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XXII.

Part I.

account

exceed

amount

Appropriation Act having been passed. On the occasion Chapter
of the dissolution of 1820, the Commons did not pass a
bill to effect the due appropriation of certain temporary
supplies; a course which drew from the Lords a remon-
strance, which that house recorded on its journal (see

p. 573).
Grants on When, owing to the course of events, grants voted on

account, as in the case of the army and navy departments,

exceeded the requirements of the current financial year, required.

statements were presented, by command, showing the
amounts of the original scale of expenditure, together with
reduced estimates for the sums ultimately found to be
sufficient, which were referred to the committee of supply.?
In one case, a grant made on account was in excess of the
total amount required. The due amount was accordingly
voted de novo in committee ; and the previous resolution
was rescinded, before the new resolution was agreed to by
the house.

Supplementary grants.—A supplementary estimate may
be presented either for a further grant to a service already
sanctioned by Parliament, in addition to the sum already
demanded for the current financial year, or for a grant
caused by a fresh occasion for expenditure that has arisen
since the presentation of the sessional estimates, such as
expenditure newly imposed upon the executive government See also p.

556, inci by statute, or to meet the cost created by an unexpected dental emergency, such as an immediate addition to an existing charges. service, or the purchase of land, or of a work of art. Supplementary estimates for the army and navy services Debate on a were presented during the session of 1884-5, to meet m increased expenditure caused by operations in Egypt and gram South Africa, and to provide for an increase of the ranks of the army. This method of placing before Parliament

tary int, see

p. 621.

"On the advice of Mr. Pitt in 1784, and of Lord Grey in 1831. The Commons, in 1784, resolved that the persons who acted on supply grants, unsanctioned by an Appro. priation Act, would be guilty of a

high crime and misdemeanour, 39
C. J. 858.

: 69 C. J. 18. 449; 111 ib. 172.
3 Transport Service, 111 ib. 268.

140 ib. 26. 27. 92.

Part I.

Chapter the demand for a supply created by that occasion, was
XXII.
" adopted in preference to a vote of credit (see p. 554),

because a fairly definite estimate could be formed of the
amount that would be required, and of the general heads
under which that expenditure would fall."
The need for a supplementary grant to an existing Depart-

mental anservice is not infrequently caused by the system in force to ticipation ensure the control of Parliament over public expenditure.

UC. penditure.
To provide for the early presentation of the annual esti-
mates, the departments are obliged to compute in the
month of November their anticipated expenditure for the
ensuing financial year, dating from the coming 1st April.
Fallibility must attend calculations which range over
sixteen months in advance; and as too large a demand for
money is a grave departmental error, the official tendency is
to make the demand too small. If the lesser error occurs,
to avoid the still greater evil of excess expenditure, recourse
of necessity must be had to a supplementary grant.?

Excess grants.-An estimate for an excess grant arises
when a department has, by means of advances from the
civil contingencies fund, or out of funds derived from
“extra receipts,” carried expenditure upon a service beyond
the amount granted to that service, during the financial
year for which the grant was made. The title of this class
of estimate attests the nature of the grants ; and to place
on record a permanent disapproval of these departmental

1 285 H. D. 3 s. 672. 873. The same course was adopted in connection with the South African War (1899), 154 C.J.435; 155 ib. 47.50, &c.

? In consequence of the difficulty experienced in getting the supple. mentary estimates voted in session 1901 a revised estimate stating in one sum the supplementary amount still required for civil services for the year ending 31st March, 1901, was presented, following the form used in the case of the army and navy supplementary estimates and the vote on account. This change in the form of the supplementary

estimates for civil services was discussed on a motion for the adjournment of the house, 156 C. J. 82. See also the Speaker's remarks, 91 Parl. Deb. 4 s. 261. 1161. The civil services supplementary estimates were presented in this form in the following session, when the matter was again discussed on a motion for the adjournment of the house. The estimate was withdrawn and an estimate in ordinary form of the separate supplementary sums required for the various civil services was presented, 157 C. J. 42. 55. 57; 102 Parl. Deb. 4 s. 876, et seq., 1001.

cess 3

excesses, the Commons resolved, 30th March, 1849, that Chapter
“when a certain amount of expenditure for a particular
service has been determined upon by Parliament, it is the

Part I.
bounden duty of the department which has that service
under its charge and control, to take care that the expen-
diture does not exceed the amount placed at its disposal for

that purpose.”1
Army and A demand for an excess grant by the army and navy
Davy ex-
grants, departments is of exceptional occurrence, as under the

privilege, which has been explained (see p. 548), these
departments have the power of applying the surpluses
they can save out of any of the grants made to their
services, to meet excess expenditure made upon other
grants, in cases where such expenditure is of public advan-
tage. Excess grants are accordingly usually required by
the civil service departments alone. But an excess grant
is required in the case of the army or navy, whenever the
total expenditure for the year has exceeded that provided
in the estimates, although the excess of expenditure may
have been met by the increase in the total of extra re-
ceipts over the amount that they were estimated to produce.

Demands for excess grants, having been first brought
before the committee of public accounts (see p. 597), are
presented to the committee of supply in the form of a single
resolution, which includes all the occasions for excess
expenditure that have occurred in the branch of the public
service to which the resolution applies; and the grants
should be voted, and the money made available before the
end of the current financial year, in order that the irregu-
larity may be set right at the earliest possible moment.

Grant of a vote of credit.—Unexpected demands upon the resources of the United Kingdom for the defence of the empire, or for a warlike expedition, which, on account of See also

supplementhe magnitude or indefiniteness of the service, cannot be tary grants,

p. 552.

