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Effectual Means of making the Business of Schoolmasters, more Respectable ;-would place that Profession upon a Level with other Professions ;—would prevent many Im. positions upon the Public;-might be accomplished at a very trifling Expense, either to the Government or to the Country :--and would be one of the GREATEST IMPROVEMENTS that has ever been made in the EDUCATION OF Youth.
ADDITIONAL NOTES. 1. WILLIAM NESBIT, Esq., of Longbenton, near Newcastle-upon-Tyne, has informed us, that the Jarrow Colliery is 170 Yards, and the Gosforth Colliery 360 Yards in Depth. (See Organic Remains, in Coal Measures ; Page Ninety-Six.)
2. ARTESIAN Wells, or Borings, have already been mentioned, on the One Hundred and Fourth Page of this Essay; and we may here state, that some of the most successful Borings, for Artesian Wells, in this Country, are those formed at Sittingbourne, by EDWARD SMITH, Esq.
3. SITTINGBOURNE is a Small Market Town, about Forty Miles from London, on the Great Dover Road, in the County of Kent; and is situated just on the Eastern Side of the “ Great London Bason.”—The Borings to which we have alluded, are about Twenty in Number; and they are carried to the Depth of about Two HUNDRED AND EIGHTEEN Feet.
4. The First 168 Feet, consist of Chalk and Flint ;-then, one Foot and a half of Kentish Ragstone ;-44 Feet of Chalk and Flint ;-and, lastly, 4 Feet of Ragstone.
5. The First Spring was met with at the Depth of 32 Feet ;-the 2nd, at 56 Feet ;-the 3rd, at 86 Feet;—the 4th, at 112 Feet; and the 5th, at 169 Feet ;-and no other Springs were found, to the Depth of 218 Feet, the Extent of the Borings.
6. From these various Borings, which are only at short Distances from each other, upwards of 1000 Gallons per Minute, are obtained. The Springs rise with very considerable Force, above the Surface of the Ground; and uniting together, form an extremely beautiful Stream of clear, pellucid Water.
7. The TEMPERATURE of the Water, is about 46 Degrees of Fahren. heit;—the Elevation of the Springs, is about 60 Feet above the Level of the Sea;—and they have flowed, without Intermission, for several Years ;as the Borings were completed in 1835.
8. MR. SMITH has informed us, that one of his Neighbours, was not so successful in obtaining Water, as himself; for, after boring, in 1841, through 254 Feet of Chalk and Flint, no Water was found that would rise to the Surface of the Ground ; - such is the Uncertainty of these SPRINGS,
9. Many Organic Remains have been found in the Counties of Kent, Essex, and Sussex.-We have seen, in the Possession of R. V. Moyse, Esq., of Milton, near Sittingbourne, a beautiful Plank of Fossil Wood; 4 Feet 9 Inches in Length, and 12 Inches in Breadth. It is almost wholly turned into Stone; and the Grain of the Wood, is very perceptible. It is a Portion of an Elm Tree, found on the Estate of Delamark Banks, Esq., in the Parish of Warden, on the eastern Coast of the Isle of Sheppey. The Trunk of the Tree, measured 22 Feet in Length; and was found em. bedded in the plastic Clay of that DISTRICT.
10. The Last Forty or Fifty Years, may very properly be styled, the Age of Improvements, in England; both in Agriculture, Mechanics, Manufactures, and in the Generality of the Arts and Sciences.--As a Proof of this, we may mention our Draining and Weeding Ploughs ;Sowing Drills; — Thrashing Machines ; - Cotton Spinning; - Power Loom Weaving; — Calico Printing; — Cloth Dressing; — Letter-Press Printing ;--and Copper-Plate, Steel-Plate, and Lithographic Engraving.
11, BESIDES the Improvements mentioned in the last Note, we may notice our Steam Engines;-Steam Navigation ;and Railroads; and we may also observe, that great Advances have been made in Dying, Bleaching, Tanning, Malting, Brewing, Porcelain, &c. &c. ; indeed, we may almost say, in every Art and Manufacture, which are carried on in the UNITED KINGDOM.-(See Advancement of Science and Knowledge, on the Fifty-Seventh Page.)
12. DRAWING, has not yet been mentioned in this Essay; but we now wish to REMARK, that this is a very Necessary and Useful Branch of Education; for it is required in Mensuration, Gauging, Land Surveying, Architecture, Civil Engineering, Military Affairs, Agriculture, Natural History, Geography, Navigation, Astronomy; and in Fact, we may say, in all the Arts and Sciences ;-indeed, take away DRAWING, and we at once remove more than ONE Half of the Useful and Liberal ARTS AND SCIENCES.
13. Music, is one of the most Ancient Sciences; for, in the Fourth Chapter of Genesis, and the Twenty-first Verse, we read, that “ Tubal was the Father of all such as handle the Harp and Organ,” Indeed, Music is a Natural Science ;-we need, only mention the Nightingale, the Sky Lark, the Thrush, and other Singing Birds; hence, in study. ing and practising Music, we are only imitating the Natural Powers, with which the Almighty has endowed many of his most Highly Gifted, CREATED BEINGS.
14. We gladly embrace this opportunity of presenting our Grateful Acknowledgments to G. F. Richardson, Esq., of the British Museum, for his kind and polite Attentions, when we lately visited the Mineral Gallery, in Quest of PARTICULAR INFORMATION.
15. We are of Opinion, that our “ Essay on Education," will make a very Useful Class Book; for, besides conveying a Great Deal of Informa. tion to Pupils, it will naturally tend to give them a Taste for Scientific, Literary, and GENERAL KNOWLEDGE.
