the printing and circulation of the "Votes, &c.," until 1817, when their publication, every morning after the sitting to which the
« Votes, &c." related, was established by Mr. John Rickman, clerk assistant.-Mem. Gent's Mag. 1841.
31 C. J. 673. 676. 683. 885 ; 2 ib. 12. 42. For a history of the early journals, see 24 ib. 262.
• Sess. order since 1680, 9 ib. 643.