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for being settled at the peace of Tilsit: while expeditions from Great-Britain were sent out into every quarter of the world.

The great affairs of nations fall naturally into two classes, according to the physical divisions of the year into Summer and Autumn; and Winter and Spring: the former division, the season of action in the field; the latter, that of deliberation and debate in the councils of states, and sovereign princes. In the year 1807, two campaigns were to be described, and an account given of the business and debates of two sessions of the British parliament. The first campaign was terminated by the long cessation of arms, at least of field-operations, which succeeded to the horrible battle of Eylau : the second, that which was opened in the beginning of June, and terminated in the armistice that followed the decisive battle of Friedland. --To trace, if possible, among scenes so various, such relations and dependences as might help to weave them into some kind of narrative, more interesting than an assemblage of facts arranged in the mere order of time, was a task neither easy, nor to be performed in haste, or without waiting a little for the developement of time. And the advantages we have derived from this æconomy, which we hope will appear manifest in the History of Europe, will also, we trust, apologize for the late publication of the present volume.

Such an apology for tardy publication, may not probably, according to present appearances, occur soon again. The Continent of Europe, notwithstanding the glorious efforts of Austria and many parts of Spain, appears to be sinking fast into a state of degradation, and the servility, monotony, and barbarism of a military government. But wherever Liberty, carrying in her train all that gives grace, dignity, and value to life, takes up her abode, it will be our business to attend her: without however being inattentive to the situation, character, and fate, of the unfortunate nations she may leave behind.

London, 18th of October, 1809.

THE

THE

ANNUAL REGISTER,

For the YEAR 1807.

THE

HISTORY

OF

EUROPE

CHAP. I.

General Aspect of Europe.-Resources of the opposite Belligerent

Powers--and Views.-Fragility of Confederations.-General Marims and Measures of Buonaparte.-Position and Strength of the French and Russian Armies.--Military Force remaining to the King of Prussia after the Battles of Jena and Pultusk.- The general Plans of the opposite Armies.Battles of MohringenBergfried-Deppen-Hof-and Eylau.-Retreat of the French on the Vistula--and of the Russians behind the Pregel.

T the commencement of 1807, A

ror of Russia, and the king of Prusó every eye was fixed on the sia on the one part, and, on the coasts of the Baltic. It was here other, Buonaparte emperor

of that the destinies of Europe were to France, and king of Italy. The be decided, as they had been in latter derived support from the former periods, on those of the Me- nations whom he had subdued or diterranean. The genius and the intimidated --- Italy, Spain, Holland, resources of the north were brought and a great part of Germany : the into conflict with those of the south. former depended on the aid of A mighty contest was to be decided Sweden, and the cordial and vigoby arms between Alexander empe.

rous co-operation of Great Britain. VOL. XLIX

B.

There

R E F A CE. for being settled at the peace of Tilsit: while expeditions fius Great-Britain were sent out into every quarter of the world,

The great affairs of nations fall naturally into two classes, according to the physical divisions of the year into Sum mer and Autumn; and Winter and Spring: the former en vision, the season of action in the field; the latter, that deliberation and debate in the councils of states, and vereign princes. In the year 1807, two campaigns we to be described, and an account given of the busi and debates of two sessions of the British parliament The first campaign was terminated by the long cessan of arms, at least of field-operations, which succeeded horrible battle of Eylau : the second, that which opened in the beginning of June, and terminated armistice that followed the decisive battle of land.--To trace, if possible, among scenes so v such relations and dependences as might help to them into some kind of narrative, more interesting assemblage of facts arranged in the mere order of tim a task neither easy, nor to be performed in haste, waiting a little for the developement of time, advantages we have derived from this economy hope will appear manifest in the History of also, we trust, apologize for the late publica present volume.

Such an apology for tardy publication, ma bly, according to present appearances, The Continent of Europe, notwithsta efforts of Austria and many parts of sinking fast into a state of degrar monotony, and barbarism of a wherever Liberty, carrying in dignity, and value to life, business to attend her: to the situation, charact tions she may leave bel

London, 18th of

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and hollow. It is seldom even pos. and ministers, he endeavoured, if he sible for the confederating parties could not at once induce them to to form, as emergencies arise, a con. acquiesce in his plans, at least to cert of wills in time, and seldomer occupy, and distract their minds, still that they submit without re. and by an appearance of negotiation, serve to the will of one dictator. to sow the seeds of mutual discord The fragility of confederations had between the powers confederated, been proved by three coalitions or that might be inclined to con. against the rựler of France, and the federate against him. At the same issue of a fourth was now to be added time that he was busily employed to the number.

in forming the confederation of the Buonaparte, sensible of the dis. Rhine, that is, in the extension of advantages of being placed at so his own power, and preparing for great a distance from France, as the the extension of his conquests, he countries between the Vistula and amused Russia and England with a the Niemen, was in the first place, negotiation for peace, which he proand above all things, attentive to the fessed to have always uppermost in means of conveyance, or what in the his mind and heart, but which he really French armies is called the Ambu. contemplated not as an end, but a lance. On the great roads between means: the means of renewing war the Rhine and the Vistula, hundreds with greater advantage. He laboured and thousands of carriages were by all means, to detach the king of every where to be seen, going or re- Sweden from the cause of his allies, turning from 'Thorn and Warsaw. by professions of goodwill, respect, Travellers unacquainted with the and admiration, and even by dis. state of public affairs in Germany memberments in his favour, of Prus. and Poland, might have supposed sia and Denmark. He roused the that the continued motion on the Turks to war against Russia, and highways was occasioned by a entered into a negotiation for an flourishing internal commerce. From alliance offensive and defensive with the countries that lay at his mercy, the emperor of Persia. Ambassa. Buonaparte drew provisions, and dors were seen in his camp from forage, and even additions to his Ispahan and Constantinople. military force, while, at the same Whether he really harboured the time, one body of troops after extravagant design of sending a another continued to march for his French army through Persia to support from the frontier of France. Hindostan, or no, may reasonably

Boonaparte was also, in a very par. be doubted: but an embassy from ticular manner, attentive to the com- Persia to the emperor of France, missary department. The different had an imposing air of widely ex. corps and divisions of his army were tended and formidable influence, sure to find bread, at least, in abun. and might have an effect in any fu. dance, and, as much as possible, ture negotiation for peace, on the every comfort required by a rigorous councils

of Russia and England. climate. Being intimately ac. On every occasion when a hapquainted with the interests and views py stage-effect might be produced, of the courts of Europe, and the he was careful to produce it. Eightyindividual characters of favourites four pieces of caónon taken from the

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