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meaning, are defined identically the same way. A lady once asked him how he came to define Pastern the knee of a horse: instead of making an elaborate defence, as she expected, he at once answered, "Ignorance, Madam, pure ignorance." 5 His definition of Network has been often quoted with sportive malignity, as obscuring a thing in itself very plain. But to these frivolous censures no other answer is necessary than that with which we are furnished by his own Preface. "To explain requires the use of terms less abstruse than that 10 which is to be explained, and such terms cannot always be found. Sometimes easier words are changed into harder; as, burial, into sepulture or interment; dry, into desiccative; dryness, into siccity or aridity; fit, into paroxism; for, the easiest word, whatever it be, can never be translated into one more 15 easy.

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His introducing his own opinions, and even prejudices, under general definitions of words, while at the same time the original meaning of the words is not explained, as his Tory, Whig, Pension, Oats, Excise, and a few more, cannot be fully 20 defended, and must be placed to the account of capricious and humourous indulgence. "You know, Sir, Lord Gower forsook the old Jacobite interest. When I came to the Renegado, after telling that it meant 'one who deserts to the enemy, a revolter,' I added, Sometimes we say a GOWER. Thus it went 25 to the press: but the printer had more wit than I, and struck it out." This indulgence does not display itself only in sarcasm towards others, but sometimes in playful allusion to the notions commonly entertained of his own laborious task. Thus: "Grub-street, the name of a street in London, much 30 inhabited by writers of small histories, dictionaries, and temporary poems; whence any mean production is called Grubstreet." Lexicographer, a writer of dictionaries, a harmless drudge."

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He said to Sir Joshua Reynolds, "If a man does not make 35 new acquaintance as he advances through life, he will soon find himself left alone. A man, Sir, should keep his friendship in constant repair."

The celebrated Mr. Wilkes, whose notions and habits of life were very opposite to his, but who was ever eminent for literature and vivacity, sallied forth with a little Jeu d'Esprit upon the following passage in his Grammar of the English Tongue, prefixed to the Dictionary: "H seldom, perhaps 5 never, begins any but the first syllable. In any essay printed in the "Public Advertiser," this lively writer enumerated many instances in opposition to this remark; for example, "The authour of this observation must be a man of a quick apprehension, and of a most compre-hensive genius."

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He had the pleasure of being treated in a very different manner by Mr. Garrick:


"TALK of war with a Briton, he'll boldly advance,
That one English soldier will beat ten of France;
Would we alter the boast from the sword to the pen,
Our odds are still greater, still greater our men ;
And Johnson, well-arm'd like a hero of yore,
Has beat forty French, and will beat forty more!"



He wrote in his Journal the following scheme of life, for 20 Sunday: "Having lived" (as he with tenderness of conscience' expresses himself) "not without an habitual reverence for the Sabbath, yet without that attention to its religious duties which Christianity requires;"

"1. To rise early, and in order to it, to go to sleep early on 25 Saturday.

"2. To use some extraordinary devotion in the morning. "3. To examine the tenour of my life, and particularly the last week; and to mark my advances in religion, or recession from it.

"4. To read the Scripture methodically with such helps as are at hand.

"5. To go to church twice.

"6. To read books of Divinity, either speculative or practical.

“7. To instruct my family.



"8. To wear off by meditation any worldly soil contracted in the week."

He had spent, during the progress of the work, the money for which he had contracted to write his Dictionary. The 5 reward of his labour was only fifteen hundred and seventyfive pounds; and when the expence of amanuenses and paper and other articles are deducted, his clear profit was very inconsiderable. I once said to him, "I am sorry, Sir, you did not get more for your Dictionary.' His answer was, "I am 10 sorry too. But it was very well. The booksellers are generous liberal-minded men.'

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"Dr. Watts," said Johnson, was one of the first who taught the Dissenters to write and speak like other men, by shewing them that elegance might consist with piety." 15 His defence of tea against Mr. Jonas Hanway's violent attack upon that elegant and popular beverage, shews how very well a man of genius can write upon the slightest subject, when he writes, as the Italians say, con amore: I suppose no person ever enjoyed with more relish the infusion of 20 that fragrant leaf than Johnson. The quantities which he drank of it at all hours were so great, that his nerves must have been uncommonly strong, not to have been extremely relaxed by such an intemperate use of it.

