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that she should soon come up with me. When she did, I observed her to be in tears."

He now set up a private academy, for which purpose he hired a large house. In the Gentleman's Magazine for 1736, there is the following advertisement: “At Edial, near Lich- 5 field, in Staffordshire, young gentlemen are boarded and taught the Latin and Greek Languages, by SAMUEL JOHNSON." But the only pupils that were put under his care were the celebrated David Garrick and his brother George, and a Mr. Offely. The truth is, that he was not so well 10 qualified for being a teacher of elements, and a conductor in learning by regular gradations, as men of inferiour powers of mind. His own acquisitions had been made by fits and starts, by violent irruptions into the regions of knowledge; and it could not be expected that his impatience would be subdued, 15 and his impetuosity restrained, so as to fit him for a quiet guide to novices.°

From Mr. Garrick's account he did not appear to have been profoundly reverenced by his pupils. His oddities of manner, and uncouth gesticulations, could not but be the subject of 20 merriment to them; and in particular, the young rogues used to listen and peep through the key-hole, that they might turn into ridicule his tumultuous and awkward fondness for Mrs. Johnson, whom he used to name by the familiar appellation of Tetty or Tetsey, which, like Betty or Betsey, is provin- 25 cially used as a contraction for Elizabeth. I have seen Garrick exhibit her, by his exquisite talent of mimickry, so as to excite the heartiest bursts of laughter.

Johnson now thought of trying his fortune in London. David Garrick went thither at the same time, with intent to 30 follow the profession of the law, from which he was soon diverted by his decided preference for the stage.°

He had a little money when he came to town, and he knew how he could live in the cheapest manner. "I dined (said he) very well for eight-pence, with very good company, at 35 the Pine-Apple in New-street, just by. Several of them had travelled. They expected to meet every day; but did not

know one another's names. It used to cost the rest a shilling, for they drank wine; but I had a cut of meat for six-pence, and bread for a penny, and gave the waiter a penny; so that I was quite well served, nay, better than the rest, for they 5 gave the waiter nothing. HIS OFELLUS in the Art of Living in London, I have heard him relate, was an Irish painter, whom he knew at Birmingham. "He said a man might live

in a garret at eighteen-pence a week; few people would inquire where he lodged; and if they did, it was easy to say, 10 'Sir, I am to be found at such a place.' By spending threepence in a coffee-house, he might be for some hours every day in very good company; he might dine for six-pence, breakfast on bread and milk for a penny, and do without supper. On clean-shirt-day he went abroad, and paid visits."


Amidst this cold obscurity, there was one brilliant circumstance to cheer him; he was well acquainted with Mr. Henry Hervey, who had at this time a house in London, where Johnson had an opportunity of meeting genteel company. He described this early friend, "Harry Hervey," thus: "He 20 was a vicious man, but very kind to me. If you call a dog HERVEY, I shall love him."

He had now written only three acts of his IRENE, and retired for some time to lodgings at Greenwich, where he used to compose, walking in the Park. His tragedy was 25 slowly and painfully elaborated. A few days before his death, while burning a great mass of papers, he picked out from among them the original unformed sketch of this tragedy, in his own handwriting, and gave it to Mr. Langton. The King having graciously accepted of this manuscript as 30 a literary curiosity, the volume is deposited in the King's library.

He related to me the following minute anecdote of this period: "In the last age, when my mother lived in London, there were two sets of people, those who gave the wall, and 35 those who took it; the peaceable and the quarrelsome. When I returned to Lichfield, my mother asked me, whether I was one of those who gave the wall, or those who took it.

Now it is fixed that every man keeps to the right; or, if one is taking the wall, another yields it; and it is never a dispute."

His tragedy being by this time, as he thought, completely finished and fit for the stage, Mr. Peter Garrick told me, that Johnson and he went together to the Fountain Tavern, and 5 read it over, and that he afterwards solicited Mr. Fleetwood, the patentee of Drury-lane theatre, to have it acted at his house; but Mr. Fleetwood would not accept it, probably because it was not patronized by some man of high rank; and it was not acted till 1749, when his friend David Garrick 10 was manager of that theatre.

The GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE, begun and carried on by Mr. Edward Cave, under the name of SYLVANUS URBAN, had attracted the notice and esteem of Johnson, in an eminent degree, before he came to London as an adventurer in litera- 15 ture. He told me, that when he first saw St. John's Gate, the place where that deservedly popular miscellany was originally printed, he "beheld it with reverence."

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His first performance in the Gentleman's Magazine, was a copy of Latin verses, in March 1738, addressed to the editor 20 in so happy a style of compliment, that Cave must have been. destitute both of taste and sensibility, had he not felt himself highly gratified.

He was now enlisted by Mr. Cave as a regular coadjutor in his magazine, by which he probably obtained a tolerable 25 livelihood. What we certainly know to have been done by him was the Debates in both houses of Parliament, under the name of "The Senate of Lilliput," sometimes with feigned denominations of the several speakers, sometimes with denominations formed of the letters of their real names, in the 30 manner of what is called anagram, so that they might easily be decyphered. Parliament then kept the press in a kind of mysterious awe, which made it necessary to have recourse to such devices. The speeches were enriched by the accession of Johnson's genius, from the scanty notes furnished by 35 persons employed to attend in both houses of Parliament. Sometimes he had nothing more communicated to him than

the names of the several speakers, and the part which they had taken in the debate.

But what first displayed his transcendent powers, and “gave the world assurance of the MAN," was his "LONDON, a Poem, 5 in Imitation of the Third Satire of Juvenal."


"Having the inclosed poem in my hands to dispose of for the benefit of the authour (of whose abilities I shall say nothing, since I send you his performance), I cannot help taking 10 notice, that besides what the authour may hope for on account of his abilities, he has likewise another claim to your regard, as he lies at present under very disadvantageous circumstances of fortune. SAM. JOHNSON."

Mr. Robert Dodsley had taste enough to perceive its un15 common merit, and gave Johnson ten guineas, who told me, "I might perhaps have accepted of less; but that Paul Whitehead had a little before got ten guineas for a poem; and I would not take less than Paul Whitehead."

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Johnson's "London" was published in May, 1738; and it 20 is remarkable that it came out on the same morning with Pope's satire, entitled "1738. POPE, who then filled the poetical throne without a rival, must have been particularly struck by the sudden appearance of such a poet. Informed that his name was Johnson, and that he was some obscure 25 man, Pope said, "He will soon be déterré."

The nation was then in that ferment against the Court and the Ministry, which some years after ended in the downfall of Sir Robert Walpole. Accordingly we find in Johnson's "London" the most spirited invectives against tyranny and 30 oppression, the warmest predilection for his own country, and the purest love of virtue; interspersed with traits of his own particular character and situation, not omitting his prejudices as a "true-born Englishman."

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"How, when competitors like these contend,
Can surly Virtue hope to find a friend?

"This mournful truth is every where confess'd,

An offer being made to him of the mastership of a school, 5 provided he could obtain the degree of Master of Arts, Dr. Adams was applied to, to know whether that could be granted him as a favour from the University of Oxford. But it was then thought too great a favour to be asked.

Pope, without any knowledge of him but from his "London," 10 recommended him to Earl Gower, who endeavoured to procure for him a degree from Dublin,° by a letter to a friend of Dean Swift. It was, perhaps, no small disappointment to Johnson that this respectable application had not the desired effect. He applied to Dr. Adams, to consult Dr. Smalebroke of the Com- 15 mons, whether a person might be permitted to practise as an advocate there, without a doctor's degree in Civil Law. He who could display eloquence and wit in defence of the decision of the House of Commons upon Mr. Wilkes's election for Middlesex, and of the unconstitutional taxation of our fellow- 20 subjects in America, must have been a powerful advocate in any cause. But here, also, the want of a degree was an insurmountable bar.

Johnson's last quoted letter to Mr. Cave concludes with a fair confession that he had not a dinner. Though in this 25 state of want himself, his benevolent heart was not insensible to the necessities of an humble labourer in literature.


"You may remember I have formerly talked with you about a Military Dictionary. Mr. Macbean has very good 30 materials for such a work, which I have seen, and will do it at a very low rate. SAM. JOHNSON."

In "Marmor Norfolciense; or an Essay on an ancient prophetical Inscription, in monkish Rhyme, lately discovered


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