1 104 O. J. 190.

On two occasions, in order to give facilities for further discussion, excess votes have not been taken

until a late date in the session, 104
Parl. Deb. 4 s. 296, et seq. ; 157 C.J.
402; 158 ib. 378.

Applica

arges.

pend

Chapter stated with the detail given in an ordinary estimate, are
ΧΧΙΙ.

laid before Parliament by an application, based on an Part I.

estimate of the total sum required, for a vote of credit. tion of the Sums obtained upon a vote of credit are, like other grants Consoli. dated Fund, of supply, available solely during the financial year when see p. 592. the vote was made. Committees Exceptional grants.—An exceptional grant may be re. Escep

Ohio tional tional ex- quired to meet the cost of an imperial undertaking which char

reforms no part of the current service of the year, such as the see p. 630.

20,000,0001. granted to facilitate the abolition of slavery
in the British Colonies ; loans to foreign countries, and to
Ireland ; 3 or the grant for the purchase of the Suez Canal

shares. Demands also for pecuniary aid are made by a Reception message from the sovereign, bearing the sign manual; the Messages of royal

from the sages, object of these messages being usually to obtain a grant for Crown. P. 445.

the maintenance of the dignity and well-being of the Crown,4
or for the reward of men who have rendered distinguished
service to the empire.
These demands for exceptional grants are brought before Procedure

on ex-
Parliament either by a resolution proposed in a committee ceptional
of the whole house, appointed to sit on a future day, for 8
that purpose 6 (see p. 559), or by the presentation of an

estimate, according to the nature of the demand. A grant Committee based upon an exceptional demand, or a royal message, may on a message, ques- be voted either by the committee of the whole house that

is appointed to consider the matter, or wholly or partially chair, see by the committee of supply. For instance, the grant for p. 380.

| 1856, 111 C. J. 269; 1884, 140 ib. 105 ib. 539; Princess Royal, 1857, 173, &c. The practice of demanding 112 ib. 153; Prince of Wales, 1863, a vote of credit by a message from resolutions agreed to nem. con., 118 the Crown, has, since 1854, 109 ib. ib. 69; Prince Albert Edward, 1889, 432, been discontinued.

144 ib. 290, &c. ? 285 H. D. 3 s. 875.

s Sir H. Havelock, 1857, 113 ib. • West India Relief, 1832, 87 C. 9; Sir Rowland Hill, 1864, 119 ib. J. 452; Slavery, 20,000,0001. grant, 293; widow of Earl of Elgin, 1864, 1833, 88 ib. 482; Sardinia and 119 ib. 293; Lords Alcester and Turkish Loans, 1855 and 1856, 110 Wolseley, 1883, 138 ib. 146. 217; ib. 142. 406; 111 ib. 273; Fortifica Lord Kitchener, 1899 and 1902, 154 tions and Works, 1860, 1862, 1863, ib. 230; 157 ib. 261 ; Lord Roberts, and 1867, 115 ib. 403. 441, &c. 1901, 156 ib. 352.

• 43 L. J. 566 ; 86 C. J. 719; 156 6 112 ib. 153 ; 121 ib. 99; 144 ib. ib. 60; Duke of Cambridge, 1850, 355.

grants.

tion

all

the

Part I.

the emancipation of the negro was voted in a committee ;1 Chapter

XXII. the grant for the purchase of the Suez Canal shares was voted in committee of supply; 2 and in the case of the

Part I. demands occasioned by the marriage of the Princess Royal, 1857, the marriage portion, paid out of the revenues of the year, was voted upon estimates by the committee of supply, whilst the annuity granted to the princess was charged upon the Consolidated Fund by a resolution originating in a committee of the whole house, a practice which has been followed on similar occasions.

The grants voted in the committee of supply are dealt with by the Appropriation Act, and the grants voted in a special committee, by a bill brought in for that

purpose (see p. 592).
Incidental Grants and charges not based on the annual estimates.-
charges.

Incidental charges necessary to carry on the public service,
which are not of the nature of the annual supplies, are
voted every session, upon the recommendation signified by
a minister of the Crown (see p. 559). Usually these charges See also p.
are for salaries and other expenses caused by the imposition

ompuneve plementary of novel duties upon the executive government by the grants.

legislation of the session. Messages, Messages from the sovereign also are sent to inform Parliament militia and

Parliament, when an emergency occasions the calling more sun
out for service, of the militia, and the army and militia 15.
reserve forces. The army reserve messages are commu-
nicated pursuant to statute ; the messages regarding the
militia are communicated in accordance with the constitu-
tional principle, that warning should be given to Parliament
of events which must inflict an increased charge upon the
people. These messages are, according to usage, referred
to the consideration of a committee of the whole house.

Supo

reserve
forces.

1 88 C. J. 383.
? Suez Canal shares, 131 ib. 55.

3 112 ib. 170. 175. For earlier
examples, see 3 Hatsell, 172; 67
C. J. 377. 380; 69 ib. 254 (Duke of
Wellington); 71 ib. 220 (Princess
Charlotte).

* 1815, 70 ib. 399; 1854, 109 ib. 242; 1878, 133 ib. 156; 1882, 137 ib. 399; 1885, 140 ib. 51. 124; 1899, 154 ib. 432; 30 & 31 Vict. cc. 110, 111, ss. 10. 8; 45 & 46 Vict. c. 48, s. 12; 45 & 46 Vict. c. 49, s. 18.

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