CONCLUDING REMARKS. OUR ORIGINAL INTENTION, was to write only a Short Essay, on the General Education of Youth, that might be sold at “ One Shilling and Sixpence;" but as we advanced, we found the Subject of such Great Importance, and the Materials so ample, that we have carried the Work, to its present Extent; and we are now of Opinion that it will bear out the Title of " An Introduction to the Arts and Sciences”; as well as “ An Essay on Education."
THE WORK will be found to contain a great Deal of Information, on almost every Subject relating to the Education of Youth; and Learners may pursue their Studies, to the utmost Extent, in the Books that we have recommended, which Works are among the Best and the most Popular, on their respective Subjects.
MANY Young Persons have been Much at a Loss, for a competent Knowledge of proper Books; and have, consequently, purchased Works that were not the best adapted for their Improvement; and we have no Doubt that some of our Senior Readers, can well remember the Time, when such a Work as the present, would have been of great Value to THEMSELVES.
In this Essay, we have endeavoured to place each Department of Education, in its proper Light, and to show its Bearing on the Practical Affairs of Real Life and Business; for we are persuaded, that if the Intrinsic Value of Learning was better understood, Young Persons would pursue their Studies with more Diligence and Perseverance ; and would save their Teachers much Trouble, in urging them to the Acquisition of those Sciences, which may prove of the greatest Advantage, in FUTURE LIFE.
MANY PARENTS appear quite satisfied, if their Children obtain just as much Learning as will qualify them for the Business, Calling, or Profession for which they are intended; but as no Person can foresee what Situations he may be called to fill, or what Parts he may have to sustain, in his Passage through Life, we would most strenuously press upon the Minds of our Young Friends, the Necessity and Advantage of obtaining all the Knowledge aud Information in their POWER.
They should not only be diligent and persevering in their Studies, at School; but they should eagerly embrace every Opportunity of improving themselves, in their leisure Hours, after they have gone to Business; and even, on some Occasions, there would be no Impropriety in “ CONSUMING The Midnight Oil.”
We would call to their Minds the Example of a Franklin, a Simpson, a Hutton, a Gregory, a Keith, a Passman, a Ryley; and we might mention many others, who by their Private Studies, and their Perseverance in the Pursuit of Knowledge, arrived at that Pitch of Real and Solid Learning, which was a Credit and an Advantage to themselves, à Benefit to Society, and a Honour to the Land of their NATIVITY.
On! How often have we regretted and lamented the Carelessness displayed by many Young Persons, after they have left School; who, instead of adding to their Stock of Knowledge, by their Private Studies, have actually forgotten a great Portion of the Information which they acquired, during the Time of their Education !!—This is culpable Neglect, indeed ; and cannot fall under too strong Reprehension !!!
It is a General Excuse, with Young Persons, that they do not know what Books to Read, and to Study, for SelfImprovement; but, into whose Hands soever this Essay may fall, the Reader will not in Future, be able to avail himself of this Plea; for, we have furnished him with such a Catalogue of valuable and approved Works, on every Subject of Knowledge and Science, as cannot be found in any other Essay on Education, that has fallen under our INSPECTION,
WE feel confident that the numerous Extracts which we have given, from the Works of many of the First Authors, will be read with both Pleasure and Profit, by the Majority of Young Students; as they will thus be put in Possession of the Sentiments and Opinions of some of the Greatest, the Best, and the most Scientific Men, that have ever appeared on this WORLD'S EXTENDED STAGE.
THESE EXTRACTS will also tend to show the Value of the various Arts and Sciences;-the high Estimation in which they have been held, by Men of sound Judgement, much Experience and great Érudition ;-and to point out their Practical Utility and Application, in those multifarious Pur. suits which occupy the Time and engage the Attention of the CHILDREN OF MEN.
GEOLOGY is a very interesting, and a very wonderful Science; and brings before our Minds, the Habits, Shapes, and Sizes of many of those astonishing Animals which inhabited this Planet, in Ages that are FAR GONE BY,- This Subject has not received much Attention in Schools, nor from Young Persons, after they have left School; and we please ourselves with the Anticipation that the few Remarks which we have made, on this Science, will induce our Readers to turn their Attention to the Works of Higgins, Lyell, Mantell, Buckland, Sumner, and other MODERN GEOLOGISTS.
ASTRONOMY is an ancient and a sublime Science; and makes us acquainted with the Sizes, Distances, and Velocities of the Heavenly Bodies; and in some Measure, with the Extent and the Immensity of the UNIVERSE.—The Study of this Science leads us directly to the Contemplation of the Mighty Works of the Creator;-it elevates our Minds, and expands our Ideas;—and inspires us with Sentiments of Astonishment, Adoration, and Praise. We trust that the few brief Remarks that we have made, on this Subject, will be read with Pleasure and Profit by our Young Friends ; and will lead them to the careful Perusal of the Works of Guy, Squire, Ferguson, Gregory, Bonnycastle, Herschel, Nichol, and other Authors who have written largely on this SCIENCE.
POETRY has not received so much Attention in the generality of Schools, nor yet from Young People, as its intrinsic Value and Utility demand ; and we anticipate that the few beautiful Extracts which we have given, will be a Means of producing a greater and a more refined Taste for the Reading of our best and most approved POETICAL WORKS.—The Observations and Remarks which we have made, on the Works, and on the Merits of our “ British Poets,” will furnish our Young Readers with a Key to those Productions; and will prove useful and valuable Guides, in choosing and selecting Works for the Formation of their POETICAL LIBRARIES.
WE HOPE that our Remarks on RELIGIOUS EDUCATION, will meet with the cordial Approbation of every Sect, Party, and Denomination of Christians; as we have recommended the Inculcation of no Principles, but those of Pure Christianity. This Subject, however, is of the utmost Delicacy, and of the greatest Importance; and we can assure our Readers, that we approached it with considerable Re