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The plan of the editors in the preparation of this edition has been, without rewriting the book, so to supplement the third edition as to exhibit the Uniform Negotiable Instruments Law as the most important authoritative statement of the law of negotiable bills and notes in the United States. The act has been cited, whenever applicable, and the effect of its provisions, when necessary, discussed in the notes. An attempt has been made to cite all of the cases decided under the act which were reported before April 1, 1914. The Commissioners' draft of the act is printed in the Appendix, and appended to each section is a reference to the pages of the text where the section is cited or discussed. A list of the states, territories, and possessions of the United States in which the act is in force, and a table of the section numbering, in the jurisdictions which have adopted the act, of the corresponding sections, are also printed in the Appendix.

The ninth chapter has been almost entirely rewritten, a few changes have been made in the text of the other chapters, new cases have been added to the notes, many notes have been rewritten, and many new notes have been added. But in view of the character of the book, there seems to be no sufficient reason for indicating, where they occur, these variations from, and additions to, the third edition. The cases cited in the notes carried over from the third edition have not been examined.

The initials N. I. L. and B. E. A. are abbreviations, respectively, for the Uniform Negotiable Instruments Law and the English Bills of Exchange Act. The appearance after the citation of a case of either of these abbreviations indicates that the case was decided in a jurisdiction in which the statute whose title is abbreviated was in force. In referring to the N. I. L., the section numbering of the Commissioners' draft printed in the Appendix is employed. The table of corresponding sections will show the number of the corresponding section in any jurisdiction wl:ere the N. I. L. is in force.

W. U. M.

H. M. W. (v)

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IN PREPARING a new edition of Mr. Norton's book, it has been deemed advisable to print as an appendix the Negotiable Instruments Law, which has already been adopted in fifteen states, as well as in the District of Columbia. It is obvious that even an elementary book upon Bills and Notes must contain references to this law, which, while it is, in the main, declaratory in its effect, settles some doubtful points, and necessarily changes rules in many jurisdictions upon points concerning which a conflict of laws existed. The text of the law as printed in the Appendix is that of the New York act, such few modifications as have been made by the various states being mentioned in the notes. The law is also valuable to the student, even in states which have not adopted it, as furnishing a concise statement of rules, which for the most part are of universal application; and for this reason the editor has throughout the book, in the footnotes, inserted references to the appropriate sections of the law, at the same time pointing out any changes effected by them. Much new matter has been incorporated, and this has necessitated some alteration of the former text.

At the suggestion of many teachers, the publishers have adopted the device of printing in bold type in the footnotes and text the names of all cases there cited which are to be found in certain of the collections of leading and illustrative cases on Bills and Notes in use in the law schools. The cases so printed are to be found in Ames' Cases on the Law of Bills and Notes, Huffcut's Negotiable Instruments, and Johnson's Elements of the Law of Negotiable Contracts (second edition).

The present editor wishes to express his great obligation to Prof. Ames, whose Index and Summary at the end of the cases, unquestionably the most important contribution to the subject that has been made in America, he has constantly consulted; and to Prof. Huffcut, whose Negotiable Instruments is an invaluable commentary upon the Negotiable Instruments Law.

FRANCIS B. TIFFANY. St. Paul, August 31, 1900.

(vi)

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