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virons of Paris he was struck with the immense quantities of game running about almost in a tame state; and saw in those costly and rigid preserves for the amusement and luxury of the privileged few, a sure badge of the slavery of the people.” 5 This slavery he predicted was drawing towards a close. 5. When I consider that these parliaments, the members of which are all created by the court, and the presidents of which can only act by immediate direction, presume even to mention privileges and

freedom, who till of late received directions from the throne 10 with implicit humility; when this is considered, I cannot help

fancying that the genius of Freedom has entered that kingdom in disguise. If they have but three weak monarchs more successively on the throne, the mask will be laid aside, and the coun

try will certainly once more be free." Events have testifiedo to 15 the sage forecast of the poet.

During a brief sojourn in Paris, he appears to have gained access to valuable society, and to have had the honor and pleasure of making the acquaintance of Voltaire°; of whom, in after

years, he wrote a memoir. “ As a companion,” says he, “no 20 man ever exceeded him when he pleased to lead the conversation; which, however, was not always the case.

In company which he either disliked or despised, few could be more reserved than he; but when he was warmed in discourse, and got over

a hesitating manner, which sometimes he was subject to, it 25 was rapture to hear him. His meagre visage seemed insensi

bly to gather beauty; every muscle in it had meaning, and his eye beamed with unusual brightness. The person who writes this memoir,” continues he, “remembers to have seen him in a

select company of wits of both sexes at Paris, when the subject 30 happened to turn upon English taste and learning. Fontenelle, (then nearly a hundred years old,) who was

of the party, and who being unacquainted with the language or authors of the country he undertook to condemn, with a spirit truly vul

gar began to revile both. Diderot, who liked the English, and 35 knew something of their literary pretensions, attempted to vin

dicate their poetry and learning, but with unequal abilities. The company quickly perceived that Fontenelle was superior in the dispute, and were surprised at the silence which Voltaire had preserved all the former part of the night, particularly as

the conversation happened to turn upon one of his favorite topics. Fontenelle continued his triumph until about twelve o'clock, when Voltaire appeared at last roused from his reverie. His whole frame seemed animated. He began his defence with the utmost defiance mixed with spirit, and now and then let 5 fall the finest strokes of railery upon his antagonist; and his harangue lasted till three in the morning. I must confess, that, whether from national partiality, or from the elegant sensibility of his manner, I never was so charmed, nor did I ever remember so absolute a victory as he gained in this dispute.” Gold- 10 smith's ramblings took him into Germany and Switzerland, from which last-mentioned country he sent to his brother in Ireland the first brief sketch, afterwards amplified into his poem of The Traveller.

At Geneva he became travelling tutor to a mongrel young 15 gentleman, son of a London pawnbroker, who had been suddenly elevated into fortune and absurdity by the death of an uncle. The youth, before setting up for a gentleman, had been an attorney's apprentice, and was an arrant pettifogger in money-matters. Never were two beings more illy assorted than 20 he and Goldsmith. We may form an idea of the tutor and the pupil from the following extract from the narrative of the ã Philosophic Vagabond.”

“I was to be the young gentleman's governor, but with a proviso that he could always be permitted to govern himself. 25 My pupil, in fact, understood the art of guiding in money.concerns much better than I. He was heir to a fortune of about two hundred thousand pounds, left him by an uncle in the West Indies; and his guardians, to qualify him for the management of it, had bound him apprentice to an attorney. Thus avarice 30 was his prevailing passion; all his questions on the road were, how money might be saved, — which was the least expensive course of travel, - whether anything could be bought that would turn to account when disposed of again in London ? Such curiosities on the way as could be seen for nothing he was 35 ready enough to look at; but if the sight of them was to be paid for, he usually asserted that he had been told that they were not worth seeing. He never paid a bill that he would not observe how amazingly expensive travelling was; and all this though not yet twenty-one.'


In this sketch Goldsmith undoubtedly shadows forth his annoyances as travelling tutor to this concrete young gentleman, compounded of the pawnbroker, the pettifogger, and the

West Indian heir, with an overlaying of the city miser. They 5 had continual difficulties on all points of expense until they reached Marseilles, where both were glad to separate.

Once more on foot, but freed from the irksome duties of “bear-leader,” and with some of his pay, as tutor, in his pocket,

Goldsmith continued his half vagrant peregrinations through 10 part of France and Piedmonto and some of the Italian States.