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Johnson's most exquisite critical essay in the Literary25 Magazine, and indeed anywhere, is his review of Soame Jenyns's "Inquiry into the Origin of Evil." Jenyns "ventured far beyond his depth," and accordingly, was exposed by Johnson, both with acute argument and brilliant wit.

He resumed his scheme of giving an edition of Shakspeare 30 with notes; but his indolence prevented him from pursuing it with diligence. It is remarkable, that at this time his fancied activity was for the moment so vigorous, that he promised his work should be published before Christmas, 1757. Yet nine years elapsed before it saw the light.


About this period he was offered a living of considerable value in Lincolnshire, if he were inclined to enter into holy orders. It was a rectory in the gift of Mr. Langton. But

he did not accept of it; partly I believe from a conscientious motive, and partly because his love of a London life was so strong.


"I was much pleased with the tale that you told me of 5 being tutour to your sisters. I, who have no sisters nor brothers, look with some degree of innocent envy on those who may be said to be born to friends; and cannot see, without wonder, how rarely that native union is afterwards regarded. We tell the ladies that good wives make good 10 husbands; I believe it is a more certain position that good brothers make good sisters.

"The two Wartons just looked into the town, and were taken to see Cleone, where, David says, they were starved for want of company to keep them warm. David and Doddy ° 15 have had a new quarrel, and, I think, cannot conveniently quarrel any more. 'Cleone' was well acted by all the characters, but Bellamy left nothing to be desired. I went the first night, and supported it as well as I might; for Doddy, you know, is my patron, and I would not desert him. The 20 play was very well received. Doddy, after the danger was over, went every night to the stage-side, and cryed at the distress of poor Cleone.


"Mr. Reynolds has within these few days raised his price to twenty guineas a head,° and Miss is much employed in 25 miniatures. SAM. JOHNSON."

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Mr. Burney, during a visit to the capital, had an interview with him in Gough-square, where he dined and drank tea with him, and was introduced to the acquaintance of Mrs. Williams. After dinner, Johnson proposed 30 to Mr. Burney to go up with him into his garret, which being accepted, he there found about five or six Greek folios, a deal writing-desk, and a chair and a half. Johnson giving to his guest the entire seat, tottered himself on one with only three legs and one arm. Here he gave Mr. Burney Mrs. Williams's 35

history, and shewed him some volumes of his Shakspeare already printed, to prove that he was in earnest. Upon Mr. Burney's opening the first volume, at the Merchant of Venice, he observed to him, that he seemed to be more severe on War5 burton than Theobald. "O poor Tib.! (said Johnson) he was ready knocked down to my hands; Warburton stands between me and him." "But, Sir, (said Mr. Burney), you'll, have Warburton upon your bones, won't you?" No Sir; he'll not come out he'll only growl in his den." "But you 10 think, Sir, that Warburton is a superiour critick to Theobald?" "O, Sir, he'd make two-and-fifty Theobalds, cut into slices! The worst of Warburton is, that he has a rage for saying something, when there's nothing to be said."

He began a new periodical paper, entitled "THE IDLER," 15 which came out every Saturday in a weekly newspaper, called "The Universal Chronicle." The IDLER is evidently the work of the same mind which produced the RAMBLER, but has less body and more spirit.

Mr. Langton remembers Johnson, when on a visit at Ox20 ford, asking him one evening how long it was till the post went out; and on being told about half an hour, he exclaimed, “Then we shall do very well." He upon this instantly sat down and finished an Idler, which it was necessary should be in London the next day. Mr. Langton having signified 25 a wish to read it, "Sir, (said he), you shall not do more than I have done myself." He then folded it up, and sent it off.

He describes "the attendant on a Court," as one "whose business is to watch the looks of a being weak and foolish as 30 himself."

His mother died at the great age of ninety, an event which deeply affected him.


"I THINK myself obliged to you beyond all expression of 35 gratitude for your care of my dear mother. GOD grant it may not be without success. Tell Kitty, that I shall never

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