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the treasury makes the issues to meet those grants out Chapter

XXII. of the Consolidated Fund. Grants of The drafts upon the Consolidated Fund authorized by Part III. supply, and ways and the resolutions of the committee of ways and means must means, to

od not exceed the amount of supply which has previously been

granted for the service of the year; and it is the duty of
the Public Bill Office, acting on behalf of the Speaker, 2 to
ensure compliance with this rule. In deference to this
requirement, the report of the final ways and means resolu-
tions, on which Consolidated Fund and Appropriation bills
are founded (see p. 593), is invariably placed upon the
notice paper after the report of the supply grants which
that resolution is designed to meet; so that, if necessary,
the amount sanctioned by the ways and means resolution

can, by reduction, be brought into conformity with the The royal grants made by the committee of supply. The royal order,

which is the final authority for the issue of a supply grant,
also prescribes that the amount thereunder issued shall not
exceed the amount of the grants out of the ways and means

appropriated by Parliament to the service of the year.
Excep The grants made by a committee of the whole house

appointed to consider an exceptional occasion for expen-
diture (see p. 630), and grants obtained upon an address to
the Crown (see p. 570), are also drawn from the Consolidated

Fund pursuant to statutory authority.
Sessional Application of the Consolidated Fund. The drafts which
charges
upon the are made upon the Consolidated Fund, under the authority

of the sessional Consolidated Fund and Appropriation Acts,

order.

tional grants.

Consolidated Fund.

i The vote of resolutions by the committees of ways and means, and of supply, to authorize and to meet the issue of exchequer bills to defray the temporary requirements of the executive government, used to form one of the functions of these com mittees. Resort to this procedure is now obviated by the insertion of clauses in the sessional Consoli. dated Fund Acts, which authorize the Bank of England, on application from the treasury to advance the sums required for the public service,

in respect of any services voted during the same session to the amount covered by the Act. Since 1902 the Acts have also empowered the Treasury to borrow for this purpose by the issue of Treasury Bills, 2 Edw. VII. c. 30, s. 2.

? The Speaker superintends the procedure of the house,-a responsi. bility which justifies to a certain extent a statement, otherwise unfounded, that the duty thus discharged by the Public Bill Office devolves upon the Speaker himself.

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Chapter are available for the supply of any service belonging to

$11._ the financial year to which those Acts apply : but the
Part III. drafts authorized for the supply of one financial year are
Grants on
account,“ not applicable to the supply of another financial year.

Nor are the drafts made to meet the supply voted in one
parliamentary session applicable to the supply voted in
another session. Thus grants out of the Consolidated
Fund, devoted by the legislation of session 1885 to the
service of the financial year 1885–86, could not be applied
to the supplementary grants voted during session 1886 for
the year 1885–86. These grants were not available until
fresh issues out of the Consolidated Fund were provided
in the session of 1886 for the financial year 1885–86.

Besides the drafts made upon the Consolidated Fund to Permanent
meet the requirements created by the legislation of each
session, permanent charges for the service of the state are Consoli-
secured by statute upon that fund which the treasury is Fund.
bound to defray, as directed by law. In this expenditure are
included the interest of the national debt, the civil list of his
Majesty, the annuities of the royal family, and the salaries
and pen sions of the judges and of other public officers.

Appropriation of the grants for the annual services.— The Grants on sums of money granted, in advance, by the committee of “co supply for the service of the year, are issued, as has been

explained, during the first six months of every session, Sessional under the authority of the Consolidated Fund Acts (see p. close of financial 557), because the Appropriation Bill, which gives complete

3. legal sanction to those issues, cannot be introduced until

the financial arrangements of the year are concluded.? Accordingly, when all the supply grants necessary for the The Appro

u priation service of the year have been voted, the resolution finally act. Ways and proposed in the committee of ways and means is for a grant

See out of the Consolidated Fund, which provides the balance

of ways and means required to cover the supply grants
voted for the current financial year. Upon the report of

account.