He had acquired, as has been shown, a habit of shifting along and living by expedients, and a new one presented itself in Italy. “My skill in music,” says he, in the Philosophic Vaga

bond,” “could avail me nothing in a country where every 15 peasant was a better musician than I; but by this time I had

acquired another talent, which answered my purpose as well, and this was a skill in disputation. In all the foreign universities and convents there are, upon certain days, philosophical

theses maintained against every adventitious disputant, for 20 which, the champion opposes with any dexterity, he can

claim a gratuity in money, a dinner, and a bed for one night.” Though a poor wandering scholar, his reception in these learned piles was as free from humiliation as in the cottages of the

peasantry. “ With the members of these establishments,” said 25 he, “I could converse on topics of literature, and then I always forgot the meanness of my circumstances.

At Padua, where he remained some months, he is said to have taken° his medical degree. It is probable he was brought

to a pause in this city by the illness of his uncle Contarine; 30 who had hitherto assisted him in his wanderings by occasional,

though, of course, slender remittances. Deprived of this source of supplies, he wrote to his friends in Ireland, and especially to his brother-in-law, Hodson, describing his destitute situation.

His letters brought him neither money nor reply. It appears, 35 from subsequent correspondence, that his brother-in-law actu

ally exerted himself to raise a subscription for his assistance among his relatives, friends, and acquaintance, but without

Their faith and hope in him were most probably at an end; as yet he had disappointed them at every point, he


had given none of the anticipated proofs of talent, and they were too poor to support what they may have considered the wandering propensities of a heedless spendthrift.

Thus left to his own precarious resources, Goldsmith gave up all further wandering in Italy, without visiting the south, 5 though Rome and Naples must have held out powerful attractions to one of his poetical cast. Once more resuming his pilgrim staff, he turned his face toward England, "walking along from city to city, examining mankind more nearly, and seeing both sides of the picture.” In traversing France his 10 flute — his magic flute ! — was once more in requisition, as we may conclude by the following passage in his Traveller :

Gay, sprightly land of mirth and social ease,
Pleased with thyself, whom all the world can please,
How often have I led thy sportive choir

With tuneless pipe beside the murmuring Loire!
Where shading elms along the margin grew,
And freshened from the wave the zephyr flew;
And haply though my harsh note falt'ring still,
But mocked all tune, and marr'd the dancer's skill;

Yet would the village praise my wondrous power,
And dance forgetful of the noontide hour.
Alike all ages; Dames of ancient days
Have led their children through the mirthful maze
And the gay grandsire, skill'd in gestic lore,

25 Has frisk'd beneath the burden of three-score."


Landing in England. - Shifts of a Man without Money. - The Pestle

and Mortar. — Theatricals in a Barn. Launch upon London.- A City Night-Scene. - Struggles with Penury. Miseries of a Tutor.

A Doctor in the Suburb. - Poor Practice and second-hand Finery.
A Tragedy in Embryo. - Project of the Written Mountains.

AFTER two years spent in roving about the Continent, “pursuing novelty,” as he said, “and losing content,” Goldsmith landed at Dover early in 1756. He appears to have had no definite plan of action. The death of his uncle Contarine,o and 30

the neglect of his relatives and friends to reply to his letters, seem to have produced in him a temporary feeling of loneliness and destitution, and his only thought was to get to London, and throw himself upon the world. But how was he to get 5 there ? His purse was empty. England was to him as com pletely a foreign land as any part of the Continent, and where on earth is a penniless stranger more destitute? His flute and his philosophy were no longer of any avail; the English boors

cared nothing for music; there were no convents; and as to 10 the learned and the clergy, not one of them would give a vagrant

scholar a supper and night's lodging for the best thesis that ever was argued. “You may easily imagine,” says he, in a subsequent letter to his brother-in-law, “ what difficulties I had

to encounter, left as I was without friends, recommendations, 15 money, or impudence, and that in a country where being born

an Irishman was sufficient to keep me unemployed. Many, in such circumstances, would have had recourse to the friar's cord or the suicide's halter. But, with all my follies, I had principle

to resist the one, and resolution to combat the other.” 20 He applied at one place, we are told, for employment in the

shop of a country apothecary; but all his medical science gathered in foreign universities could not gain him the management of a pestle and mortar. He even resorted, it is said, to

the stage as a temporary expedient, and figured in low comedy 25 at a country town in Kent. This accords with his last shift of

the “ Philosophic Vagabond,”° and with the knowledge of country theatricals displayed in his Adventures of a Strolling Player, or may be a story suggested by them. All this part of his

career, however, in which he must have trod the lowest paths of 30 humility, are only to be conjectured from vague traditions, or scraps of autobiography gleaned from his miscellaneous writings.

At length we find him launched on the great metropolis, or rather drifting about its streets, at night, in the gloomy month

of February, with but a few half-pence in his pocket. The 35 Deserts of Arabia are not more dreary and in hospitable than

the streets of London at such a time, and to a stranger in such a plight. Do we want a picture as an illustration ? We have it in his own works, and furnished, doubtless, from his own experience.

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