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sion, which, in almost all the cases, is found to correspond with the fact. The correspondence of the theory and fact, with regard to the change of declination, is equally striking, and Dr. Herschel says the exceptions must be resolved into the real proper motion of the stars.
The author of this valuable paper says, there are some very striking circumstances in the quantities of those motions that deserve notice. First, Arcturus and Sirius being the largest stars, and, therefore, probably the nearest, ought to have the most apparent motion, both in right ascension and declination, which is agreeable to observation. Secondly, in regard to right ascension only, Arcturus being better situated to show its motion, ought to have it much larger, which it has. Aldebaran, both badly situated, and considerably smaller than the two former, ought to show but little motion, which is the case. Procyon, better situated than Sirius, though not so large, should have almost as much motion ; for, on the supposition that it is farther off, because it appears smaller, the effect of the Sun's motion will be lessened on it; whereas its better situation will partly compensate for its greater distance. This also is comformable to matter of fact and the table.
With respect to the quantity of motion of the solar system, Dr. Herschel says, that we may certainly admit that the diameter of the Earth's orbit, at the distance of Sirius or Arcturus, would not nearly subtend an angle of 1"; but the apparent motion of Arcturus, if owing to the motion of the solar system, amounts to 2".7 a year, as appears by compounding the two motions of right ascension and declination into one motion, and reducing it to an annual quantity; and hence he infers that the solar motion is not less than that which the Earth has in her annual orbit.
Refer to a Paper by Mr. Baker on the Change of Colour in Stars in Philosophical Transactions, and to an Answer to that Paper by Dr. T. Forster in the Philosophical Magazine for 1819.
FLORA.—The Monkey Flower Mimulus luteus begins to blow; and the Pink Diarthus deltoides is already plentiful.
June 9. SS. Primus and Felicianus MM. St. Co
lumba. St. Pelagia V. M. St. Vincent M. St. Richard Bishop and Confessor. Vestae festum. Asini coronantur. Ara Jovis Pistoris.- Rom. Cal.
The feast of Vesta, recorded today, was the beginning of the Vestalia, festivals in honour of Vesta, observed at Rome on the 9th of June. Banquets were then prepared before the houses, and meat was sent to the Vestals to be offered to the gods, millstones were decked with garlands, and the Asses that turned them were led round the city covered with garlands. The ladies walked in the procession barefooted to the temple of the goddess, and an altar was erected to Jupiter surnamed Pistor.-Ovid. Fast. vi. v. 305.
Vesta fave: tibi nunc operata resolvimus ora :
Ad tua si nobis sacra venire licet.
totus eram : coelestia numina sensi :
Te deâ, nec fueras adspicienda viro. Vesta was never beheld by men. From this latter circumstance of the seclusion of Vesta from men came the term to be applied to secluded Catholic Virgins in religious houses.
FLORA. — The Corn Flag or Sword Lily Gladiolus communis) now begins to flower, and continues throughout the month. In early years the Bearded Pink and the Canterbury Bells begin to blow; but we cannot consider this as the average time, which is rather later in most years.
Roses Rosa Provincialis, and R. Chinensis, in numberless beautiful varieties, now decorate our gardens, and continue through June and July to form the pleasantest features in a midsummer parterre. The smell of the Rose has been said to compete with that of the Pink Dianthus deltoides for beauty of fragrance. They form an agreeable interchange of odours, and the alternately smelling the one and the other is peculiarly agreeable.
The White Garden Rose also blows now.
Fauna.—The Bat Vespertilio murina is now less frequently seen than during the last two months. Bats are more commonly seen fitting about in Spring and Autumn than during Midsummer. The Cuckoo now changes his tune, as the proverb says—a circumstance to which we have alluded in April 21. This bird, however, is heard more or less till July; and often, at the present time of year, we have heard him sing early and late just as in May, though usually with a boarse and altered note. The song of the Cuckoo is always agreeable, because it puts one in mind of Spring; but it is particularly soft and pleasant of an evening.
When the Sun is in the West,
Sinking slow behind the trees,
Softly wooes the evening breeze.
June 10. St. Margaret Queen of Scotland. St.
Landry. SS. Getulius &c. Martyrs.
Matralia. Delphin oritur.-Roin. Cal. The Matralia were feasts in honour of Matuta, an old name of Aurora. The Dolphin is a well known constellation of eighteen stars.
FAUNA.-During the mild evenings of this month not a little amusement may be derived from watching the motions of the common Barn Owl. The cunning of this nocturnal bird is admirably described by Butler :
And as an Owl that in a barn
Then starts and seizes on the wretch. Mackerel are now taken in great abundance. Any quantity of these fish are perceived from the shore by the rippling which they make on the surface of the sea; the fishermen immediately put off in their boats, and shoot the seine, frequently taking 15 and 16,000 at a haul on the southern coast of England.