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Public Moneys Report, Parl. Paper
No. 279 (sess. 2, 1857), p. 27; 2
Todd, Parl, Govt. (new ed., 1892),

230.

57 H. D. 3 s. 458.

that resolution, the Appropriation Bill is brought in, which Chapter

XXII. authorizes the issue of the remaining sums necessary for the

Part II. service of the year out of the Consolidated Fund. The bill also enacts that each grant voted during the session shall be expended upon the service to which it is thereby appropriated, according to the terms prescribed by the resolutions voted in the committee of supply; and the bill also ratifies the application of the surpluses upon the army and navy grants, which is described upon p. 549.

When, during the course of a session, an increase in the ranks of the army above the number specified in the annual estimates has been obtained under a vote of credit or otherwise 2 (see pp. 552, 554), it was formerly necessary to include among the provisions of the year's Appropriation Act a statement of the number of that additional force : but this statement is no longer required, as permanent provision is made to meet such additions to the army by sect. 2 of the

Army Annual Acts.
Debate on Debate and amendment on the stages of the Appropria-
the Appro-
priation tion Bill and other Consolidated Fund bills must be relevant

to the bill, and must be confined to the conduct or action
of those who receive or administer the grants specified in
the bill,4 while as in committee of supply (see p. 623),

Bill.

1 110 O. J. 443; 145 ib. 579. Owing to their formal character, the Consolidated Fund and the Appropriation Bills are not printed for general circulation, but copies can be obtained on application; see also p. 468.

2 140 C. J. 161. 180. 320.

3 Compare Appropriation Acts, 1870 and 1882, with the Act of 1885.

+ 143 H. D. 3 s. 558. 641; 12th April, 1859 (Admiralty Board), 153 ib. 1626 ; 23rd July, 1863 (Foreign Relations); 26th June, 1865 (Irish Constabulary); 14th Aug. 1867 (Turkey and Greece); 5th Aug. 1870 (Fortifications, and State of the Navy); 8th Aug. 1872 (Kew Gardens); 11th Aug. 1876 (Outrages

in Bulgaria); 15th Aug. 1882, on
going into committee (War in
Egypt), 137 C. J. 482; 16th Aug.
on third reading (Egyptian Budget),
ib. 484. On second reading of
Consolidated Fund (No. 1) Bill,
1884 (Egyptian policy), 139 C. J.
138; on second reading of Con-
solidated Fund (No. 3) Bill, 1885,
(Policy with respect to vote of
credit granted by the bill), 140 C. J.
221. See also 321 H. D. 3 s. 217; 77
Parl. Deb. 4 s. 681 ; 96 ib. 147; 127
ib. 867; 147 ib. 1459. The annual
education statement has been made
by the minister for that department
on the second reading of the Appro-
priation Bill, 17th June, 1886, 306
H. D. 3 s. 1723 ; 16th June, 1892, 5
Parl. Deb. 4 s. 1355.

Chapter legislation cannot be discussed. As an illustration of this

_.rule, it may be mentioned that discussion has been perPart III.

mitted on the state of Europe, so far as it depended on the
conduct of the executive government, as, for example, the
use made of the naval forces, or the action of the diplomatic
servants of the Crown; whilst, on the other hand, observa-
tions and amendments relating to the constitution of Great
Britain, to the House of Lords, to a course of action taken
by that house touching the tenure of land in Ireland, or
remarks on the balance of power in Europe, the desirability
of establishing a ministry of agriculture, the expense of
actions at law, and alleged miscarriages of justice, were
held to be irrelevant. Nor has the fact that officials of a
department have been engaged in collecting information
with regard to proposals of the government for legislation
in a future session been held to justify a claim to discuss
such proposals.3
The principle of relevancy is also strictly applied to The Appro-

priation debate and amendments in the committee on the Appro- Bill com

mittee priation Bill. No grant of supply is effected by the bill ; p its provisions are solely administrative; the sole object of the bill is to ensure the application of the grants made by Parliament to the objects defined by the resolutions of the committee of supply. Accordingly, debate or amendment must be restricted to the matter of appropriation; and the conduct of the officials or of the departments who receive the supply grants cannot be challenged in the committee on the bill. Nor can amendments be moved to its clauses, or to the schedule, to effect the omission or reduction of the amount of a grant,5 or of the appropriations

in aid of it, or an alteration in the destination of a grant.? Procedure Nor are the enacting words of the bill open to amendment.8 on bills, see P. 485.