FLORA.-INDIAN Pink Dianthus Chinensis is now in full flower, and continues through the Summer exhibiting the most brilliant colour of perhaps any plant of the genus. Bright lake and crimson and white are the most common varieties.
The Sea plants which flower this month are the Sea Barley Hordeum maritimum, Sulphurwort Pucedanum officinale, and Loose Sedge Carer distans, in salt marshes; the Sea Plantain Plantago maritima, among rocks on the sea coast; the Slenderleafed Buffonia Buffonia tenuifolia, and the Tassel Pondweed Ruppia maritima, in saltwater ditches. To these may be added, the common Alkanet Anchusa officinalis, the Narrowleafed Pepperwort Lepidum ruderale, and the Roman Nettle Urtica pilulifera, in sea wastes; the Black Saltwort Glaux maritima, on muddy shores; the Sea Chickweed Arenaria peploides, and the common Searocket Bunias cakile, on sandy shores; and the Perfoliate Cabbage Brassica Orientalis among maritime rocks.
Hygeia.-Rule of Health.-The feasts this day, in old Rome, in honour of the purple fringed goddess of the morning, ought to remind us of the salutary proverb,
Early to bed and early to rise
Make a man healthy, wealthy, and wise. There is in fact no doubt of the salubrity of morning air ; and a well known story is recorded of one of our Judges, who made a long list of remarkably old persons; among them he recognized individuals of very various and opposite habits of life, but all were habitually early risers.
The late Mr. Robson, of Cambridge, wrote an excellent sermon on early rising, being a discourse called Industry the first of six morning exercises.
June 11. Sr. BARNABAS Apostle. St. Tochumra V.
and another of the same name. URANUS. — Midsummer, or nightless days, begin and continue till July 2.
Flora.- St. Barnaby's Thistle Carduus pratensis, the Corn Rose or Red Poppy Papaver rhaeas, and the Doubtful or Pale Red Poppy Papaver dubium begin to flower. The above two Poppies, though they now begin to flower, arrive at their maximum or greatest abundance about the Solstice, and continue to blow all the Summer. The petals are made use of for syrup by the Apothecaries.
The Poppy, says Cowley, is scattered over the fields of corn, that all the needs of man may be easily satisfied, and that bread and sleep may be found together :
Lines to the Corn Poppy, from the Adventurer, No. 39.
He wildly errs who thinks I yield
Though mixed with Wheat I grow :
She bade the Poppy blow.
The goddess saw me rise :
The cordial of his eyes.
And makes thee truly blest:
And leave to fate the rest."
The Fern Owl may be seen, in the evening, among the branches of Oaks, in pursuit of its favourite repast the Fernchaffer Scarabaeus solstitialis.
On the festival of St. Barnabas several superstitious rites used to take place. Garlands of Roses and Woodroof used to be worn; girls used to be paid for gathering them, and they were so paid out of the parish accounts, like the payment for ribands on Trinity Sunday, and the Fern called Red yr Mair, which the Welch strew before their doors on the eve of Trinity Thursday. Collinson, in his History of Somersetshire, vol. ii. p.
265, speaking of Glastonbury, tells us, that, “ Besides the Holy Thorn, there grew in the Abbey Churchyard, on the North side of St. Joseph's Chapel, a miraculous Walnut Tree, which never budded forth before the feast of St. Barnabas,
viz. the 11th of June, and on that very day shot forth leaves, and flourished like its usual species. This tree is gone, and in the place thereof stands a very fine Walnut Tree of the common sort. It is strange to say how much this tree was sought after by the credulous; and though not an common Walnut, Queen Anne, King James, and many of the nobility of the realm, even when the times of monkish superstition had ceased, gave large sums of money for small cuttings from the original.”
Among Ray's Proverbs the following is preserved relating to St. Barnabas :
Barnaby Bright, Barnaby Bright,
The longest day and the shortest night. The author of the “ Festa Anglo Romana," says, p. 72, “ This Barnaby Day, or thereabout, is the Summer Solstice or Sunsted, when the Sun seems to stand still for near three weeks."
Forti Fortunae. Concordiae aedes.—Rom. Cal.
Fortune ! this day and place belong to thee,
Concord, to thee on the same day appeared
But where we Livia's portico behold,
June 12. St. John of Sahagun. St. Eskil. St. Onuphrius H. St. Ternan. ŠS. Basilides &c. MM.
Matris matutae.-Rom. Cal. FLORA.—The Moss Rose Rosa muscosa flowers now plentifully, and adds its beauties to the Damask and other garden sorts of Roses.
URANUS.—The Summer Solstice having already begun, we no longer perceive any difference in the length of the days, which are now nearly seventeen hours long, while the nights are little more than a short interval of twilight. . In Sweden, Russia, and even in the North of Scotland, hardly any night is perceived, the Sun seeming only to dip for an hour or two below the horizon.