1 99 Parl, Deb. 4 s. 1092; 140 ib. Deb. 4 s. 881. 531 ; 143 ib. 1243; 151 ib. 691.

5 292 H. D. 3 s. 588; 332 ib. 977. · 176 H. D. 3 s. 1859 ; 180 ib. 836; 980-983.985 ; 29 Parl. Deb. 4 s. 410. 231 ib. 1119. 1160; 256 ib. 472. 1232; 415. 265 ib. 736, 768; 321 ib. 536; 29 Parl. 140 Parl, Deb. 4 s. 484. Deb, 4 s. 408 ; 35 ib. 296; 140 ib. 527. i 256 H, D. 3 s. 1240. 3 127 Parl. Deb. 4. s. 869.

$ 332 H. D. 3 s. 993. 1010; 339 ib. 4 340 H. D. 3 s. 609; 148 Parl. 219; 80 Parl. Deb. 4 s. 1364.

ctice.

XXII.

513.

Royal as- A Consolidated Fund or an Appropriation Bill that has Chapter sent to the word

e passed both houses 1 is returned into the custody of the ation Bill. Commons; and when that house is summoned to the Part

Form of House of Lords, to attend the sovereign or the lords royal as

at the sent, see p. commissioners, the bill is handed by the Speaker, at the si bar of the House of Lords, to the Clerk of the Parliaments, to receive the royal assent. The passing of the Appropriation Bill takes place, ordinarily, but not necessarily, on the day appointed for the prorogation of

Parliament; as on several occasions, when special circumAdjourn. stances have demanded an adjournment, instead of a ments after passing of prorogation, the royal assent has nevertheless been given Prolonyed Appropria- to the Appropriation Act; and on the meeting of Parlia- ments, see

ment, after the adjournment, the outstanding business has P. 46.
been proceeded with. And as the money bills have been
passed, and the committee of supply closed, the special
sitting has then been held, without any disturbance of the For Appro-
financial arrangements of the year.2 When the sovereign is Priation
present in person (see p. 207), the Speaker prefaces the de- vious to a

dissolutioning
livery of the money bills with a short speech concerning see p. 551.
the principal measures which have received the assent of
Parliament during the session, in which he does not omit
to mention the supplies granted by the Commons.

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í Appropriation bills, in common with bills brought in upon royal recommendation, are, by usage (see p. 501), not passed through more than one stage at each sitting of the House of Commons.

2 On the 12th Oct. 1799, the Appropriation Act received the royal assent, when both houses adjourned till the 21st Jan. 1800. On the 24th July, 1820, the Appropriation Act received the royal assent; and on the 26th, the Commons adjourned and continued adjournments, and the transaction of business, until 23rd Nov. On the 17th Aug. 1882, the Appropriation Act received the royal assent; and on the following day both houses adjourned until 23rd Oct. On the reassembling of Parlia ment, the regularity of the adjourn

ment was challenged in the Com. mons, on the ground that, the Appropriation Act having been passed, no further business could be proceeded with. But the adjournment was approved by a large majority, 137 C. J. 489; 274 H. D. 3 s. 3. On the 22nd September, 1893, the Appropriation Act received the royal assent and the Commons adjourned till the 2nd November, when the house reassembled and continued the transaction of business till the 5th March 1894, 148 C. J. 576. In 1902 the royal assent having been given to the Appropriation Bill on the 8th August, both houses adjourned till the 16th October, and then sat until the 18th December, 157 C. J. 432.

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